Discussion And Implications For The Eap Program Education Essay
The two old chapters demonstrated the importance of researching Saudi pupils ‘ demands and the academic civilization that they encounter while analyzing in British establishments which relate to their English acquisition experience in Saudi Arabia, including their positions about larning English in the UK and analyzing in a British graduate student programme and to uncover single demands and battles in larning EAP. Without analyzing Saudi pupils ‘ positions about their demands analysis from the beginning in Saudi Arabia, and the EAP class in the UK, I would non be able to do any relevant connexions between the EAP and postgraduate context and demo how their positions and behaviors vary in footings of linguistic communication demands and academic demands. It is apparent that the Saudi pupils sampled in this survey happen it hard to get by with linguistic communication demands and the academic civilization differences despite the fact that they are given the chance to fix themselves either in Saudi Arabia or in the UK before get downing their graduate student plans in the UK.
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It is, hence, imperative to analyze their current readying in footings of EAP and cultural differences and to propose possible ways to better the support that is offered to these pupils.
The three major theories that underpinned this survey were Present state of affairs analysis ( PSA ) , Target state of affairs analysis ( TSA ) and civilization analysis. The PSA and TSA are based on the Huticon and Water ( 1987 ) theoretical account which suggested happening out the pupils ‘ current and future demands. The cultural demands analysis is based on different research workers e.g. as explained in the 3rd chapter which suggested look intoing the academic demands of pupils analyzing in English speech production states. Second, this research aimed to place the relationships between Saudi pupils analyzing in British graduate student plans and their version to their new academic environment and the possible struggles they encountered. Last, this survey conceptualised the nature of Saudi pupils, as a specific group through their experiences in British graduate student plans.
Refering these theories, this research provided findings that reflect the current jobs Saudi pupils face and inside informations possible parts to Saudi pupils, British faculty members and policy shapers in footings of better apprehension Saudi pupils ‘ acquisition procedures in British graduate student plans, get the better ofing the cross-cultural issues viz. academic civilization and get bying with troubles in footings of the new academic context they need to accommodate to in the British context.
The first issue raised in this research was related to ( PSA ) on the subject of larning English. It focused on discourses that might uncover of import facets of English linguistic communication troubles through looking at Saudi pupils ‘ experiences in larning the English linguistic communication in the two different instruction systems. Harmonizing to the research findings here, Saudi pupils sampled in this survey were accustomed to a teacher-centred acquisition environment. The development of Saudi pupils ‘ cognition about larning forms in this system seems non to fit them good to larn English for Academic Purposes. For illustration, it seems that it is slightly difficult for EAP instructors to set up what kind of troubles the pupils have in larning the English linguistic communication. Basically, the teacher-centred acquisition system is likely to forestall them from managing the jobs they face because most instructors in this environment are non regarded as feeders. In a word, the instructors ‘ function in this system is non appropriate for Saudi pupils ‘ development in EAP unless instructors work hard to suit the pupils. To set this merely, it would be helpful if instructors guided the pupils to accommodate to the British system of learning English bit by bit, as making this would heighten Saudi pupils ‘ experiences larning EAP.
Harmonizing to literature, pupils can develop their English through interacting with equals, and these synergistic discourses are really of import to make ways of developing the proficiency degree of EAP scholars. Saudi pupils sampled in this survey are mostly those who have shifted to a student-centred acquisition system and therefore encountered many jobs with their new larning environment specifically when they start their graduate student surveies. They would hence hold more opportunity of sing unexpected English linguistic communication troubles in footings of interacting with native and non-native pupils, faculty members and people in the host community. It is natural that a student-centred acquisition system should supply a better environment for Saudi pupils to make synergistic discourses which they could use for the development of their EAP abilities.
With respect to the importance of a tutorial type of activity ; this is non a formal portion of the Saudi instruction system. There are similar types of Sessionss offered by the private sector in third Saudi establishments, but this is different from the British instruction system which regards tutorials as an indispensable portion of the acquisition and learning teaching method. This means that Saudi pupils are non prepared to take part in concerted acquisition activities such as tutorials and squad work. They are non good at sharing thoughts or discoursing the issues that might be raised in category. This is a major trouble that Saudi pupils have in accommodating to cross-cultural differences faced in British graduate student plans. It is a new challenge for them to get the better of this indispensable undertaking in order to set about their classs successfully. However, it is besides true that this can non be changed in the short term because Saudi pupils have non been taught with a discussion-based manner including equals and instructors in Saudi Arabia.
Therefore, this is a important issue for both the Saudi instruction system and British third instruction suppliers. For the Saudi instruction system, policy shapers who are involved demand to be concerned that they provide a instruction teaching method in line with the subject of a concerted group larning environment for Saudi pupils. This is because the findings of this research indicate that pupils ‘ deficiency of experience in a concerted acquisition environment to a great extent impacts on their EAP acquisition and academic success. In add-on, British third instruction suppliers, and people who are involved in this country, need to pay attending to the fact that Saudi pupils ‘ trouble in tutorial engagement is one which interferes with or prevents pupils from developing EAP acquisition and academic success while analyzing in British graduate student plans.
The findings of this survey with cross-cultural version in the subject of cultural theories presented in chapter two of this survey revealed Saudi pupils ‘ experiences of larning English at place and in British graduate student plans are different. First, Saudi pupils did non hold adequate opportunity to larn about Britain, even though the UK had been regarded as one of the preferable English speech production states Saudi pupils seek for their graduate student surveies. In fact, Saudi English instruction plans do non supply adequate information about English talking states in their course of study. This besides tended to take to a deficiency of cognition and cross-cultural consciousness for Saudi pupils in respects to their targeted states. On the other manus, Saudi pupils ‘ exposure to such cognition and cross-cultural facets was likely to be recognised one time they arrived in the UK and commenced their classs in British establishments ” plans. It can be argued that Saudi pupils ‘ well- organised readying before going their place state is important in guaranting better version to the new acquisition environment, particularly the academic environment.
More significantly, the research findings in this context emphasised a deficiency of cognition of the academic context which is besides an of import issue. The fact that Saudi English instruction plans do non embrace the academic context is an excess concern. This may be the most serious job that causes current Saudi pupils ‘ English linguistic communication troubles when accommodating to the British academic context ( every bit good as other English talking states ‘ academic contexts ) . For this ground, Saudi pupils merely begin to gain the importance of the academic context as they encountered the new or existent academic environment. Refering the general tendency of Saudi pupils ‘ taking English speech production states for their instruction, it is necessary for people or administrations to originate plans of English linguistic communication for academic intents as an indispensable portion of the school course of study. These would better link with the demands of the scholars in their new academic environment. In add-on ; consciousness about developing a better apprehension of academic cultural differences, particularly when aiming English speech production states, should be examined by both pupils themselves and policy shapers in Saudi Arabia prior to doing a concluding determination about who is traveling to analyze in English speech production states.
Saudi pupils ‘ motions into British graduate student plans
Saudi pupils are ‘on the move ‘ to see other states. They are go forthing Saudi Arabia as tourers, pupils, and man of affairs. In recent old ages, they have shown a penchant for sing foreign states with an increasing avidity to larn foreign linguistic communications, particularly English and deriving recognizable makings e.g. Masterss or PhDs every bit good as to hold an escapade larning about different peoples and civilizations. This quickly turning tendency has been encouraged by King Abdullah ‘s scholarship. There is no uncertainty that an of import drift for Saudis ‘ attending to the outside universe has been the high rate of growing of the Korean economic system and its economic promotion. As a consequence of this advancement, the figure of Saudi pupils using to analyze in British graduate student plans has increased steadily over the last five old ages. Recent information from the Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia ; which relates the Numberss of Saudi pupils analyzing abroad, the UK came 2nd after the US in popularity.
At present, the necessity for English linguistic communication accomplishments and their importance in the present epoch is a primary influence exciting travel to the UK for academic intents. A good degree of English and its wider use are now important demands for all working and academic countries in Saudi society. The proficiency degree of English is a major demand in judging pupils ‘ eligibility to come in to third establishments, every bit good as in the enlisting of human resources in Saudi Arabia. This enthusiastically supported societal phenomenon has become a major issue nation-wide since the proclamation of King Abdullah ‘s scholarships. This accelerated the societal phenomenon and led finally to more Saudi pupils set abouting abroad surveies. It resulted in an sweetening of Britain ‘s place as one of the preferable finishs for such intents.
The Main Characteristics of Saudi Students ‘ Experiences of Learning the English Language in Saudi Arabia
The probe into the features of Saudi pupils ‘ experiences in larning the English linguistic communication in Saudi Arabia focused on how they had been taught English as a foreign linguistic communication in the Saudi instruction system and their positions on their English acquisition in Saudi Arabia. In general, it was found that Saudi pupils sampled in this survey indicated that they had been dissatisfied with the English class that was provided by the ministry of instruction. These consequences were non surprising as old research conducted by Al-Tuwaijri ( 1982 ) , who was analyzing in the US at that clip, asked them how satisfied they were with English the course of study, and learning methods and the consequences showed the bulk of his participants were dissatisfied. The underpinning attack can be concluded as a chiefly teacher-centred larning teaching method.
Furthermore, this research found that there were some extra facets of their anterior educational experience in Saudi Arabia that impacted upon their ulterior acquisition in an English speech production environment viz. the UK. First, the background of Saudi pupils sampled in this survey was that many had non had an chance to larn or pattern the English linguistic communication with native English talkers. Even though some of them had experience with those who speak English as their first or 2nd linguistic communication, the chief focal point of the learning teaching method affecting their speech production abilities did non look to assist their development of English linguistic communication proficiency. Due to the dominant environment of exam-based English linguistic communication acquisition, speech production in a communicative context is non a precedence concern for Saudi pupils prior to entry into the esteemed universities in Saudi ‘s instruction system. Therefore, Saudi pupils do non hold to show unwritten proficiency.
In add-on, Saudi pupils sampled in this survey revealed a deficiency of cognition about the IELTS trial system because of the laterality of the TOFEL trial in Saudi Arabia. There are many more readying plans for the TOFEL trial in Saudi universities and private English linguistic communication establishments than there are IELTS proving Centres. The British Council in Riyadh provides IELTS trial Centres in Saudi Arabia. Unfortunately, from the information it seems that there are non any specific third readying plans for domestic Saudi pupils who seek to analyze in English talking states like Australia, Canada, UK, US and New Zealand. More significantly, the consequences revealed that there is small concern about the importance of English for academic intents in general in the English linguistic communication larning teaching method in Saudi.
Learning English for the interest of larning a new linguistic communication was wholly absent from the participants points of position. The consequences besides, showed that English acquisition is chiefly undertaken because the high force per unit area placed upon larning English as an of import measure for entry into esteemed Saudi Arabian third establishments, or to derive a better chance to be employed by major companies such as ARAMCO and this has ever been a important facet of larning English.
Refering the issue of a pre-departure readying scheme for Saudi pupils meaning to analyze in the UK, there is grounds here that Saudi pupils were non sufficiently prepared in Saudi to run into the demands of the proficiency degree of English needed for most British graduate student plans. Students needed to fix for such demands, including the by heightening their proficiency degree in English and their apprehension of the academic environment of British graduate student plans. However, the Saudi pupils sampled in this survey revealed that they did non go to any plan in Saudi Arabia in order to help them in get bying with such possible jobs while analyzing overseas.
In general, even though those who wished to analyze overseas realised the importance of taking official English trials, more than half of the pupils in this survey took them in Saudi Arabia. The grounds of the study outcomes in this survey reveals that the IELTS trial is the most preferable by Saudi pupils come ining British graduate student plans. This is non surprising because most, if non all, British third establishments emphasise this trial as a important measuring of international pupils ‘ ability when finding whether or non they can set about British graduate student plans.
Harmonizing to the findings from the study, the Saudi pupils sampled in this survey had begun to larn English as a foreign linguistic communication at an inappropriate age in footings of their cognitive development as 2nd linguistic communication scholars. They were between childhood and maturity when they began analyzing English linguistic communication. Harmonizing to Park ( 2006 ) larning the English linguistic communication at the age of 13 old ages is instead late in footings of sing the most effectual development of their 2nd linguistic communication larning accomplishments. It seems that Saudi pupils were non to the full confident about why they had to larn English and how far they could come on in their English proficiency degree. The consequences revealed in chapter one that Saudi pupils were taught the English linguistic communication in Saudi Arabia by unqualified English instructors who required them to larn in a inactive the top down manner. This meant that Saudi pupils needed changeless counsel from their English instructors about their errors during the learning procedure.
The Main Characteristics of Saudi Students ‘ Experiences in Learning EAP in the UK
The first issue raised in larning EAP in the UK context is about the composing of the scholars group inside the schoolroom as it might impact on the development of EAP larning procedure. Harmonizing to research findings about Saudi pupils ‘ experience of EAP larning in UK establishments, the groups of scholars larning English were chiefly composed of Saudis with two or three non-Arabic pupils who speak Arabic as their precedence. This means that Saudi pupils did non hold much chance to better their speech production proficiency degree. In add-on, it is natural that they would talk in Arabic if they had something to inquire to each other in category. It is necessary for EAP instructors to inquire or even to coerce them to talk in English. EAP instructors may state them that if they do non talk in English they will lose some Markss. From the observation there were some EAP instructors who were truly rigorous about talking in English. It would be a positive move if the EAP instructors were to go on this pattern towards better proviso of the transmutation of the pupils ‘ wonts of speech production in English all the times at least in the schoolroom.
A multicultural group larning environment, whether in the UK or Saudi Arabia, would offers Saudi pupils ‘ positive experiences including more chance to interact with pupils from different states who speak English as a 2nd linguistic communication. In these fortunes pupils have to utilize English in order to pass on with each other whether or non their proficiency degree of English is sufficient to pass on. One piece of grounds to back up this statement is that the consequences of this survey showed that Saudi pupils improved their English linguistic communication accomplishments one time they started conversation with those who speak English as a first or 2nd linguistic communication. Sing this result, it can be emphasised how of import it is to set up an appropriate environment for scholars of EAP. This is a ground why policy shapers in the UK should see the figure of each nationality in the schoolroom. In add-on to that the English instruction system in Saudi Arabia needs to enroll as many native English instructors as possible, particularly if the system does non germinate a multicultural group larning environment in Saudi instruction system. It is the best option to supply a similar environment to English speech production states.
The last issue raised in this context is that linguistic communication intervention might happen during the procedure of English linguistic communication acquisition in a different environment. The acquisition environment where Arabic linguistic communication is dominant ( as in Saudi Arabia itself ) does non supply specific linguistic communication intervention. However, Saudi pupils in the UK are straight influenced by the differences between their first linguistic communication, Arabic, and English. For Saudi pupils sampled in this survey, English is their chief precedence, so it is natural that the distance between the two different linguistic communications would make linguistic communication intervention whenever they use English in activities that are a portion of the British academic context. However, both faculty members and EAP instructors in the UK should be able to place this job in order to better pupils ‘ proficiency degrees in the English linguistic communication.
The English Language Difficulties that Saudi Students Face in the British academic Context
The 2nd dimension of the first research inquiry was to place the English linguistic communication troubles that Saudi pupils faced from an educational position while they were enrolled in British graduate student plans delivered in English which related to both present state of affairss analysis and mark state of affairs analysis. The research findings revealed that Saudi pupils ‘ reading and authorship jobs are the chief issues to get the better of during their classs. There are several of import factors lending to pupils ‘ troubles in these two facets in the British academic context. As discussed in the background to Saudi pupils ‘ experience in larning English in Saudi Arabia, these factors could be related to jobs with English linguistic communication teaching method and learning methodological analysis in Saudi Arabia or in the UK. It can be said that Saudi pupils ‘ background experiences in larning the English linguistic communication straight reflect the jobs of Saudi pupils ‘ reading and composing troubles in the British academic context. The findings obtained from this research clearly indicate that EAP plans did non supply adequate chances for the development of pupils ‘ reading and composing abilities.
This survey indicates that engagement in tutorials or group activities and giving a presentation were amongst the more hard undertakings for Saudi pupils to get by with. The analytical results obtained from the three different methodological analysiss applied to this survey, viz. the descriptive consequences of the study, observation, and in-depth interviews, indicated three contributory factors. The first is a deficiency of assurance with their proficiency degree in English as a 2nd linguistic communication, which was due to a self-fulfillment about the insufficiency of their readying and tuition, with respect to the manner they were taught English in Saudi Arabia. Acerate leaf to state as many Saudi research workers have found ( ) , Saudi pupils were taught English in an examination-based and text-based system. These learning experiences tend sometimes to do them dying when required to take part in tutorial Sessionss and group meetings, which is the prevailing teaching method in third instruction. Furthermore pupils ‘ anxiousnesss arise from a deficiency of assurance with all major English linguistic communication accomplishment classs, including speech production, listening, reading and composing. These anxiousnesss as Park ( 2006 ) claimed besides lead to pupils holding psychological emphasiss. Consequently, it can be concluded that the displacement from a teacher-centred to student-centred acquisition system and being critical, non merely in composing but in all facet of larning are the chief cross-cultural factors that causes jobs.
In short, Saudi pupils in this survey who spoke English as a 2nd linguistic communication and were presently enrolled in British graduate student plans were shown to hold troubles in accommodating to the usage of the English linguistic communication. With respect to version troubles, two of import findings of this survey were a deficiency of exposure to a existent English speech production environment and strangeness with the usage of English, peculiarly for academic intents. The research findings from sample responses in this survey clearly indicate that Saudi pupils chiefly face reading and composing jobs. The consequences of this survey revealed that Saudi pupils have trouble in reading rapidly through a text to acquire a general position of the content when reading. It was besides evident that they are unfamiliar with the construction of English academic authorship, have trouble in showing thoughts when composing and happen it hard to organize thoughts in a logical sequence.
The research findings here indicate that Saudi pupils ‘ troubles in reading and authorship activities are affected by learning and larning methods that were adopted in the Saudi instruction system. Acerate leaf to state the teaching method in Saudi is preponderantly reliant on an examination-based model. Despite the attempts of EAP instructors in the UK Saudi pupils still find it hard to get by with academic reading and authorship. The difference between the two instruction systems in footings of learning authorship and reading are besides of import factors that were reported to impact Saudi pupils ‘ ability to get by with EAP in British graduate student plans.
The Main Cross-cultural Factors that Impact on Saudi Students ‘ Troubles in the British Context
Last, this research asked about the chief cross-cultural fluctuations that impact on Saudi pupils ‘ troubles in the British graduate student acquisition environment. In general, the research findings indicated that cross-cultural discourses presented fewer jobs when compared to English linguistic communication troubles. However, the most of import determination of this research is that Saudi pupils are to a great extent influenced by changed forms in their acquisition environment, peculiarly traveling from a teacher-centred to student-centred system. This was besides shown to hold an impact on Saudi pupils ‘ troubles in take parting in some tutorials and some other in-class activities. The impact of this displacement besides influenced Saudi pupils ‘ assurance with the English linguistic communication and created anxiousnesss and emphasis in tutorial Sessionss.
The research findings indicate that the Saudi pupils sampled were affected by different types of academic activities and cross-cultural differences as the research worker expected. In add-on, the undermentioned three of import facets of the new academic context influenced the Saudi pupils sampled in this survey. These were traveling from a teacher-centred to a student-centred, discussion-based and critical thinking-based acquisition system as found in British graduate student plans. Harmonizing to the consequences, pupils who had experience of go toing the EAP plan tended to hold fewer jobs in the discussion-based attacks of the instruction system. The older pupil participants in this survey, in peculiar, were likely to meet fewer jobs accommodating to a different acquisition system. Whilst younger pupils were likely to hold some trouble in accommodating to a British single ability-centred academic environment. Harmonizing to the survey ‘s findings, the pupils that undertook EAP plans still have trouble in fixing assignments. In contrast, these pupils showed a higher adaptability in all other classs with regard to the cross-cultural issues raised in this survey.
The Best Preparation for Saudi Students to Succeed in British graduate student Plans
The research findings can lend to the treatment and preparation of schemes to develop more effectual ways for Saudi pupils to fix for British graduate student plans in footings of their linguistic communication and academic demands. Successful accomplishment of their ends and deriving an apprehension of their new academic context are the existent loads for Saudi pupils. Presently, these are barriers that prevent them from accommodating both academically and linguistically. The Saudi pupils sampled in this survey clearly indicated that they had shown different degrees of version harmonizing to the old plans they experienced prior to come ining British graduate student plans. The old two chapters detailed the current public presentation of Saudi pupils sampled and their responses in seting to the British academic context.
More than half of the Saudi pupils who participated in this survey had experienced EAP plans before get downing their classs in British graduate student plans. In peculiar, a bulk of them attended a class offered by the university plan that was chiefly designed to fix them to come in the university and run into its demand but non for the official IELTS trial or any other trial. Saudi pupils sampled in this survey are likely to hold spent less than 12 months analyzing in such a readying plan. Typically, the Saudi pupils sampled in this survey appeared to depend on go throughing the EAP plan to derive permission to analyze in British graduate student plans one time they arrived in the UK.
I would propose that the EAP plans provided by the universities should besides be concentrating on the IELTS trial because the consequences from the pupil interviews revealed that they are non confident about the university assessment process. Therefore, fixing pupils for the IELTS would forestall any misinterpretations on the pupils ‘ portion over whether they were tested based on their background.
For the present sample of Saudi pupils, nevertheless, it has been revealed that as clip has gone on the IELTS trial is recognised to be merely one step of entry degree ability and non needfully the 1 that predicts success in third acquisition. In fact, this research indicates that most Saudi pupils continue to confront English linguistic communication troubles and academic cultural challenges in the academic context while set abouting their graduate student surveies. The EAP instructors who had old experience of learning Saudi pupils in this survey believed that the proficiency degree of English acquired by go throughing the IELTS trial differs from the proficiency degree of English which would be utilised in the existent life state of affairss which arise in the class of academic survey. A deficiency of cognition and accomplishments associated with English for academic intents is a major ground. Saudi pupils sampled in this survey admitted that the degree of English acquisition and instruction does non run into the degree that British graduate student plans require because the current Saudi English instruction system and its acquisition environment are non practical plenty to accomplish the high proficiency degree of English that is indispensable for Saudi pupils.
The research findings clearly indicate that Saudi pupils who had experienced an EAP plan showed better public presentation in their academic surveies compared to those pupils who had non attended any EAP plans. The consequences besides showed that Saudi pupils were found to hold experienced trouble in run intoing the needed degrees of proficiency in the English for British graduate student plans. The acknowledgment of the English linguistic communication jobs that pupils encounter while set abouting their plans presently is described by sources as the deficiency of their cognition about the mark linguistic communication because of the manner it was taught in the EAP plan. Howevet, the research found that with regard to academic cultural issues, pupils who had undertaken EAP plans demonstrated more adaptability in most countries of subsequently larning. For illustration, some pupils responded that they were satisfied with proficiency degree of their English speech production and were confident and had less anxiousness when they needed to talk in a category. While others besides had trouble in organizing thoughts in a logical sequence when composing English. Furthermore, they were probably to hold fewer jobs than other nationalities when giving a spoken presentation in category.
6.5 Chapter sum-up
This chapter discusses the results from the information analysis and connects them with the theories that have been discussed in chapters two and three. It was clear that pupil linguistic communication proficiency was non high plenty for Saudi pupils to get down their graduate student surveies at British establishments. It was besides revealed that pupils are confronting troubles in get bying with their new academic environment. Consequently, the research suggests that the best readying for Saudi pupils as they enter British graduate student plans and achieve successful consequences is to go to EAP plans where they can accomplish early socialization and pre-preparation by sing interaction with native English talkers in existent academic state of affairss. This suggested tract would probably offer future Saudi pupils a more realistic chance to get the better of jobs presently faced by Saudi graduate student pupils.
These Saudi pupils must be regarded as grownup scholars when sing their age harmonizing to the consequences of the study. As grownup scholars, they would probably recognize the importance of EAP and the academic differences in their new academic environment. It can be said that their greater realization of this context was chiefly based on experiences of interacting with the British academic acquisition environment. As a consequence, they came to gain what kind of readying they needed and how they might better get by with unexpected jobs faced in British plans. It means that they had chances to detect, through their experiences, how to cover with EAP troubles and academic cultural differences at this degree. In add-on, these Saudi pupils revealed that their anxiousness, emphasis and deficiency of assurance with English as a 2nd linguistic communication created a psychological trouble when take parting in tutorials. Sing the issues discussed supra, a scope of possible recommendations can be offered that might supply a valuable way for Saudi pupils, the policy shapers in Saudi Arabia and British establishments, private suppliers and other people who are involved in this sector. These might be considered in order to better Saudi pupils ‘ public presentations in British graduate student plans in the hereafter.