Discuss prevention strategies and treatments for overeating and obesity

Introduction
This essay will discuss prevention strategies and treatments for overeating and obesity. It will address strategies and treatments in a balanced way where appropriate evidence will support the argument.
Quick definitions
Obesity: growing health problem worldwide.
According to WHO, obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and problems with being overweight are now affecting more people than hunger and malnutrition

Obesity 2: rates in adults is ver hight and it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it has become established.
– prevention strategies aim to prevent children from becoming obese
– promotion of healthy eating and regular physical activity is essential for both the prevention of future obesity and for treating those who are already overweight and obese or just preventing them from gaining more weight

Prevention strategies for overeating and obesity
– Health promotion includes a number of prevention strategies to change unhealthy eating habits and promote health.

Salmeron: found that most commonly eaten foods in UK were white bread, savoury snacks, chips, other forms of potatoes, biscuits, and chocolate. All these foods contain a high proportion of sugar, fat and salt. This study shows that there is a reason to worry.

Education on health eating and physical activity
– campaigns on healthy eating could in be useful form of prevention where they focus on families because they could change the food preferences of both adults and children. Food preferences are established in childhood. Parents’ food choice may influence what children eat and prefer for the rest of their lives. Education of parents of obese children has produced positive changes in the children’s eating habits.
Examples of prevention strategies
The Eatwell Plate (UK prevention strategy)
– a balanced diet requires a balanced intake of “maconutrients” and “nutrients”.
– british nutrition foundation created “the eatwell plate”, which gives an overview of a healthy diet showing the recommended proportion and types of food. The key message is the importance of a balanced diet with a variety of foods.
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California Children’s 5 a day-power play! campaign
– community-based campaign ran from 1993-96.
– used television spots and various initiatives to educate on the benefits of a diet and physical activity. it aimed to encourage low-income children to eat more fruit and vegetables at school and home.
– survey after the campaign showed that children who recalled television spots were more likely than others to report eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables
Fat and sugar tax
– some countries have introduced taxes on unhealthy foods such as fat and sugar in order to encourage a more healthy diet and reduce the costs of obesity.
– when the price of a food increase, the demand decreases
– fat and sugar tax is a way for governments to control people’s diets and encourage them to eat more healthily.
– called social engineering
Treatments for overeating and obesity
This essay will look in more depth 2 treatments for overeating and obesity

4 treatments
– CBT
– dieting
– surgical treatments
– drug treatments

CBT ( cognitive behavioural therapy)
aim: to change cognitions related to eating as well unhealthy eating behaviour
– focus on cognitions that lead directly to eating such as the clients permission-giving thoughts

Programme involves
1. focus on behaviours
2. focus on cognitions
3. focus on strategies to maintain weight loss

focus on behaviours
– identify and adjust destructive eating patterns ; monitor calorie intake; identify alternatives to social and emotional eating; start manageable exercise programme

focus on cognitions
– identify and confront dysfunctional thinking that prevents healthy eating habits; improve body image and self-confidence; increase social support and adjust thinking to prevent feelings of shame and hopelessness

focus on strategies to maintain weight loss
– maintain motivation and strengthen coping skills to deal with challenging situations and setbacks

study: stahre: randomized trial of CBT to treat obesity
Aim: to examine effectiveness of CBT in treating obesity

Procedure: participants were obese women in Sweden
Experimental group joined a weight loss programme that included CBT.
Control group did moderately intense physical activity.
The treatment lasted for 10 weeks
Participants’ weight was controlled periodically over an 18-month period. There was a small drop-out in both groups.

Results: showed a significantly greater weight loss in the treatment group after 18 months compared to the control group who had gained 0.3 kg on average.

Conclusion: concluded that CBT seems to be an efficient way of treating obesity and it is also a cost-effective alternative to many weight loss programmes.

Dieting
– obesity treatments always involves dieting in one form or another. It seems to be somewhat ineffective
study: wadden: meta-analysis of studies on effectiveness of dieting
– study reviewed randomised control studies on the effectivness of either moderate or severe calorie restriction on weight loss

Results: showed that patients stayed in treatment for 20 weeks and that 50% lost around 9 kg or more.
Modern approaches to diet with counseling were more effective in the short term compared to previous methods, which mainly focused on dieting and weight loss. The majority of obese patients in research trials tended to regain their lost weight.

– findings are supported by data from a meta-analysis of 92 studies of interventions for the treatment and prevention of obesity. conclusion, weight gain after treatment is the norm

– weight loss is not quick and this fact may result in many negative emotions and giving in to eat more than allowed. Many dieters are guided by all-or-nothing thinking. The belief that one little transgression ruins the overall attempt to lose weight could make them stop the diet and indulge in food.
This is described as the “what the hell effect” and it has been repeatedly demonstrated in chronic dieters.