Human life is marked with many difficult conditions which are costly to deal with and can leave some one desperate and hopeless with life. One of these conditions is diabetes which is defined as an illness generally characterized by the presence of sugar in the urine or excessive water in the urine, depending on the type of diabetes. It is a complex condition that has been on the fore front of scientific research and scientists have in the recent past introduced several measures . which when put in practice can reduce the corresponding complication of this condition which otherwise could result to premature loss of life.
It is in this interest that this research paper is written and it focuses on the current developments pertaining to diabetes as a condition. It gives a brief introduction, defines the different type of diabetes, causes, symptoms and the current impacts of diabetes to the society and economy. It also gives the current preventive measures aimed at reducing the effects of this condition.
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Types of diabetes Diabetes is defined as an illness which is generally characterized by the presence of glucose in the urine. There are three fundamentally different types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is associated with the failure of the body to produce insulin (Cummings, & Decoster, 2005). It occurs when body’s infection fighting system fails against a particular part of the body. In this case, the pancreas is affected and rendered capable of only producing little or no insulin. Most victims of this type of insulin are young adults and children. This type of diabetes requires the injection of insulin for life time. The second type of diabetes is referred to as type 2 and is the most popular type of diabetes. It results from the resistance of the body to utilize the available insulin (Walker, et al, 2005).
It is insulin independent and is associated with the old age, overweight and family history. On diagnosis, the pancreas is found to produce enough insulin but with time the insulin production decreases and there it also accommodates type 1 diabetes with time. The last type of diabetes is gestational and is commonly developed by pregnant women. It is associated with historical diabetes back ground and can result to diabetes type 2. Causes of diabetes Over time, scientist have tried to found out the major causes of diabetes but up to date there is no clearly identifiable solution to this importance issue (Judd, Fox, & Sonksen, 2003).
However, several factors have been identified as risk and should be overcome by everybody who is conscious of diabetes and wiling to eliminate it. The question of whether diabetes is hereditary is not clear but some research studies have shown that if a family is known to have been affected by diabetes then there is a high probability of passing the disease to the young generation (Judd, Fox, & Sonksen, 2003).. Diabetes type 2 is commonly transmitted through hereditary. But can be prevented if the blood sugar level of the pregnant mother is controlled to normal.
This makes it difficult for it to be passed to the child. Another major factor responsible for causing diabetes is diet. Eating a lot of starch, proteins and fats is risk to health (Decoster, 2001). A balanced diet is therefore essential for producing the necessary energy sufficient for the required body function. Eating much of these foods renders the pancreas incapable of producing enough insulin and hence an increase in the blood sugar level leading to diabetes. Excessive body weight which his often referred to as obesity is also known to another factor responsible for the cause of diabetes.
Obesity means that there is excess fat in the body and insulin produce is insufficient to break down these fats to energy and this can amount to increased blood sugar level and hence diabetes (Decoster, 2001). Further to this, various viral infections are can affect the proper functioning of the pancreas and hence the production of insulin. This undoubtedly can lead to diabetes. In addition to this age, frequent smoking and emotional stress are other commonest causes of diabetes. As a person gets old, he becomes less active, increases in weight resulting to kidney failure (Zieve, & Wexler, 2009).
Emotional stress affects the metabolic system and can alter the glucose level in the body. Heavy smoking affects joint mobility and metabolism and can result to alteration of the blood sugar level in the body. Symptoms of diabetes Diabetes type 1 is marked by symptoms which developed within a very short time despite the fact that destruction of beta cells earlier. The common symptoms are increased urination and desire to drink water, high rate of loss of weight, constant hunger, high fatigue and blurred vision (Ligaray, & Isley, 2010). Diabetes type is characterized by gradual development of symptoms.
These symptoms include slow healing of wounds, often infections, increased thirsty and loss of weight and fatigue. Prevention and cure of diabetes Up to date, a cure for diabetes type 2 has not yet been found but type1 can be cured by pancreas or beta cells replacement. Since it is insulin dependent, it can be suppressed by daily injection of insulin to sustain life (Judd, Fox, & Sonksen, 2003). Type 2 cannot be cured since it is insulin independent but can be prevented and managed through the following methods. One is by controlling deity.
Eating a well balanced diet reduces the chances of increasing the blood sugar level and hence increasing the chances of getting diabetes or more complications for the diabetic people. Another mechanism of preventing the development of diabetes or diabetic related complications is by preventing obesity. This is achieved by doing exercise and eating less fat. Good diet and reduction of weight will slow the aging process which has been described as a factor responsible for the cause of diabetes (Cummings, & Decoster, 2005). Still, quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding emotional stress helps in maintaining the blood sugar content normal.
Lastly is carrying out a diabetic test and following the instructions of the doctor. This is because diabetes is easily managed when diagnosed at early stages. Complication and Impact of diabetes Diabetes in the recent past was declared a world deserter and pledged with the international community to join hands in compacting diabetes. Some of the complications that can be developed as a result of diabetes are; damage of the retina hence loss of sight, damage of the kidney and therefore kidney failure, damage to the nervous system and hence mental retardation and lastly is high and low blood pressure (Walker, et al, 2005).
Conclusion In conclusion therefore, diabetes is a chronicle condition which should be addressed by the international community because of the incurable complications it can bring to the body. The three types of diabetes discussed above are more preventable than curable and therefore it is the responsibility of everyone who is conscious of his health to control diet, do physical exercise and often have a test of the blood sugar level.