Developmental Psychology- Study Guide Questions

sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operational
Name Piaget’s stages of development
trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
initiative vs. guilt
industry vs. inferiority
Name Erikson’s stages of development
reduces risk of physical defects
reduces risk of neural tube defects
reduces risk of premature delivery
Why should women take folic acid if they are planning to get pregnant?
zygote
embryo
fetus
List the three stages of prenatal development
The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
What is niche picking?
dilation of the cevix and transition
pushing and brith
delivery of the placenta
What are the three stages of child birth?
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rooting
Stroking the cheek near the corner of the mouth and head turns toward the source of stimulation which helps the infant find the nipples.
stepping
Holding infant under arms and permitting bare feet to touch a flat surface and the infant liftsone foot after another in stepping response which prepares the infant for voluntary walking.
babinski
Stroking sole of foot from toe toward heel and toes fan out and curl as foot twists in.
moro
Holding infant horizontally on back and letting head drop slightly, or producing a sudden loud sound against surface supporting infant and infant responds by making an embracing motion by arching back, extending legs, throwing armas outward, and then bringing arms in toward the body which is believed to have helped infant cling to mother.
tonic neck
Turn baby’s head to one side whil infant is lying awake on back and infant lies in a fencing position. One arm is extended in front of eyes on side to which head is turned other arm is flexed which may prepapre infant for voluntary reaching.
eye blink
Shining a bright light at eyes or clap hand near hed and infant quickly closes eyelids which protects infant from strong stimulation.
sucking
placing fingers in the infant’s mouth and infant sucks finger rhythmically which permits feeding
swimming
occurs when infant is face own in a pool of water and the baby paddles and kicks in a swimming motion which helps infant survive if dropped in water.
palmar grasp
place finger in infant’s hand, and press against palm and infant spotaneously grasps finger which prepares infant for voluntary grasping
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
What type of brain imaging provides good SPATIAL resolution?
Near-infared spectroscopy
What type of brain imaging provides good TEMPORAL resolution?
Near-infared optibal topography;
can be used on young infants in laps of parents and allows freedom of movement; limited to only the functioning of cerebral cortex
What is NIROT? What is an adavantage? What is a disadvantage?
the consistancy or repeatability of a measure
Define reliablity.
how accurate the measure is
Define validity.
They are a hunter-gathering society which teaches the children that possessions are a burden and not an asset, and the importance of sharing and close intimate bonds.
Why are the !Kung People of interest to developmental psychologists?
event sampling
observer records all instances of a particulare behavior during a specific time period
time sampling
observer records whether a particular behavior occurs during a sample of short time intervals
time sampling
what kind of sampling works best for high frequency behaviors?
natural experiment
compare differences in treatment that already exist
field experiment
use rare opportunities for random assignment in natural settings
Martin Luther
16th Century Puritan views of “child depravity”; believed that children were born evil; family was the center of the universe and the roots of education began with this theorist.
John Locke
17th Century; “tabula rasa” “blank slate” view that children were born blank and needed to be molded; children build a permanent foundation for later thought
Rousseau
18th Century; nobel savages view; children were born with natural instincts of right and wrong; children were born neither good nor bad but could be corupted by society; introduced stages of development and maturation.
Darwin
19th Century; Natural selection or survival of the fittest
Freud
20th Century; Three parts of personality (id, ego, superego); five psychosexual stages
Piaget
20th Century; Stages of cognitive development; stages criticized for not addressing social/cultural influences
Vygotsky
20th Century; sociocultural theory; social interaction is necessary to learn cultural worlds