1. 0 INTRODUCTION2 1. 1 Definition of terms3 1. 2 Background information4 1. 2. 1 Pre-colonial education4 1. 2. 2 Post colonial education in Kenya (Neocolonialism)4 1. 3 National Aims/Goals of Education in Kenya6 1. 4 Structure of education6 1. 4. 1 Early Childhood Development and Education7 1. 4. 2 Primary education8 1. 4. 3 Secondary education9 1. 4. 4 Teacher Education9 1. 4. 5 Tertiary Education10 1. 4. 6 University education11 1. 5 Administration system11 1. 5. 1 Permanent secretary11 1. 5. 2 Finance and administration Division12 1. 5. 3 Directorate of Education12 . 5. 4 Field Service Education Officers13 2. 0 CHALLENGES FACING THE FORMAL EDUCATION IN KENYA14 2. 1 Recommendations to the Challenge of Education in Kenya17 3. 0 Conclusion18 3. 1 References. 19 1. 0 INTRODUCTION The provision of education and training to all Kenyans is fundamental to the success of the Government’s overall development strategy. First, the long term objective of the Government is to provide every Kenyan with basic quality education and training, including 2 years of pre-primary, 8 years of primary and 4 years of secondary/technical education.
Education also aims at enhancing the ability of Kenyans to preserve and utilize the environment for productive gain and sustainable livelihoods. Second, development of quality human resource is central to the attainment of national goals for industrial development. Third, the realization of universal access to basic education and training ensures equitable access to education and training for all children, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups.
Fourth, education is necessary for the development and protection of democratic institutions and human rights. Hence, this paper aims at describing the development of formal education in Kenya. It will first of all explore formal education in pre-colonial era. It will then show how different commissions have contributed to the development of formal education in post-colonial era. The paper will also shed light on the national goals of education, the structure of education and finance system in each level of education through government initiatives.
Moreover, it will look into the administration of the education system and finally discuss the various challenges facing the education sector and their recommendations. 1. 1 Definition of terms Education According to Sifuna and Otiende (1992) education is the process of acquiring worthwhile accumulated knowledge, skills attitudes and values from one generation to the next. From this point of view therefore, education is meant to teach a student how to live his life by developing his mind and equipping him to deal with reality.
Formal as defined by Webster Dictionary is “relating to or involving the outward form, structure, relationships, or arrangement of elements rather than content”. It may also mean following or according with established form, custom or rule. Formal education A formal education program is the process of training and developing people in knowledge, skills, mind and character in a structured and certified program. The features of formal education include Classrooms, teachers, students, content and others (Sifuna and Otiende, 1992). 1. 2 Background information 1. . 1 Pre-colonial education Sifuna, Chege and Oanda (2006) observe that historical records reveal that Kenyans had access to education as far back as Johann Ludwing Krapf and Johannes Rebman. Formal education was introduced basically to promote evangelism but later on it become an instrument for production of skilled labour for the Europeans farms and clerical staff for colonial administration. The missionaries determined the type of education African had to have – they built schools, managed them determined the curriculum and influenced education policies.
It all started in 1846 with the church missionary society (CMS) establishing a school at Rabai the Coast province and others across Kenya
Since independence, the Government has addressed challenges facing the education sector through Commissions, Committees and Taskforces. The first Commission, after independence, came up with the Report of the Kenya Education Commission (The Ominde Report, 1964) that sought to reform the education system inherited from the colonial government to make it more responsive to the needs of independent Kenya. The Commission proposed an education system that would foster national unity and the creation of sufficient human capital for national development.
Sessional Paper No: 10 of 1965 on African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya formally adopted the Ominde Report as a basis for post-independence educational development. The Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (The Gachathi Report, 1976), focused on redefining Kenya’s educational policies and objectives, giving consideration to national unity, and economic, social and cultural aspirations of the people of Kenya.
It resulted in Government support for ‘Harambee’ schools and also led to establishment of the National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) at the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). The Report of the Presidential Working Party on the Second University in Kenya (The Mackay Report, 1981) led to the removal of the advanced (A) level of secondary education, and the expansion of other post-secondary training institutions.
In addition to the establishment of Moi University, it also recommended the establishment of the 8:4:4 system of education and the Commission for Higher Education (CHE). It diversified the school curriculum with emphases on pre-vocational and technical skills (Republic of Kenya, 1981). The Report of the Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower training (1988) focused on improving education financing, quality and relevance.
This Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond (The Kamunge Report) was at a time when the Government scheme for the provision of instructional materials through the National Textbook Scheme was inefficient and therefore adversely affected the quality of teaching and learning. From the recommendations of the Working Party in 1988, the Government produced Sessional Paper No 6 on Education and Training for the Next Decade and Beyond. This led to the policy of cost sharing between government, parents and communities.
The Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya (The Koech Report, 2000) was mandated to recommend ways and means of enabling the education system to facilitate national unity, mutual social responsibility, accelerated industrial and technological development, life-long learning, and adaptation in response to changing circumstances. The Koech Report recommended Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training (TIQET). While the Government did not adopt the Report due to the cost implications some recommendations, such as curriculum rationalization have been adopted and implemented.
Recent policy initiatives have focused on the attainment of education for all (EFA) and, in particular, Universal Primary Education (UPE). The key concerns are access, retention, equity, quality and relevance, and internal and external efficiencies within the education system. The effectiveness of the current 8-4-4 structure and system of education has also come under increasing scrutiny in light of the decline in enrolment and retention particularly at the primary and secondary school levels in the last decade.
The Government is committed to the provision of quality education and training as a human right for all Kenyans in accordance with the Kenyan law and the international conventions, such as the EFA goal, and is developing strategies for moving the country towards the attainment of this goal. The implementation of Free Primary Education (FPE) is critical to the attainment of UPE as a key milestone towards the realization of the EFA goal (htt://www. virtualcampuses. eu/index. php/Kenya). 1. National Aims/Goals of Education in Kenya Aseey and Ayot (2009:6) state that: “in Kenya the fundamental goal of education is to prepare and equip the youth to be happy and useful citizens of the society. From this fundamental needs arise more aims of education”. In Kenya, there are seven specific goals of education, namely national unity, national development, individual development and social fulfillment, social equality, respect and development of cultural heritage and international consciousness. 1. Structure of education Kenya’s education system is a three to four tier system. In 1985 Kenya introduced the current 8-4-4 system: ? Primary education: 8 years: age 6-13 (free and compulsory) ? Secondary education: 4 years: age 14-18(subsidized for students in Day Schools and the Government provides fees guidelines to all public schools) ? Higher education: 4 years: age 19-21 (subsidized for those selected through the Universities Joint Admission Board) 1. 4. 1 Early Childhood Development and Education
The provision of ECDE as observed by republic of Kenya (1999) involves households, community and Government efforts in the integrated development of children from the time of conception. The structure of ECDE provision is divided into that for 0-3 year-old children and for 4-5 year-old children. For this sub-sector, the MOES policy is to focus on 4-5 year-old children with a view to providing a holistic and integrated programme that meets the child’s cognitive, social, moral, spiritual, emotional and physical needs.
The Government is already implementing measures that seek to improve the performance of this sub-sector. These include: establishing guidelines and standards for the management, supervision and curriculum development for ECDE; establishment of NACECE and District Centres for Early Childhood Education (DICECE) for purposes of in-servicing teachers and training of trainers; mobilizing communities and parents through awareness creation, and providing community support grants to support marginalized/vulnerable communities in collaboration with other partners.
Other measures, which are being implemented to enhance quality education at this level, include: implementing a 2-year in-service training programme for ECDE teachers; mounting a 9-month training of trainers’ course; developing guidelines and syllabuses for ECDE programmes; enhancing the capacity of supervisors and inspectors to ensure quality of ECDE programmes; and equipping NACECE and DICECEs to meet the needs of the programmes.
Despite the above measures, access, equity and quality in this sub-sector remain constrained by various factors that include: limited teaching and learning materials, inadequate ECDE centres; inadequate community participation; lack of a clear policy on transition from pre-primary to primary school; inadequate nutrition and health services; lack of enough trained teachers; low and irregular salaries for ECDE teachers and lack of clear entry age guidelines (htt://www. virtualcampuses. eu/index. php/Kenya). 0 1. 4. 1. 1 Financing of pre- primary education
The pre-primary education is basically controlled by private institution, religion and organization. It`s finance purely depend on the parents previously but currently the government has allocated some money to finance this level of education. 1. 4. 2 Primary education According to Ministry of Education (1987), this is the first phase of the national 8. 4. 4 system of education. The course last for eight years. Its aim is to ensure that functional and practical education that will meet the needs of the majority of children who terminate their formal education at standard eight.
Financing of primary education in Kenya is universal, free and compulsory to all Kenyan citizens. The government through constituency development fund has constructed physical facilities, purchased teaching and learning materials and employing teachers. The primary school curriculum is uniform throughout the country. It is nationally developed at the Kenya institute of education by the subject experts. The government of Kenya recognizes that provision of universal primary education as an important milestone to economic and social development.
In particular it has been established that by providing primary education to women, a society is able to hasten its development. The government, since January 2003 has managed to implement free primary school education programme that has seen a tremendous increase in the number of children attending school. The Government has also increased its budgetary allocation to education as well as introducing a Constituency Bursary Fund for efficient facilitation of education at the grassroots level.
The implementation of the Universal Free Primary Education, as part of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), has earned Kenya the prestigious Education Award 1. 4. 2. 1 Certification Two certificates are awarded to students in primary school level these are; The Kenya Certificate of Primary Education awarded by the Kenya National examination council and the Kenya Primary Living Certificate issued with the authority of the Director of Education. 1. 4. 3 Secondary education
The secondary education in Kenya comprises of 4 years of education in which an exam referred to as Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCES) is done to finish this level of education. It has three compulsory subjects English, Kiswahili and Mathematics, a science section where a student chooses all or two sciences among Chemistry, Physics and Biology. The last section of the structure comprises humanities in which a student must pick one subject and two at maximum, these subjects are Geography, History, C. R. E and Social Ethics.
Lastly there is a category of subjects known as applied sciences and they are offered by limited school and a student is allowed to pick one subject in this category, they include Technical Drawing and Design, Woodwork, Metalwork, Art and Design, Electricity, Aviation and Power Mechanics. Students who obtain a grade of C+ and above are eligible for admission at Kenyan public Universities but due to limited positions the grade is shifted annually and can go as high as B+. There are two categories of secondary schools in Kenya, namely public and private schools (Bogonko,1992). 1. . 3. 1 Financing of secondary school education The public secondary schools are funded by the Government or communities and are managed through a Board of Governors and Parent Teacher Associations. Subsidized for students in Day Schools and the Government provide fees guidelines to all public schools. The private schools, on the other hand, are established and managed by private individuals or organizations and the parents pay full fees for their children. 1. 4. 4 Teacher Education There are five teacher education programmes in Kenya as observed by Republic of Kenya (1999).
These are: The Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) teacher education programme in which teachers are trained through in-service courses in District Centres for Early Childhood Education (DICECEs). The National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) develops the curriculum, trains trainers and supervisors, and conducts monitoring and evaluation. The Secondary teacher education which is provided at the diploma and degree levels in diploma teacher training colleges and universities respectively.
The Technical teacher education is offered at the Kenya Technical Teachers College in Nairobi which trains diploma level teachers for secondary schools, technical training institutes, primary teachers’ colleges, institutes of technology and vocational polytechnics. The Special needs education teacher education is provided to professionally qualified practicing teachers through a two-year diploma programme at the Kenya Institute of Special Education (KISE) and finally the Primary teacher education (PTE) which is provided in 18 certificate level colleges through a two-year, residential programme.
The entry criteria for primary teacher education require a candidate to have acquired a minimum grade of C (plain) in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). In addition, one must have obtained a minimum grade of D in Mathematics and C- in English. For the entry of a diploma programme for secondary teacher education requires a candidate to have acquired a minimum grade of C (plain) in KCSE and minimum grade of C in the two teaching subjects of his/her choice and a minimum grade of C+ for a degree course.
To qualify for the award of the Primary Teacher Education Certificate, a student must pass all the practical teaching and obtain a pass in all eight subjects. The final grade – distinction, credit, pass, fail – is determined by passes in the six best performed subjects. 1. 4. 5 Tertiary Education These are middle colleges that offer certificates, diplomas and some undergraduate degrees. Their curriculum is supervised by the ministry of higher education.
The source of finance is self sponsored and in some cases by the government through higher education loan board or subsidence free to the public institution (Ministry of Education, 1987). 1. 4. 6 University education In Kenya, they are both Public universities Private universities. The Public universities offer certificates, diplomas, degrees, masters and Ph. D. They are sponsored by the government by paying salaries to the staffs including lecturers, provision physical facilities.
In addition, students who are selected by the government were given some financial support through Joint Admission board (J. A. B). The Private universities on the other hand, are self-sponsored and only support students to get some financial support from the government through Higher Education Loan Board (HELB). 1. 5 Administration system Getao (1996:57) explains that: “The Kenya education system is centralized in the sense that administration, curriculum development and the formulation of policies are centralized. In Kenya, parliament makes the laws pertaining to education.
Occasionally, the President makes decrees related to education. He appoints the ministers who preside over the interpretation and implementation of the educational policies. ” The system of education in Kenya is administered from two separate ministries namely the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education each headed by the Minister and an assistant Minister . The Ministry of education is responsible for formal education from pre-primary education, special education, primary education, secondary education and Teachers education.
The Ministry of higher education is responsible for higher education which include Technical and vocational training colleges, Tertiary colleges and universities. The administration departed of ministry of education is broadly based on functional units. These are: 1. 5. 1 Permanent secretary – Heshe is the head of departments in the ministry. – Heshe is the overall head of the ministry. – Heshe is the accounting officers. – He she is the formulator and implementer of government policies on education. 1. 5. 2 Finance and administration Division
This is the wing of the administrative department of the ministry responsible for day to day administrative and financial management affairs of the ministry. It is headed by the Deputy Secretary (Finance and Administration) who is responsible to the permanent Secretary and takes action on all policy matters and cabinet decisions that involve the Ministry and prepares all Cabinet Memoranda for the Ministry. 1. 5. 3 Directorate of Education According to Ministry of Education (1987) the Directorate of Education is the chief professional officer of the ministry.
Heshe is responsible for both the ministry and the permanent secretary on all professional matters to do with Education. The Functions of the Directorate of Education are to Formulate policies give directions and management of professional functions relating to education. He/she is to deal with welfare of the students, develop curricula for the ministry, initiate training programme, Inspect schools and teachers, promote teachers, give scholarship and award to students, give grants and grant-in-aids to school as well as to produce and supply educational materials and equipments.
The Directorate has three divisions namely The Administration and Management of Programmes (AMP), The Education Policies and Programmes (EPP) and The Quality Assurance Officers (QAO). The Administration and Management of Programmes are in charge of registering the schools and institutions, following up audited reports, giving grants and grant-in- aid to schools, inspecting reports, Discipline of students, giving annual report and admission and transfer of students.
The Education Policies and Programmes is in charge of the formulation of policies for the Pre-primary Education, Secondary Education, Technical Education, Special Education, Teacher Education, The Kenya Institute of Education (KIE), University Education and other forms of Tertiary Education, 8-4-4 System of Education and Scholarship Awards to Overseas Universities. The Quality Assurance Officers department is a section in the Ministry of Education that deals largely with the maintenance and improvement of standards of education in Kenyans school and colleges.
It inspects the methods of teaching and the teaching and learning materials or resources. 1. 5. 4 Field Service Education Officers This is another part of administration in education in provincial level, District level, Division and village or vocational levels. They represent the government in their level of operations. They are; i) Provincial Director Education Officers (P. D. E O. ) ii) District Education Officers (D. E. O. ) iii) Education Officers (E. O) Other administration departments in the ministry of education include: i) Board of Governors (B.
O. G) who represent the government in the school level. ii) Parent Teachers Association (P. T. A) that links the school and the community. iii) Kenya National Examination council. This is body of administration is used to supervise examinations and offer certificate in different levels of education in Kenya such as primary level, secondary level and teacher education. iv) Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). This body of administration is used in publishing the syllabus and drawing of curriculum in education system of Kenya. v) Teacher Service Commission (T.
S. C. ) This is the body that recruits and employs teachers. It also sucks teachers who are not behaving well. Other education bodies that are used in administration include Jomo Kenyatta foundation, Kenya Education Staff Institute (K. E. S. I), Commission for Higher Education (CHE), Kenya Literature Bureau (KLB), Public Universities Inspection Board which lists all sessional papers, parliament acts such as the Education Act, draft legislation, information on Kenya universities and tertiary institutions, reports, news …
Kenya National Examination Council(KNEC) which is the national body responsible for overseeing national examination in Kenya for primary and secondary education amongst others. 2. 0 CHALLENGES FACING THE FORMAL EDUCATION IN KENYA Although the Kenyan Government is putting effort in improving education in Kenya, there still many challenges that are facing the sector which need to be addressed. These Most of these challenges have been observed by Sifuna, Chege and Oanda (2006) in most of the African countries. They are as follows: There is inadequate funding to the education sector.
The education sector requires sufficient funding for it to undertake its duties such as curriculum development education research and the implementation of educational policies, teacher payment of salaries and so on. The Kenya education sector receives its funding mainly from the Kenyan government through the Ministry of Finance and also from international donors. However, there is still minimal funding which may be attributed to the misappropriation of funds as well as poor funding of the education sector by its primary source; the Kenyan government.
Consequently, the poor funding will result in the unsatisfactory enforcement of the education sectors mandate. There may be poor curriculum development and education research as well as the improper implementation of educational policies. The Shortage of trained teachers is another challenge in education sector. The education sector struggles to meet the demand of teacher to the sector due to the shortage of teachers. This may be attributed to trained teachers attrition in preference to other fields which offer better salaries and remuneration packages as opposed to what is offered by the teaching profession.
There is also the ‘Brain drain ‘ where trained teachers go to teach in other countries where they believe there are better working conditions in terms of benefits salaries and remuneration packages as opposed to those offered here in Kenya. An acute shortage of trained teachers to the education sector results in the employment of untrained teachers to meet the supply deficit. The introduction of the free primary education and free secondary education initiatives in 2003 by the Narc Government in pursuit of education for all saw a sharp increase of student enrollments.
At the time the government had not put in place adequate facilities and educational resources subsequently, there arose a strain on the already limited available resources for instance the overcrowding in schools where classroom were packed beyond capacity. Several recommendation were made afterwards which saw the subsidization of education in the place of free education which requires the government to pay for part of resources required while the guardians and parents in the programme meet the remaining expenses.
Some parents were still unable to meet subsidized cost of educating their children which in turn saw the dropping out of school for children who lack school fees (http://www. /par. or. ke/documents/policy). In marginalized areas such as the nomadic communities in Northern Kenya student enrollment and classroom attendance is poor as a result of the influence by the nomadic culture which requires nomadic families to move with their livestock from place to place in search of food water. Seeing that the children cannot be left behind, they are left with no choice but discontinue the learning.
Gender disparity as observed by Kibera and Kimokoti (1997) poses a challenge to formal education in Kenya in terms of the ratio of boys to girls enrolled to educational institution. In some communities, especially in rural areas where traditions are still followed, boys are mostly enrolled for an education while girls are left at home to take of the home and family. There is the belief in such communities, that educated girl would be of more benefit to her matrimonial home hence her paternal home would not be able to reap the benefits of having her educated.
There are also limited alternative education programmes such as teenage mother programmes to cater for the education of those girls who drop out of school due to early pregnancies. Most of these girls have to drop out of school for some time until the time they have their babies and even then they would have to stay at home take care of their babies, limiting their chances to go back to school and finish their education. Enrollment into adult education programmes is discouraging and a challenge to the education system.
Many illiterate and semi-illiterate adult fears the stigma they may receive from their family, friends and society and this may beep from enrolling into such programs. Moreover, there are a few adult education programmes and institutions which is a great challenge to those adults seeking to receive such an education. Special education to cater for those students with intellectual and or physical disabilities is minimal with most guardiansparents choosing let their children with such disabilities to stay at home rather than enroll them in special schools thereby denying them an education all together.
Moreover, such institutions receive minimal funding especially from the government which makes them unable to successfully deliver. Nevertheless, there are Social emergent issues which are effecting the education directly or indirectly. HIVAIDS Pandemic which both affects and affects both the teachers and students is one of the current issues in education sector. Teachers who are infected with the pandemic may be unable to or find it difficult to attend lessons due to acute symptoms of the disease as well as the side effects of its treatment.
Moreover, they may be unable to face the classroom due to the stigma associated with being HIV positive. Death of teacher from HIVAIDS is also a challenge to formal education since it contributes to teacher shortage due to the loss of trained manpower to the education sector. As for the students who are infected they may have to drop out of school due to the stigma of being HIV positive as well as being of poor health to attend school. Moreover, students who are affected have to drop out of school to take care of their infected relatives. Drugs and alcohol abuse by teachers and students is another challenge.
Teachers who abuse alcohol and or drugs perform poorly as teachers since they are unable to teach appropriately or disrupt the whole learning process. Moreover, students who abuse drugs and alcohol tend to be undisciplined there by contributing to arise of conflicts in the school. Such students eventually drop out of school or are kicked out all together. Students’ indiscipline such as strikes and riots which disrupt the learning process while causing damage to school educational resources like classrooms and dormitories are frequent cases in Kenya.
Violence trauma that was caused by post election violence in 2007 is a reality to the Kenyan students today. In most schools, no counseling was provided for students when the institutions opened, after the violence that followed the disputed 2007 presidential election. Some students were victims of the violence, which was witnessed in many parts of the country between January and March 2008. Without adequate counseling at the right time, such students might have rioted and burnt down school property and projecting the effects of what is commonly referred to as delayed trauma (http://www. par. or. ke/documents/policy). 2. 1 Recommendations to the Challenge of Education in Kenya The Kenya government should increase funding to the education sector to facilitate the undertaking of its mandate such as curriculum development, education research and implementation of educational policies. The 20112012 Kenya budget saw the education sector receive a boost in funding; KSH 53. 2 billion was set aside for tertiary education,KSH 8. 2 Billion for free primary education and KSH18. 5 billion for free day secondary education, and KSH 1. 67 billion for free school feeding programme.
However, with the funding made available to education sector the government still needs to place some emphasis on the management of funds to avoid the mismanagementmisappropriation of the funds. The challenges of the shortage of should also be addressed. The government of Kenya should revise the salaries and remuneration packages in teaching profession. Better benefits, salaries and remuneration packages would also trained teachers staying with the teaching profession rather than applying their knowledge and skills in other profession. Also, there could a reduction of “brain drain” as teachers would stay in Kenya to teach.
Subsequently, there would be a declined in the employment of untrained teachers thereby maintaining the quality standard of education. On the part of student enrollment, the government should strive to make education accessible as possible to all. For instance the government of Kenya should provide sponsorship programmes and bursaries for those students unable to pay school fees. Moreover, for students’ marginalized areas, the government could provide mobile schools or set up intensive programme for those students from nomadic communities.
The government should also establish programme to for the needs of adult education as well as special education, while conducting sensitization efforts on the importance of adult literacy and special literacy respectively. 3. 0 Conclusion This paper has described the formal education in Kenya in pre-colonial and post- colonial era. It has also looked into the current education policies that have revealed the government efforts in improving education in order to achieve its objectives.
Nevertheless, it has shed light on the challenges facing the education sector in its continued development and implementations of the government policies geared towards vision 2030. It is therefore necessary for the government to address these issues and to be practical in looking for their possible solutions, so that education can fully contribute to the development in all aspects. 3. 1 References Bogonko, S. N. (1992). A history of modern education in Kenya (1895-1991). Nairobi: Evans Brothers (Kenya) Ltd. Kibera, L. W. and Kimoti, A. (2007). Fundamentals of sociology of Education.
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Republic of Kenya (1981). Second university: Report of presidential working party (Mackey Report). Nairobi: Government Printer. Republic of Kenya (1976). The National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies(Gathachi Report). Nairobi: Government Printer. Republic of Kenya (1999). Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training (TIQET): Koech Report. Nairobi: Government Printer. Sifuna, D. N. , Chege, F. N. and Oanda, I. O. (2006). Themes in the Study of the Foundations of Education. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. [pic][pic]