What is a theory?
A set of facts or principles analyzed in relation to one another and used to explain phenomena(a fact or behavior that can be observed)
How do you create a positive environment for children in your care?
*Ensure learning centers have ample space for movement.
*Reduce the number of transitions throughout the day.
*Ensure the environment feels safe for the child.
*Provide activities that are slightly challenging to the child.
*Provide activities to increase development without causing frustration.
Abraham Maslow developed what?
The hierarchy of human needs
How many levels does Maslow’s hierarchy have?
What are the 5 levels of Maslows hierarchy?
Level 2-Comfort and Saftey
Level 3- Social
What are examples of a Physical need?
*Air to breathe
*Shelter to protect
*Water to drink
*Food to eat
*Clothes to wear
What are examples of Comfort and Saftey?
What are some examples of Self-Esteem?
*Sense of efficiency,capability,resilency,hopefulness
*Ability to cope and problem solve
What are some examples of Self-Actualizing?
*Fulfill one’s life purpose and meaning
*Being all that one is able to be
*Personal emotional response
*Refinement of interpersonal skills
What does the heirarchy of needs mean to you as a child care professional?
*Basic needs must be met first,when not met,the child’s self worth suffers.
*Neglect can occur at all levels,not just basic needs.All needs are important.
*Child care professionals need to be aware of the family circumstances to understand what needs are beig met at home.
What are some hints that will help you remember Maslows’s theory?
*If you close the “M” at the bottom, it will form triangles or pyramids.
*Maslow studies human needs.
*What motivates children to act the way they do? Needs being met.
Do the lower levels of needs have to be met before higher needs can be accomplished?
Successfully meeting the needs at each level results in what?
Fulfilling one’s life with purpose and meaning.
Erik Erikson developed what?
He developed eight pyschosocial stages through which humans develop throughout their entire lifetime. It is called the Eight Conflicts in Emotional Development.
How is Erik Erikson recognized?
As a development pyschologist who can be compared to Sigmund Freud because of his theory that humans develop in stages.
What are each of Erikson’s stages called?
Moving successfully through each of Erikson’s stages results in what?
A strong social and emotional life.
What is the first conflict in Erikson’s theory and the age that it is presented at?
Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1 year)
What is the second conflict in Erikson’s theory and the age that it is presented?
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years)
What is the third conflict in Erikson’s theory and the age that it is presented?
Initiative vs. Guilt (4 to 5 years)
What is the fourth conflict in Erikson’s theory and the age that it is presented?
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12 years)
Why don’t we study Erikson’s Conflicts 5-8?
They are important in the study of human development,but they are less significant in child development,because Erikson believes that they occur after the age of 12.
What is the meaning of Trust vs. Conflict
*Trust is developed over time by providing an infant with a consistent,comforting environment.
*When needs are met,trust is established.
*Trust builds a emotional foundation.
*A lack of trust can result in proor emotional stability.
What is the meaning of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt?
*Toddlers need to explore their own bodies and environment in order to become confident about themselves.
*When autonomy is allowed a person can become comfortable with his/her choices.
*A lack of autonomy can result in a feeling of shame or insecurity.
What is the meaning of Initiative vs. Guilt?
*When initiative is encourged,a person experiments within one’s environment.
*4 or 5 year olds begin to develop an interest in exploring beyond themselves.
*Children who can’t explore will be prone to guilt for their actions.
*A lack of industry can result in a feeling of low self worth.
What does Erikson’s theory mean to a child care professional?
It means they can:
*Create relationships with children based on trust.
*Allow children to exercise autonomy whenever safe and practical.
*Guide children to initiate activity or portions of activities whenever safe and practical.
*Promote the building of your children’s creativity during activities.
What are some hints to help you remember Erikson’s theory?
*E. Erikson contains 8 letters—8 stages
*E.E.= two “E’s” playing together—social behaviors
*Focus on emotional and personality development.
*Major conflict at each stage and how they are dealt with affect development.
How can you resolve conflicts and create a resilient social and emotional life?
By encouraging trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry.
What is Jean Piaget’s theory called?
The Four Stages of Cognitive Development
What is Jean Piaget most known for?
His work on the psychology of intelligence.
What was Jean Piaget interested in?
Learning how children develop an intellectual understanding of the world.
What was Jean Piaget’s theory based on?
The concept of cognitive structures. These structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development.
What does Piaget assume about humans?
They take the information that they recieve and process it,then react to it.
According to Piaget,children develop the ability to learn in how many basic stages?
In each of Jean Piaget’s stages what does development focus on?
Acquiring a diffrent set of related characteristics and abilities.
What are the Four Stages of Cognitive Development?
1- Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
2- Preoperational (2-7 years)
3-Concrete-operational (7-11 years)
4-Formal Operations (11+ years)
What are the signs of sensorimotor?
*Explore their world through senses and motor skills.
*Understand the world by physically manipulating objects.
*Trial and error problem solving
*Object permanence child does not know that physical objects remain in existence when out of sight.
What are signs of preoperational?
*Preschoolers and early school-age children learn about their world through their actions.
*Uses symbols to mentally represent objects.
*Increase development of language and concepts.
*Reasoning may be illogical and not sequential.
*Egocentric thought processes
What are signs of concrete-operational?
*Older school-age children learn about their world by applying logic.
*Deal with changes and process
*Are able to make relationships about why things happen.
*Understand how things relate to one another
What are signs of formal operations?
*Early high-school schildren learn about their world through constructing and solving problems.
*Begin to think about thinking
*Think in abstract terms
*Make educated guesses
How does knowledge of Jean Piaget’s four stages help you the child care provider?
The stages help you understand how babies and children may percieve their envirnment.
When you plan developmentally appropriate learning activities what is important to keep in mind?
A child’s stage of cognitive development
What does Piaget’s theory help you understand?
Why children make thinking “mistakes”
What are two primary instructional techniques that are based on Piaget’s theory?
Discovery learning and supporting the developing interests of children.
Children should be exposed to a wide variety of concrete experiences such as?
*Use of manipulative field trips and working in groups to help them learn
What did Lev Vygotsky develop?
He developed the social development theory of learning
What did Lev Vygotsky theorize?
That social and cultural interaction are the primary sources of learning and behavior.
What were some of Vygotsky’s major theory ideas?
*Children acquire knowledge through culture.
*Children learn through problem solving experiences shared with a knowledgeable abult or peer.
*A child can perform a task under adult guidance or with peer collaboartion that could not be achieved alone. Vygotsky called this the zone of proximal and claimed that learning occured in this zone.
What is scaffolding?
An instrumental technique where a person interacting with the child assumes more responsibility for guiding the learning. As the child learns,the responsibility is gradually transferred to him.
How can child care professionals use the information from vygotsky’s theory?
*Give them things within in their range of ability
*Pair children up
Where must Learning environments be developed?
Where children play an active role in their own education as well as the educatiom of their peers. The adult collaborates with children in order to create meaing in ways that childrencan make their own.
What does the culture that surrounds children and their social interaction lead to?
Continous step-by-step changes in their learning and behavior.
What factors influence child’s growth and development?
…This course will teach you the basic principals of child growth and development.
What are the developmental domains?
…you will learn how these principles affect children’s learning.
A is specific body changes and increases in the child’s size,such as height,weight,head circumference and body mass index.
An increase in complexity,a change from relatively simple to more complicated.Usually involves a progression along a continous pathway on which the child acquires more refined knowledge,behaviors, and skills.
We define growth as specific ____ changes and increases in the child’s size.
During the first year of an infants life,babies grow how much in length and weight?
They can grow_10__inches in length and triple their birth weight.
After the first year a baby’s growth slows down to how many inches a year?
They grow _5_ inches a year for the next 2 years and continues from age 2 or 3 to puberty at a rate of two to three inches each year.
When do girls enter puberty?
Between _8_ to _13_ years of age
When do boys usually enter puberty?
_10_ to _15_ years of age
How does growth proceed?
From the head downward and from the center of the body outward.
Children gain control of what first followed by their arms and legs
Head and neck
At birth what three part’s of the body are fully functioning inorder to support the infant?
The brain,heart,and spinal cord
As children grow which two muscles must develop first before the finger and toe muscles do?
The arm and leg muscles
Do children differ in growth?
Yes, some children are taller,some shorter. Some children are smaller,while others are larger.
How is normal growth supported?
By good nutrition,adequate sleep,and regular exercise.
Do children grow at a steady rate throughout their childhood?
Children will experience weeks or months of slightly slower growth followed by what?
How can you help children understand their differences in growth?
Show pictures of various stages of growth and showing them what’s alike.
If you detect that a child is self-conscious about her size,how would you help her work on increasing her self acceptance?
Show them that being diffrent is what makes us unique and special.
If you have some concern about a growth-related issue about a child,how would you approach this issue with parents?
First build relationship with parent,then share typical growth information with them.
Is the developmental sequence the same for all children?
Yes,but the rate varies
What are some examples of Principle 1-Developmental sequence is similiar for all?
*Children develop in relatively the same ways.
*They can move forward,regressfor a short time,then move forward again.
*Some children may skip a behavior or skill as they move forward.
*While the sequence is similar and the behaviors or skills emerge in the same order children can take more or less time each behavior or skill.
What are examples of Principle 2-Developmental proceeds from General to Specific.
*Development progresses from a beginning point moving in a forward direction.
*Development of behaviors and skills moves from general to specific.
*As children mature their bodily changes occur in a sequential order and give children new abilities.
*As the brain and nervous system develops,a child’s thinking cognitive skills and motor physical skills improve.
*In motor development,an infant’s large muscles develop first and result in the ability to wave the arms and kick the legs.
*Development continues in the smaller muscles in the fingers and toes and results in the abilityof the fingers to grasp objects and the toes to help with balance when standing and walking.
What are examples of Principle 3-Development is continous
*In children who develop normally,behaviors and skills they have already acquired become the basis for new behaviors and skills.
*There is continuity from one phase of development to the next.
*Children continue to add new behaviors and skills as they perfect their ability to walk,to write or draw and to speak.
*In order for children to write or draw,they must have developed the control of their hands and fingers to hold a crayon and pencil.Holding a pencil develops into writing and drawing.
*The continuation of development can easily be seen in children as they mature from age 2 to age 12.
What are examples of Principle 4-Development Proceeds at diffrent rates
*Each child is diffrent,and the rates at which individual children develop are diffrent.
*Although the sequences for development are usually the same for all children,the rates at which individual children reach each stage will be diffrent.
*Some children will walk at ten months while others walk at eighteen months of age.
*Development is never uniform,but it is constant.
What are examples of Principle 5- All areas of development are interrelated
*Development in children is interrelated
*Principles 1 through 4 show how the body has to grow and develop before new behaviors and skills can occur.They also demonstrate the first 2 of 6 areas od development,called domains.
What are the 6 Domains of Development
*Cognitive Development and General Knowledge
*Language and Communication
*Social and Emotional
*Approaches to Learning
What are the characteristics of Physical health and Motor Development Domains?
Involves increased physical growth and abilities.
What are characteristics of Cognitive Development and General Knowledge and Approaches to Learning Domain?
What are the characteristics of Langueage and Communication Domain of Development?
A child’s ability to see,hear,speak,read,and write.
How is Social and Emotional Domain of Development defined?
By forming relationships and attachments.
How many brain cells do we get at birth and how much wiring is between them?
100 billion but their is minimial wiring between them.
What is a Synapse?
A connection between two nerve cells.They are formes throughout the brain throughout life.
Early on how are these new pathways?
Simple,vulnerable,and grow rapidly.
Over time the brain surrounds the synapse with a kind of insulation that offers protection to the conncections. What is the insulation called?
How are messages between synapses sent?
What chemicals are involved in conveying messages?
Some chemicals are specialized and indicate what?
Pleasure,pain or alarm
What determines which connections are initially formed?
Stimulation and experience
What gets “wired” into the brain?
Stimuli that are encountered early and often,as well as the child’s successful responses.
What helps determine the strength and durability of a connection?
Practice and Repitition
What does the saying “use it or lose it” apply to?
How are a baby’s early repertoire of responses exercised?
Certain periods of time when children are especially receptive to their surroundings and interactions with other people.These periods of time are tied to brain developmental milestones. For example,language skills depend on hearing other people speak.
If there is not adequate verbal stimulation in the first years of life what is negatively affected?
Language skills,especially grammar and pronunciation.
When does the window of oppurtunity for learning language skills begin to close?
Around 5 Years old and greatly deminishes around puberty.
How is growth influenced?
By the baby’s environment and experiences.
A child’s heredity are genes that are passed along from the parents. What do they determine?
The child’s brain development
What affect’s brain structure?
Early experiences in the environment
What determines how children develop?
Their environment and experiences
What things have an affect on the development of a child’s brain and their ability to socialize and grow?
*How you diaper,feed,and put to sleep.
*The way you great,and the way comfort.
*The amount of space the child had to play in,and the ambient lighting
*The songs you sing
*The toys you provide
*The meals you serve
What are some examples of how these things affect development?
If your not feeding them properly they wont grow. Greeting allows them to feel like they belong. If they dont have a lot space they won’t develop gross motor skills.
Knowledgeable caregivers can do what?
Detect indicators of possible delays,and can help get the child the assistance he needs.
Why should child care professionals learn about principles of child development?
Care and the environment can support or hinder development. The knowledgeable caregiver can support a child in learning new skills. When a child is struggling with a new skill,timely intervention can help hime over come a problem and catch-up.
How many of your interactions witha child have an affect on their development and learning?
All of them
As a child care provider you should always do what?
Be on the lookout for signs of developmental delays and be aware of appropriate methods of dealing with children experiencing developmental delays.
How can you use your knowledge about the principles of child growth and development?
By looking out for the child who is not yet showing the skills and behaviors we would expect in a certain age range.
It is important to remember what?
To NOT diagnose children.
Passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990 sent what message?
That children and adults with disabilities are entitles to the same rights.
What does it mean when the Americans With Disabilities Act states that people with disabilities are entitles to equal rights?
It means that children with disabilities are legally entitled to equal access to community-based child care settigs.
Is a legal mandate by itself sufficent enough to make realistic and responsive child care options available to children with disabilities?
How would you address a child who is physically challenged?
Leveled surface area and enough space to manuvre.
How would you address a child who is socially challenged(a child who had autism)
Follow certain schedules,give them heads up on next transition.
How do you address a child who is shy or emotionally challenged?
Set them up with a buddy.
How do you address a who is gifted?
More challenging activities but dont make them mini teacher.
How do you address a child who is mentally challenged?
Don’t hinder them,don’t make things to difficult.
What factors have a great influence on the development of children and the decisions child care proffesionals take in planning their learning and care?
Internal and external
Why is nutirition important?
Food gives energy to get through the day and learn and grow.
Why are exercise levels important?
The keep kids healthy
Why are daily physical and learning routines important?
Consistence helps them feel better.
Why are relationships with family and friends important?
They provide a sense of security and belonging
Why is promoting social interaction important?
So they can interact with others
Why are social interaction and the children with disabilities important?
Helps children with and without special needs interact in positive way.
What environmental influences are important for children’s growth and development?
Nutrition,exercise levels, daily routines in physical activities and learning and relationships with adults and other children.
What is heredity?
The passing down of genetic charecteristics from parents to their children.
How does heredity influence a child?
Through the inheritance pf physical characteristics and temperment from birth parents at the time of conception.
When does the influence of heredity exist?
before the child is conceived.The egg of the mother and the sperm of the father carry genetic materials(genes and chromosomes) that combine to form a unique child.
What are the blueprints for cells?
Genes- They contain all the instructions necessary to create the human body.
What are genes made up of?
Large,complex molecules called DNA.
What is a genotype disorder?
A defect existing in the genetic material from either the father or mother and may be inherited by the child.
How many characteristics are determined through heredity factors?
Hundrends but not all of them are favorable.
Temperment describes what?
The emotional response of a child
A prevailing or dominant quality that characterizes a person.
The totality of a person’s attitudes, interests,behavioral patterns,emotional responses,social roles and individual traits that endure over long periods of time.
What is heredity?
The blend of physical and temperamental charecteristics inherited by a child from the birth parents. Inherited characteristics may have positive or negative influences on a child.
What are some facts about birth order?
*Birth order affects a child by determing how he sees himself.
*Research shows that generalizations can be made as to the typical characteristics of placement.
*Firstborn children are more likely to go to college.
*Middle children seem to have the strongest feelings of neglect by parents, often feeling that they were “squeezed out” by the other siblings.
*The youngest child may be more pampered and creative.
What are some facts about The Only Child?
*Be the center of attention;often enjoys position.May feel special.
*Relys on service from others rather than own efforts.
*Felt more incompetent because adults are more capable.
*Feel unfairly treated when he doesn’t get his own way. May refuse to cooperate.
*Play “divide and conquer” to get his own way
*Have poor peer relations as child but better relations as adult
*Please others only when he wants to.
What are some facts about The First Child?
Develop competent,responsible behavior or become very discouraged.
*Sometimes strive to protect and help others accept responsibility.
*Use to being center of attention
*Believe’s must have superiority
*Pressure to please
What are some facts about The Second Child?
Act as if in a race,trying to catch up,or overtake first child. If first child is “good”, second may be labeled “bad.”
*Be rebellious.Often doesn’t like this position in the family.
*Never had parent undivided attention
*Develop abilities first that first child did not.
What are some facts about The Third Child or Middle Children?
*Feel unloved,left out, “squeezed.”
*Be adaptable.May learn to deal with both oldest and youngest sibiling.
*Felt less pressure
*Doesn’t fit into family
*Feels like problem child
What are some facts about The Youngest Child?
*Behave like an only child.May feel that everyone is bigger and more capable.
*Remain “The Baby.” If youngest of three,often alies with oldest against middle child.
*Felt smallest and weakest
*Not taken seriously
*Boss of family
A child in good health has a better opportunity to do what?
Grow with fewer developmental challenges than an unhealthy child.
What happens when a child has a high number of illnesses,accidents,injuries,and diseases?
They are more likely the child will encounter a developmental delay.
What is health status?
A critical influence on the growth and development of a child from the pre-natal period through each age and stage.
What factors affect the health of children?
Socio-economic status,gender, and race.
How does being healthy generally happen?
When a child eats well,gets a lot of physical activity and exercise,and has a healthy weight.
What healthy behaviors have to be started with young children and continued through adolescence?
Sufficient rest,exhibiting appropriate emotions,behaviors and response to discipline appropriate for the age,practicing oral hygiene and developing speech and language proficiency.
What happens when a child is healthy?
His body works well,feels good,and can do all the things he wants to do.
What are several practiceses you can use to assist with overweight children?
*Don’t reward children for good behavior or try to stop bad behavior with treats.
*Don’t insist that children finish all the food on their plates.
*Do provide healthy foods and drinks
*Teach the children why these foods and drinks are healthy.
*Plan activities that give children numerous opportunities to engage in physical play and exercise.
*Sharing information with parents on the healthy eating,as well as the exercise the children are participating in while in child care,could remind them of improvements they could make at home.
What can disturb or delay normal development?
Impairment resulting from prenatal problems, trauma during birth,accidents,illness,or disease that damages the body or mind.
What is important during the early years while rapid growth is occuringand while bones and muscles are maturing?
A child’s nutritional intake
Children may progress more slowly when they have multiple developmental challenges such as?
Poor eyesight,poor motor control and language impairment.
How can a developmental obstacle be overcome or reduced?
By teamwork between the child,parents and the child care professional.
What is Public Law 94-142 also known as?
The Inclusion Rule
When was Public Law 92-142 passed?
In 1975, by the 94th congress
What does inclusion mean?
Including children with special need,side by side,with their non-handicapped peers. This allows children to learn from each other.
What are some benefits to the Inclusion Rule?
Including children with special needs helps speed up development,result in fewer children being retained in later grades and improve the quality of family relationships.
Who has an impact on a child’s health status?
The child’s family
What are a number of health issues that the family controls?
Serving healthy meals, frequency of doctor visits and getting the necessary immunizations.
Where does parental responsibility begin?
With good pre-natal care
What is (FAS)?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrom. It results in a variety of mental and physical defects that develop inunborn babies when the mother drinks too much alcohol during pregnancy.
What are symptoms of FAS?
Growth,skeletal,facial,organ and central nervous system abnormalities.
Examples of Possible Physical Disabilities:
*Difficulty with large muscle motor activities such as climbing stairs,crawling,riding a tricycle.
*Frequently walking or bumping into things.
*Shows a lack of energy
*Difficulty with activities such as building a tower of blocks.
Examples of Possible Visual Problems:
*Difficulty in seeing distant things clearly.
*Holds toys or books very close to eyes
*Rubs eyes frequently
*Blinking eyes often when doing work
Examples of possible Hearing Problems:
*Poor speech,omits sounds,loud voice.
*Does not understand directions.
*Does not answer when called.
*Trouble paying attention in large group activities.
*Often gives the wrong answers to the questions.
*Avoids playing with other children.
*Becomes tires early in day
Examples of Possible Speech or Language Problems:
*No speech by age two
*Does not use two or three word sentences by age three.
*Difficulty understanding after age three.
*Stutters after age five
*Has poor voice quality
*Problems understanding what is said.
Examples of Possible Learning Problems:
*Unable to follow directions because they cannot remember what was said.
*Frequently bumping into things,knocking things over.
*Unable to see differences in size,shape and color
*Cannot remember what is seen or heard.
*Cannot tell the difference betweensounds and textures.
Examples of Possible Attention Problems:
*Acts very quickly without thinking about consequences.
*Very short attention span
*Cannot complete task.
*Switches from one task to another.
*Easily distracted by another situation.
*Unable to return to original task.
*Constant motion even when classroom is quiet.
Developmental obstacles do what?
They vary widely but affect all development.
What is crucial to making your decisions as a child care professional?
Knowledge of developmental stages and influences on a child.
Any person under the age of 18 years
Any non-accidental injury, sexual battery, or injury to the intellectual or psychological capacity of a child by the parent, adult household member, or other person responsible for the child’s welfare
Sexual contact or interaction between a child and an adult or older child. Including indecent exposure, fondling, touching sexual organs, forcible rape, sodomy, exploitation, and showing pornography.
Situations of known or suspected child abuse or neglect which occurs at the institution where the person allegedly perpetrating the child abuse or neglect is an employee of a private school; public or private child care center, residential home, institution, program, or agency or any other person at such institution responsible for the child’s care
Failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, health care, or needed supervision
Failure to provide support, adequate attention, warmth, supervision, and normal living experiences for a child to the extent that the child is impaired in ability to function normally in performance and behavior
Anything to a child’s health or welfare that can occur when any
a) inflicts, or allows to be inflicted, upon the child physical, mental, or emotional injury;
b) commits, or allows to be committed, sexual battery, or lewd or lascivious acts against a child;
c) allows, encourages, or forces the sexual exploitation of a child;
d) exploits a child, or allows a child to be exploited;
e) abandons a child;
f) neglects a child;
g) exposes a child to a controlled substance or alcohol;
h) uses mechanical devices, unreasonable restraints, or extended periods of isolation to control a child;
i) engages in violent behavior that demonstrates a wanton disregard for the presence of a child and could reasonably result in serious injury to the child;
j) negligently fails to protect a child in his or her care from inflicted physical, mental, or sexual injury caused by the acts of another;
k) has allowed a child’s sibling to die as a result of abuse, abandonment, or neglect.
When a child is left alone in a situation beyond their physical
and emotional development level or when a child is left in the care of someone who does not provide adequate supervision
lack of adequate shelter
When the child is exposed to structurally unsafe housing,
exposed wiring, inadequate or unsafe heating, or unsanitary housing conditions
lack of adequate clothing
When a child suffers or is likely to suffer, from physical or
emotional health conditions resulting from inadequate clothing, improper hygiene and uncleanness
lack of adequate nutrition
When the caretaker has regularly failed to provide or have
available adequate food to the child, which can cause malnutrition over a long period of time
Lack of dental or medical care
When a medical or dental condition is left untreated, possibly
resulting in serious or long-term harm to the child.
Lack of attention (failure to thrive)
When the parents deny satisfying or fulfilling relationships, thus avoiding most interactions as a method of avoiding rejection and failure. The lack of support or emotional care or love can cause the infant and/or child’s weight to fall below the fifth percentile for age.
Lack of providing access to education
When education is not enforced by the parents, thereby
contributing to the child’s absence from school – leading to the lack of education and leading to truancy
Florida Abuse Hotline
Operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, toll free telephone number 800-962-2873
Exemption from civil or criminal charges resulting from reporting “in good faith.
Any person, including, but not limited to, any:
a) physician, osteopathic physician, medical examiner, chiropractic physician, nurse, or hospital personnel engaged in the admission, examination, care, or treatment of persons;
b) Health or mental health professional other than one listed in paragraph a);
c) Practitioner who relies solely on spiritual means for healing;
d) school teacher or other school official or personnel;
e) social worker, child care worker, or other professional child care provider, foster care, residential, or institutional worker;
f) law enforcement officer; or
g) judge – who knows, or has reasonable cause to suspect, that a child is abused, abandoned, or neglected by a parent, legal custodian, caregiver, or person responsible for the child’s welfare shall report such knowledge or suspicion to the department (DCF) in the manner prescribed in subsection (2) of 39.201.
Physical, Sexual and Emotional
Three types of abuse
Shaken Baby Syndrome
a life-threatening condition that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth rupturing blood vessels in the brain and breaking neural connections
signs of possible abuse or neglect
Parent blames or belittles child
Parent talks about child as bad or evil
Parent smells of alcohol/drugs or seems to be under the influence
Parent fails to keep appointments
Parent seems unconcerned with child
Do’s When questioning a child
•Believe what the child tells you
• Be someone the child trusts and respects
• Conduct the conversation in a quiet, private and non-threatening place
• Gather enough information to make an informed report to the Florida Abuse Hotline
• Reassure the child that he/she has done nothing wrong
• Allow the child to tell you what happened in a free and open manner
• Let the child set the pace and use language that is comfortable to them
• Ask the child to clarify unfamiliar terms
Don’t’s of questioning a child
• Ask leading questions or suggest answers to the child
• Ask for details (This is the job of the investigator)
• Suggest that the story may not be true
• Show body language such as shock, anger or surprise while the child is talking
• Communicate feeling of shock, anger or surprise
• Force child to remove clothing to show signs of physical abuse
• Leave the child alone with a stranger
• Ask “why” questions
Child Risk factors
Premature birth and/or birth defects
Chronic or serious illness
Temperament- slow or difficult to warm up to others
Aggressive behavior problems
Attention deficit disorder
A personal attribute/characteristic identified by a parent as undesirable
Family Risk Factors
Personality factors- feelings of insecurity, lack of trust, low tolerance for frustration, depression or mental illness
Childhood history of abuse
Family structure – single parent with lack of support
Social isolation – lack of support
Marital problems and divorceDeath and/or illness Age
Abuse of alcohol or other drugs
Lack of parenting skills or living skills
Financial problems or unemployment
Social/Environmental Risk Factors
Stressful life or community events (ex. Hurricanes)
Low socioeconomic status poverty
Lack of access to medical care, health insurance, child care and social service
Cultural acceptance of abuse
Four ways to report abuse
Telephone, Fax, TDD and Online
Ensures that confidentiality we be maintained for child care workers reporting suspected cases abuse and neglect
Child protective services
an agency designed to receive, investigate and provide rehabilitation services for children and families with abuse issues
department of children and families
provides a spectrum of services to preserve and protect the well being of children and families
law enforcement and state attorney’s offices
investigate cases of child abuse and neglect
medical programs and community agencies
provide intention to victims of child abuse and neglect, provide medical attention of counciling to the abused, abuser, and family
Provides services: divorce, domestic violence, guardian ad-litem
church services are provided for families that are having problems. youth programs can provide after school care
learn about child abuse and neglect
Florida Abuse Hotline
Florida Department of Children of Families
This agency determines state rules pertaining to child care and enforces these rules by licensing and inspecting child care facilities.
Local Fire Department
This agency inspects child care facilities and educates child care professionals about minimizing fires and other threats to safety.
Local County Health Department
This agency establishes, regulates, and enforces rules and local ordinances, which must meet or exceed state standards.
Local Licensing Agencies
This agency is responsible for making sure child care facilities are inspected.
The Florida Statutes
are made up by the individual laws which were passed by the Legislature. Each year, new statutes appear for the first time, some are rewritten or amended, and some stay the same. Statutes are written and proposed by the Florida Senate and House of Representatives. They are signed into law by the governor.
The Florida Administrative Code
is made up of rules that are created by the Department of Children and Families and enforced by the Depatment of Children and Families and many other state local agencies. Rules and regulations are based on the Florida Statutues. The Florida Department of Children and Families governs many aspects of child care in the state, and its staff members write the rules and regulations that appear in the Florida Administrative Code.
The Americans with Disabilities Act
passed in 1990, prohibits discrimination against people who are handicapped or disabled. Its goals are to promote community integration by prohibiting discrimination based on disability; to create early intervention services for infants and todlers (ages birth to 3 years) with special needs and their families; and to provide non-discriminatory, multidisciplinary evaluation by qualified professionals.
What kinds of records are checked during a screening?
Local criminal records check through local law enforcement agencies
Statewide criminal record checks through the Department of Law Enforcement
Federal criminal records check through the FBI
402.3055 Child Care Personnel Requirements
The licensing agency_________the applicant, in writing, that the license has been denied, and states why that decision was reached.
402.3055 Child Care Personnel Requirements
If a local licensing agency denied the application, the applicant has ________________days to file a written request for a hearing.
402.3055 Child Care Personnel Requirements
The local licensing agency must hold that hearing within ______days of the applicant’s request.
402.3055 Child Care Personnel Requirements
If the denial stands, the applicant may _______to the Department of Children and Families. The Department of Children and Families’ hearing must be held as described by statute.
402.307 Approval of licensing agency
“Promulgation” means “_____________”. This first subsection says that when the Department of Children and Families announces minimum state standards, each county in Florida has to provide it with a copy of its own minimum standards if they are different from the State’s.
to publicly announce
402.307 Approval of licensing agency
Each county also has to tell the Department of Children and Families how it plans to
402.307 Approval of licensing agency
The Department of Children and Families will review local minimum standards. If they ___________________________the Department of Chikdren Families’ standards, the Department of Children and Families will ___________________a local licensing agency.
meet or exceed……approve
402.307 Approval of licensing agency
The Department of Children and Families renews its approval_______________
402.307 Approving of licensing agency
If the Department of Children and Families learns that the local licensing agency is not applying the Department of Children and Families’ minimum standards, it notifies the local county commission.
402.307 Approving of licensing agency
Local licensing agencies must provide the Department of Children and Families with data about child care in its county ______
402.308 Issuance of license
Every child care program in Florida is licensed _______
402.308 Issuance of license
If there is a _____________, a new license is required.
change in ownership
402.308 Issuance of license
Applicants must disclose their___________number to the Department of Children and Families.
402.308 Issuance of license
Programs undergo an ___________to determine that the State’s minimum standards are being met.
402.308 Issuance of license
The Department of Children and Families must_________inspections, and if there are conflicts between inspectors, it must resolve them.
402.308 Issuance of license
If a _______________________has been submitted and _____________are met, a license will be issued.
licensing fee………..all standards
402.308 Issuance of license
A license will not be issed to any facility that has a staff member who ______________the screening process.
402.309 Provisional license
A provisional license may be issued to a facility which is out of compliance but can complete corrective action within ______ months.
402.310 Disciplinary actions; hearings upon denial, suspension, or revocation of license; administrative fines
__________________can be levied againstt a licensee that is out of compliance.
involves making physical facilities, toys, and equipment readily accessible to and usable by a child with disabilities, so that he or she may participate.
At the state level, this includes rules set forth in Florida Administrative Code.
Specific details drawn up by an agency to support a law, and enforced by the court.
A legal decision that is enacted by a state agency.
A body of people whose job is to enact laws.
A person who has legal custody of a child.
A piece of legislation that is passed at the local level.
A document that is discussed or voted onby the State Legislature or Federal House or Senate
A parent who has been awarded custody of children after a divorce.
A government body responsible for directing activities according to rule, principle or law.
A bill that has been passed by the State House and Senate and approved by the governor.
A person who is declared legally responsible for the care of a child by a court of law.
These are the basic requirements permitted by law or authority to operate a child care program.
Health Related Requirements
Food and Nutrition
Evening Child Care
School Age Child Care
Gold Seal Quality Care Program
65C-22.001 (General Information)
Renewal applications must be submitted 45 days prior to expiration.
To operate an urban child care facility, it must show documentation that the outdoor play space requirement cannot be met.
The license being described is for a facility.
It can be applied for with the licensing authority or of the DCF website.
The completed application must be signed by the individual owner, propsective owner or designated representative, of a partnership, association or corporation.
65C-22.001 (General Information)
The child care facility license is issued in the name of the owner, partnership, association, or corporation.
At least one week to changing ownership of a facility, one of the following methods of notification to parents or guardians must be observed.
Posting a notice in a conspicuous location at the facility, incorporating information in any existing newsletter, individual letters or files. 402.305(18) F.S.
65C-22.001 (General Information)
Minimum Age Requirements
There must be a staff person at least 21 years of age on the premises at all times. (in the absence of the operator)
Mixed Age Groups—Where children under 1 year of age are included, one staff person should be responsible for no more than 4 children of any age group. Where children 1 year of age but under 2 years of age are included, one staff person shall be responsible for no more than 6 children of any group.
For children from birth through 1 year of age, there must be one child care personnel for every ___children.
For children 1 year of age or older, but under 2 years of age, there must be one staff member for every ____children.
For children 2 years of age or older, but under 3 years of age, there must be one staff member for every_____children.
For children 3 years of age or older, but under 4 years of age, there must be one staff member for every ____children.
For children 4 years of age or older, but under 5 years of age, there must be one staff member for every ____ children.
For children 5 years of age or older, there must be one staff member for every ____children.
In groups of mixed age ranges, where children under 1 year of age are included, one staff member shall be responsible for no more than ____children of any age group.
In groups of mixed age ranges, where children 1 year but under 2 years of age are included, one staff member shall be responsible for no more than ____children of any age group.
When children 2 years of age and older are in care, the staff-to-children ratio shall be based on the age group with the _______number of children within the group.
Means watching and directing children’s activities with the same rooom or designated outdoor play area.
Sufficient staff are in close proximity.
One additional adult for every 20 children, a child care facility must have one (1) credentialed staff member.
1 One Year Old, 24 School Age Children requires
1 Two Year Old, 8 Three Year Olds and 6 Four Year Olds require
8 Two Year Olds require
6 Infants require
16 Two Year Olds require
The number of people in the vehicle cannot exceed the number of safety belts.
A driver must have certificates showing completion of First Aid and CPR Training.
The driver needs a current Florida Driver’s License and an annual physical which grants medical approval to drive.
All child care facilities must comply with the inspection responsibilities and insurance requirements.
Each child must have a seatbelt.
A log shall be maintained for all children being transported with signatures from the driver and staff.
Staff-to-children ratios must be met.
Parents should be advised at least 2 working days in advance.
Written parental permission must be obtained.
Verification that written procedures have been provided with signature of parent/guardian.
Prohibition of humiliation, spanking.
A copy of practices must be available to licensing authority.
Redirection, modeling, and reminding are usually acceptable practices.
A child care facility must provide the custodial parent or legal guardian access, in person and by telephone, to the childcare facility during the facility’s normal hours of operation or during the time the child is in care.
65C-22.002 Physical Environment
The facility must be clean and safe. It can’t be used for an unsafe activity while chidren are present.
Animals must have current immunizations and be healthy and clean.
Buildings must meet local building codes—design and construction of a new child care facility or modification to an existing facility.
65C-22.002 Physical Environment
Rooms Occupied by Children
A foot candle measures the amount of light that actually falls on a surface, such as a floor or table.
At all times lighting must be sufficient to visually observe and supervise chidren, including during naptime to ensure safety and wellbeing.
65C-22.002 Indoor Floor Space
The Department of Children requires either 20 or 35 square feet of usable floor space per child, depending on when the facility was first licensed.
In addition to the total facility minimum square footage per child, each room that is routinely occupied by children must also have a minimum of 20 square feet or 35 square feet.
The square foot requirement may be suspended during specific times of the day.
65C-22.002 Outdoor Play Area
DCF requires 45 square feet of safe area play area for 1/2 of the facility’s population over 1 year of age. “Safe” is defined. Urban facilities are given permission to substitute.
Outdoor Space Requirements:
There shall be a minimum of ______square feet of usable, safe, and sanitary outdoor play area per child, one (1) year of age and older.
A minimum outside play area shall be provided for ______of this identified population.
For the purpose of childcare facilities who are providing care to school-age children, a fence is not required around an outdoor play area if all of the following conditions are met:
The children using the outdoor play area are in kindergarten or above.
The staff-to-child ratio is exceeded by at least 1 staff member. Certain traffic conditions are met.
Written approval has been granted by the licensing authority.
Napping and Sleeping Space
The Department of Children and Families requires that children have a safe, clean, and comfortable place to rest as determined by the rules in this code. There must be 18″ maintained between napping.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, or SIDS, is mentioned in this code. There is a short phrase to help us remember how to reduce the risk of SIDS. What is it? What does the phrase mean?
Back to Sleep—Babies who can’t roll over on their own must be placed on the their backs, not their stomach to sleep.
Toilet and Bath Facilities
Potty chairs are not considered toilets. There has to be at least one bath facility. Handwashing soap is not considered a hazardous or toxic substance, and can be placed within reach of children.
All Drill logs should be maintained for one year and contain specific information.
Current attendance record must accompany staff out of the building during drill or actual evacuation.
Facilities have to conform to standards set by the State Fire Marshal. Facilities must be inspected annually.
A copy of approved fire inspection report must be on file with the licensing authority.
Must conduct 10 fire drills a year at least 30 days apart-one during naptime, one using an alternative route and one in the presence of licensing staff.
Health and Sanitation
All building must have screens on open windows or doors.
Caregivers must wash hands.
Child must have access to safe drinking water.
Children can’t share toothbrushes, towels and washcloths.
Equipment and Furnishings
Toys, equipment and furnishing must be provided by the facility.
They must be safe and sanitary.
There are specific regulations for outdoor equipment, and these are in place to maintain safe conditions for play.
Equipment is anchored securely. Free of rust or jagged edges. No hazardous objects.
All Part I courses (30 hours) Part II courses (10 hours) of your choice—-Early Literacy and Language Development Course
Beginning training means starting a course. This is accomplished by attending your first child care training instructor based course or starting an online course, acquiring an educational exemption or completing a competency examination.
Exemptions from the Introductory Child Care Training
By passing the competency exams you may be exempt. There are no educational exemptions from the Child Care Facility Rules and Regulations and the Identifying Child Abuse and Neglect courses or from the department’s online training courses.
Documentation of Training
Training is documented by certificates of training or training transcript.
Requirements ensure that introductory trainers have a minimum level of education and experience in early childhood education.
Annual in-service training
In-service training is training that is completed on an annual basis to improve knowledge about the child care profession. All childcare professionals must complete 10 hours of training annually.
National Early Childhood Credential: Birth through Five Florida Chil Care Professional Credential; Florida Department of Education Child Care Apprenticeship Certificate; Early Childhood Professional Certificate; School Age Professional Certificate or formal education qualifications.
Education and Experience
A Director Credential must be renewed.
65C-22.004 Health Related Requirements
Communicable Disease Control
Child neds to have daily health checks to notice signs of disease.
Sick children should be isolated.
A communicable disease is one that can be transmitted from one person to another through direct or indirect contact.
First Aid, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, and Emergency Procedures
The facility must have a valid First Aid and CPR certificate(s) on file, a person on duty holding a valid certificate, and a first aid kit that meets the code. Report all accidents to parents with written accident/injury report.
Facilities do not have to dispense medication.
Written directions from a physician have to be followed.
Medicine should be inaccessible by children.
65C-22.005 Food and Nutrition
Special food restrictions must be shared with staff and posted in a conspicuous location. USDA determines the nutritional needs of children and recommend daily allotments that must be followed in licensed facilities.
Food Preparation Area
Food handling and preparation in child care facilities must meet or exceed those used in other public situations.
Each child will receive individual care at meal times, and children must be seated at tables.
No propped bottles.
65C-22.006 Record Keeping
Children’s Health Requirements
DH Form 3040 Student Health Examination; DH Form 680 Florida Certification of Immunization DH Form 681 Religious Exemptions
School age children who are enrolled in a public school are not required to have these records on file at the facility.
Enrollment forms must be kept current and children cannot be released to any other custodial parent, or other peron authorized in writing. Parents should receive a copy of Know Your Child Care Center.
Parents receive a copy of disciplinary procedure.
Info on flu in August and September
Other than medical, enrollment, and personnel records, what other records should one find on file at a child care facility?
Daily Attendance, Record of accidents and injuries, Emergency evacuation plans, Record of monthly fire drills, Documentation of First Aid and CPR training, Parental permission for field trips, Daily menus and Specialized diet documentation.
65C-22.007 Evening Child Care (Hours of Care)
6:00 p.m.-7:00 a.m.
Staff must remain awake at all times. While children are awake, direct supervision must be provided.
For centers providing evening care only, outdoor space is not required. CDA or credentialed staff is not required for Evening Child Care Staff. Director credentialed staff is not required of Evening Child Care.
65C-22.008 School Age Child Care
School Age Child means a child who is at least 5 years old by September 1st of the beginning of the school year and who is attending kindergarten through grade 5.
School Age Child Care Program- Means before and after school programs that are licensed and serve only school age children.
No license is required for programs located in public/nonpublic school sites who exclusively serve children who attend the school during the day.
School Age Child Care Standards
Kindergarten or above
Traffic conditions are met
Staff to child ratio is exceeded by at least one staff member
Written approval has been granted
Student health records are not required for school age programs
School Age Child Care Personnel Training Requirements
Training provided at a national organization that includes evidence of competency or any of the other Part II training courses developed by the Department of Children and Families.
Study Guide Health, Safety and Nutrition
The three A’s of a healthy child are:
The signs to observe in a daily health check fit into three categories:
Behavior, Face & Body
Irritable, drowsy, whinny, lethargic
Face & Body signs:
Flushed, rashes, cuts, abrasions, bruises, pale, discolored stool, burns, diarrhea.
common signs and symptoms of children who experience illness:
fever, vomiting, stomach aches, sneezing, etc.
The condition is caused by excessive sweating. the person’s skin becomes pale and clammy, and the person feels sick, dizzy, and/ or faint. Pulse rate and breathing become rapid, and a headache or muscle cramps may develop. Take action! Parents should be notified.
Occurs because of prolonged exposure to very hot conditions. The mechanism in the brain that regulates body temperature rapidly rises to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The person becomes flushed, with hot, dry skin and strong, rapid pulse. He or she quickly becomes confused or unconscious.
Dry to very dry mouth. Little or no tears when crying. Less active than usual, or very fussy. Infant will wet less than 6 diapers a day; a child will make fewer trips to the restroom than he normally does. Eyes are sunken. Hands and feet are cool and blotchy. Pulse may seem weak and fast. Child will not urinate for hours.
Grows best in warm, moist places. Can causes athlete’s foot and ringworm. Effective medication is available. Medications work best when condition favorable to fungi growth are removed.
Smaller than bacteria. Grow only in living cells. Can cause colds, chicken pox, measles, German measles, mumps. Antibiotics have no effect. Rest is the best action; body fights better when rested. Vaccines against common ones available.
Small organisms seen with an ordinary microscope. Can causes strep throat, impetigo, pink eye, and some pneumonia. Antibiotics help stop growth.
Organisms that live on or in animals and people. Common examples include pin worms, roundworms, head lice. Effective medications are available for most.
four methods in which diseases are transmitted:
2. Direct contact
3. Fecal/ Oral
4. Blood born
three ways to prevent communicable disease:
1. Wash hands
2. Clean/ disinfect
3. Stay home when your sick
three examples in using universal precautions:
1. Wear gloves
2. Throw away after one use.
3. Change diapers on non-porous surface.
Items that should be disinfected:
toys, kitchen, restroom, tables, chairs, floor, carpet/
steps to administer medicine to child enrolled in your program:
Permission slip with parent signature and name of child with who authorized to give medication.
Log- name of child, dose, day and time, amount given, and who authorized.
Medicine needs to be original package.
ways to prevent poisoning
– Keep chemicals out of reach
– following safe food handling
– obey directions found on medicine label
– teach children to not place unfamiliar object near their mouth.
how to place a baby in a crib
Put on its back in crib to prevent sides…
use crib bumper
– breathable bumper
no broken things, supervise child.
take attendance, tell procedures, number of poison control, numbers to emergency and back up, know where exits are.
Properly secured in seat belt, booster, care seat
Inappropriate foods Baby, toddler, young child..
baby- anything not milk
Toddler- honey, peanuts, hard candy, sugar, popcorn.
Young child- soda, caffeine, sweets, fast food in moderation…
when a child care worker recognizes
and notes an identifiable performance or behavior and uses instruments such as checklists, anecdotal records and running records. The instruments are used to measure progress against a standard and to share results
with assessment experts.
instrument intended to identify and monitor normal development or possible developmental delay. Screening programs are not diagnostic, and are not based on whether a child has passed a certain curriculum.
become concerned about progress
When the child has not yet acquired the skills that are typical for the childs age or when they seem to give up
The Florida Legislature
mandated that child care providers complete a course that covers the topic of observation of developmental behaviors, including using a checklist or other similar observation tools and techniques, to determine the
child’s developmental age level.
Early detection of problems
allows for timely
referral for intervention
attention should be focused on
activities that strengthen the child’s skills.
leads to sound assessment so that early detection of potential developmental
delays will determine the correct referral and intervention
represents air and other
things have free access to the space
within, but when the window is closed,
nothing can get through the window
Development in young children occurs
Development in young children occurs and typically progresses in
All children develop at their
Heredity and environment
work together to make each child special and different from all others.
Skills are acquired in
Developmental progress is periods of stammering, characterize development and Periodic regression is normal and should be expected.
Early experiences and opportunities to practice new skills are
are important. The social setting and culture the child lives in influences the ways the child grows and develops.
six Developmental Domains
Cognitive Development & General Knowledge
Language & Communication
Approaches to Learning
Social & Emotional
refers to the changes in body shape and proportion. It includes change in weight and height
refers to a child’s
ability to move about and control body
parts such as grasping, rolling over,
a child’s intellectual or mental abilities. It involves finding processing and organizing information and using it appropriately. Discovering, interpreting, sorting, classifying, and remembering information.
“Language and Communication
child’s ability to express himself verbally and to receive and understand the verbal communication of others. It involves vocabulary, grammar, reading, writing, and ability to understand things around them
Social and Emotional
Focuses on how children feel about themselves and their relationships with others. Refers to individual behaviors, responses to play and work activities, attachment to parents and relationships with siblings and friends.
Approaches to Learning
how skills and knowledge are acquired through the three qualities of eagerness and curiosity, persistence and creativity, and problem solving.
represent a range(rather than an exact point in time) when specific skills will be achieved.
not age that is the important factor in evaluating a child’s progress
Participants should always ____ during the observation process before and after the observation
Participants must be _____ in their observations.Subjective information is open to interpretation and is not useful for describing behavior.
Tools for Recording
Checklists, Anecdotal Records, Running Records
Record every ____ don’t leave out anything.
Use ____ that describe but do not judge.
Record the facts in the ___ they occur.
Observation of children in ____ lets the observer report what the child is able to do in an environment that supports the child to perform her best.
Do not try to observe more than____ a time.
Do not influence the child’s by your presence.
Make sure there is ____ for the observation.
Make sure that ___ are kept to a minimum.
Use an area that is ___ to the child
child and parents
Make sure you build a relationship with the___
Allows you to interact with children directly and ask them certain things
You do not hide the fact you are observing a child’s actions
The observer is concealed behind a screen or a 2-way mirror and does not interact with the child
When the children are not told they are being observed.
six major developmental domains
Physical Health, Motor Development, Cognitive Development & General Knowledge, Language & Communication, Approaches to Learning, and Social & Emotional.
The screening process can not confirm
Screening helps to ___ children that could benefit from early childhood intervention programs
are divided into the categories of physical, cognitive, language, and social/emotional.
The social/emotional developmental domain
is difficult to test.
Sound screening tools are
reliable, valid, and free of bias
A record keeping system
for tracking the individual children as they progress through the program
where you record the child’s name, parents’ names, the child’s age at the time of the screening, name of the screener and their relationship to the child (parent, child care provider, nurse, doctor)
where you record the child’s actions and responses
for locating the child’s data in relation to the norms of other children their age;
to help with the screening results (continue screening at next interval, referral).
Planning the process you will use, identifying how you will engage parents and at what points in the process, obtaining the materials if any are needed, developing forms.
Identifying the time and location for the activity, scheduling staff or substitutes if the activity requires 1:1 attention to an individual child.
Obtaining permission from parents, conducting the activity, recording the activity, scoring the activity if appropriate, working with parents.
Talking with parents, beginning to identify the next steps.
organizing, scheduling, executing and follow through
four basic tasks involved in developing and maintaining a successful behavioral observation and screening process
the first step of any observation and screening activity
Communicating with parents
is important. You must be clear about the need for assessment and its benefits to the child.