D&B Set 9

True or False: High levels of caffeine consumption among college students have been associated with higher academic performance
False! High levels of caffeine consumption among college students have actually been associated with LOWER academic performance
What might account for the apparent protective effect of small amounts of regular coffee use?
The antioxidants contained in coffee
Coffee and the risk of heart attack
A recent study indicated that the deterpines that are present in brewed coffee may increase blood cholesterol levels, and that this effect combined with the increase in blood pressure produced by caffeine can raise the risk of heart attack in heavy consumers
What role did the American Revolution and alcohol prohibition play in influencing American coffee consumption?
Coffee consumption increased because it was cheaper as well as legal
What are the two xanthines contained in tea and chocolate, besides caffeine?
Theophylline and Theobromine
Rank the caffeine content of a cup of brewed coffee, a cup of tea, a chocolate bar, and a 12 ounce serving of Coca-cola
1. Coffee
2. Tea
3. Coca-cola
4. Chocolate bar
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How does caffeine interact with adenosine receptors?
Caffeine blocks the brain’s receptors for adenosine blocking its inhibitory effect
What are some of the behavioral and physiological effects of excessive caffeine consumption?
Nervousness, jittery, insomnia, flushed appearance, elevated temperature, etc.
Descrive the effects of caffeine on migraines, caffeine withdrawal headaches, and other headaches
Reduce migraines because caffeine contracts brain’s blood vessels. Stop caffeine-related withdrawal headaches. Can help most headaches, but can also cause them during withdrawal process
What are the typical symptoms associated with caffeine withdrawal?
Headache, irritability, difficulty focusing, sleepy, etc.
What are three possible ways in which caffeine use by a woman might interfere with reproduction?
Increase chances of spontaneous abortion, slow growth of fetus so baby weighs less than normal at birth, and more than 300mg daily can reduce her chances of getting pregnant
What is the relationship between caffeine and panic attacks?
Caffeine can in fact cause panic attacks
Values Clarification
Teaching students to recognize and express their own feelings and beliefs
What do the goals and methods of a prevention program depend on?
The goals and methods of a prevention program also depend on the drug-using status of those served by the program also depend on the drug-using status of those served by the program
Primary Prevention
Programs that are aimed mainly at young people who have not yet tried the substances in question or who may have tried tobacco or alcohol a few times
What might primary prevention encourage and what is the danger of this?
It might encourage abstinence from specific drugs or might have the broader goal of teaching people how to view drugs and the potential influences of drugs on their lives, emotions, and social relationships
This brings the danger of intro ducting large numbers of children to information about drugs that they might otherwise never have heard to, thus arousing their curiosity
Secondary Prevention
Designed for people who have tried the drug in question or a variety of other substances
What re the goals of secondary prevention
The goals of such programs are usually the prevention of the use of other more dangerous substances and the prevention of the development of more dangerous forms of use of the substances they’re already experimenting with
Clientele might be more “sophisticated” substance users who haven’t suffered seriously from their drug experiences who aren’t obvious candidates for treatments (college students)
Tertiary prevention
Relapse prevention or follow up programs
Universal prevention
Programs are designed for delivery to an entire population (i.e. all school children or an entire community)
Selective prevention
Strategies are designed for groups within the general population that are deemed to be at high risk – students not doing well in school or in poorest neighborhoods
Indicated prevention
Strategies are targeted at individuals who show signs of developing problems, such as a child who began smoking cigarettes at a young age or an adult arrested for a first offense of driving under the influence of alcohol
What assumption does the values clarification approach make?
The values clarification approach makes the assumption that what is lacking in drug – using adolescents is not factual info about drugs, but rather the ability to make appropriate decisions based on that information
Alternative non drug activities, such as relaxation or dancing
Social influence model
A prevention model adopted from successful smoking programs