Unexposed Film Appearance:
clear film w/ a bluish tinge
Film Exposed to White Light Appearance:
film appears black
Over Exposed Film Appearance:
film appears dark
Under Exposed Film:
film appears light
Premolar Bite-Wing must include:
Distal 1/2 canine, all premolars present & 1st molars of the MX & MD teeth, & crestal bone
Incorrect Horizontal Angulation Appearance:
overlapped contact areas appear on the film
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Cone-cut Appearance:
a clear, unexposed area on the film
Film Bending Appearance:
film appears stretched & distorted (all or portion of film)
Film Creasing Appearance:
a thin radiolucent (dark) line appears on the film (usually straight)
Phalangioma Appearance:
patient’s finger appears on the film image
Double Exposure Appearance:
two (double) images are superimpose on top of each other
Patient movement Appearance:
film image is distorted or blurred
Incorrect Vertical Angulation Appearance:
short teeth w/ blunted roots appear on the film (foreshortened)
Dropped Film Corner Appearance:
the occlusal plane appears tipped or tilted
Incorrect Film Placement Appearance:
no apices on the film
Molar Bite-Wing must include:
Distal 1/2 of second premolar, all molars present, & both MX & MD molars, & crestal bone
Reversed Film Appearance:
light images w/ a herringbone pattern appear on the film
X-ray Machine Purpose: (2)
1- produce quality radiographs, 2- detection of disease & lesions for diagnostic purposes
Federal Regulations- 1968:
Radiation Control for Health & Safety Act: Standardize performance of x-ray equipment
Federal Regulations- 1974:
US FDA standardized all manufacturing of radiographic dental equipment (all machines must meet this)
State Gov’t Regulations determine when & how dental x-ray equipment is monitored:
MN- mandatory every 2 years
Tube head or tube housing used to:
produce x-rays
Extension arm used to: (3)
suspend tubehead, house electrical wires, & allows movement in all directions & positioning of the x-ray tubehead
Control panel used to: (3)
allows for regulation x-ray beam, control electrical current for generation of X-rays, & house control buttons and settings
65-100 kVp range- peak of enegry
7-15 range- amount
Exposure time:
1/60th of a second- standard & 1/100th of a second- digital
lead diaphragm used to restrict the size of the x-ray beam (round, rectangular, cone)
X-ray film holders:
stabe(styrofoam bite block, slimplest), XCP, Bite tab, EEZE grip, etc.
Beam Alignment Device:
used to help the radiographer position the PID in relationship to the tooth and film
beam of energy
picture or likeness of an object
something that responds to a stimulus
Film Compostion: (4)
film base, adhesive layer, film emulsion, protective layer
Film emulsion purpose & mixture:
to give film greater sensitivity to x-radiation, homogeneous misture of gelatin & silver halide crystals
Latent Image:
stored image not visible on the film
Purpose of Lead Foil Sheet:
to prevent film fogging from scatter radiation
examines the entire tooth and surrounding structures
examines the interproximal surfaces of the crowns of both MX and MD teeth w/ crestal bone
examines large area of the MX or MD jaw
Types of Intra-Oral Radiographic Examination: (3)
periapical, interpoximal, & occlusal
Periapical: (Purpose, Film Type, & Technique)
used to examine the entire tooth & supporting bone, periapical film, paralleling & bisecting technique
Interproximal: (Purpose, Film Type, & Technique)
examine the crown of both the mx & md teeth on a single film, & adjacent surfaces of teeth & crestal bone, bite-wing film, bite-wing technique
Occlusal: (Purpose, Film Type, & Technique)
examine large areas of the mx or md on a single film, occlusal film, occlusal technique
CMRS: (# of films)
# of films depends on the radiographic technique used & the # of teeth present, Edentulous pt: 14 films, Dentulous pt: 14-20 films
Extra-Oral Radiographic Examinations:
inspection of large areas of the skull or jaw
Prescribing Dental Radiographs:
based on the individual needs of the pt, professional judgement of the dentist: #, type, & frequency
removes unwanted x-rays, amount equal to 0.5-1.0 mm
Thyroid Collar:
protects thyroid gland
Lead Apron:
protects lap & chest
Fast Film:
reduces exposure to radiation
Film Holding Device:
reduces exposure to pt, stabilizes film & reduces film movement
Consumer-Patient Radiation Health & Safety Act: (1981)
issues of education & certification of persons using radiographic equipment
Maximum Permissible Does (MPD):
maximum dose equivalent a body is permitted to receive in a specific amount of time w/ little or no injury.
Occupational- 5.0 rems/year (0.05 SV/year)
Nonoccupationally- 0.5 rems/year (0.005 Sv/year)
Distance Recommendations:
avoid the primary beam & limit x-radiation exposure, stand at least 6 ft. away from x-ray tubehead
Maximum Accumulated Dose:
based on worker’s age.
MAD= (N – 18) x 5 rems/year
MAD= (N – 18) x 0.05 Sv/year
ALARA concept:
states that all exposure to radiation must be kept to a minimum, “as low as reasonably achieved”
Most effective method of reducing pt exposure to radiation:
fast films
The thyroid collar must be worn for all intraoral & extraoral films: (True or False)
The dental radiographer should stand ______ degrees away from the primary beam:
Which PID is preferred & why:
Longer (16-inch PID) is preferred because it produces less divergence of the x-ray beam
Film Storage: (Temp & Humidity)
store in cool, dry place. Temp- 50-70 degrees F, Humidity- 30-50%
fuzzy, unclear area that surrounds a radiographic image
clear area on the center of the film image (most focused area)
same lingual, opposite buccal
Describe the Role of Developer:
reacts w/ silver halide crystals on the film that were affected by radiation, These crystals form the images
Describe the Role of Fixer:
removes any crystals that did not react, hardens the emulsion, and preserves the image
provides a view of the entire mx and md
provides a leteral view of the skull
provides a view of sections of the TMJ
Who mounts film:
any trained dental professional
When to mount film(s):
immediately after processing
Purpose/Why of Film Mounting: (4)
easier/quicker to view/interpret, easily stored, decrease chance of error in determining pt. R/L, & decrease handling/damage to emulsion
Information on Label for Mount: (4)
pt. full name, radiographers name, date of exposure, doctor name
black areas- allow x-rays to pass through, greater penetration of x-rays reach x-ray film
gray/white areas- resist passage of x-rays (block)
Radiograph(X-ray film):
a picture; recording medium
Convex dot:
surface towards tubehead or source of radiation
Concave dot:
away from tubehead or source of radiation
facing patient to view (pt.’s right side, your left), convex
behind patient to view (pt.’s right side, your right), concave
Curve of Spee:
smile line curves up
Identification dot:
small, raised bump
What mounting is preferred by ADA:
PPE in radiology:
gloves, eyewear, & gowns should be used at all times, Mask is optional.
Place _____ barriers on all equipment to be ____ during procedure:
removable, touched
Developing & Fixing solutions are/are not sterilizing agents:
are NOT
overall darkness or blackness
current coming in; tells you how many, # of, qt.
Kilovoltage Peak:
pentrating power, quality
Exposure Time:
standard- 1/60th sec, digital- 1/100th sec
TFD(Target-Film Distance):
the distance from the target to the film should be as long as possible to direct the most parallel rays to the film and object
OFD(Object-Film Distance):
the film and the object should be as close together as possible to reduce the amount of magnification
Purpose of Film Processing: (2)
to convert the latent (invisible) image on the film into a visible image, to preserve the visible image so that it is permanent and does not disappear from the dental radiograph
Silver Halide crystals duty:
absorb x-radiation and store energy
2 methods of processing radiographic films:
manual and automatic
Manual Film Processing: (5)
developing solutions, film rinse, fixing solutions, wash film, dry films
Developing purposes: (2)
softens emulsion, & distinguishes between exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals to form image
Rinsing purpose:
to remove developer chemicals
Fixing purposes: (2)
removes unexposed crystals (unenergized), & hardens the emulsion
Water Bath purpose:
rinses out chemicals from film
Replace Manual Chemicals:
every 3-4 weeks
Developing Solution Chemicals: (4)
developing agent, preservative, accelerator, restrainer
Developing Agent: (2)
hydroquinoine- generates black tones & sharp contrast, elon- acts to quickly produce, generates shades of gray
sodium sulfite- antioxidate to prevent developer solution from oxidizing in presence of air, extends life
sodium carbonate- alkali or base solution to activate the developing solution
potassium bromide- control developer solution & prevent the developing of exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals, prevents fog
Fixing Solution Chemicals: (4)
fixing agent, preservative, hardening agent, acidifier
Fixing Agent (Clearing Agent):
sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate- remove unexposed silver halide crystals
sodium sulfite- prevents chemicals from deteriorating
Hardening Agent:
potassium alum- hards and shrinks emulsion
acrtic acid or sulfuric acid- neutralizes the alkaline developer
Two types of lightening:
safe light- (7 1/2 or 15 watts, red-orange light spectrum), & overhead lighting- used to perform tasks
Difference between Manual & Automatic Processing:
automatic has no rinse
emulsion cracking (pebbled or cracked appearance), from temp being over at least 5 degrees
Air Bubble Appearance:
white spots on film image
Fogged Film Appearance:
gray film image; lacks detail and contrast
Replenisher Solutions must be replenished:
Fixer Spots:
white spots appear on the film
Developer Spots:
dark spots appear on the film
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen:
discovered x-radation in 1895
William Rollins:
developed first dental x-ray unit
Film-less Radiography Introduced In:
Shades of Gray:
Types of Scanners: (3)
round drum, flat screen, & slot scanner
Speed of Light:
186,000 miles per second
bundles of energy with no mass or weight that travel as waves at the speed of light and move through space in a straight line
Stochastic Effects:
direct function of dose with the probablility of occurrence increasing with increased dose, ex. cancer, genetic mutations
Nonstochastic Effects:
have a threshold and increased severity with increased absorbed dose, ex. loss of hair, decreased fertility, erythema
Scatter radiation causes:
film fogging
a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube
a form of energy carried by waves or stream of particles
Wavelenght determines the: (2)
energy and penetrating power of radiation
kVp controls:
the quality or wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam
Polychromatic x-ray beam:
a beam that contains many different wave-lengths of varying intensities
Exposure time is measured in:
Kilovoltage Peak Rule:
when kilovoltage is increased by 15, exposure time should be decreased by half. When kilovoltage is decreased by 15, exposure time should be doubled
Amperage determines:
the amount of electrons passing through the cathode filament
Milliamperage Regulates:
the temperature of the cathode filament
Target-surface distance:
distance from the source of radiation to the patient’s skin
Target-object distance:
distance from the source of radiation to the tooth
Target-film distance:
distance from the source of radiation to the film
Inverse Square Law:
the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation
Inversely proportional means:
that as one variable increases, the other decreases
Aluminum Filters remove:
low-energy, less penetrating, longer wavelengths
Latent Period:
the time that elapses between exposure to ionizing radiation and the appearance of observable clinical signs
Critical Organs: (4)
skin, thyroid gland, lens of the eye, & bone marrow
Traditional Units of Radiation: (3)
roentgen (R), radiation absorbed dose (rad), roentgen equivalent man (rem)
SI Units of Radiation: (3)
Couloms/kilogram (C/kg), gray (Gy), sievert (Sv)
the amount of energy absorbed by a tissue
Best: Film speed, Collimation, Technique, & Exposure factors
Using F-speed instead of D-speed reduces the absorbed dose by 60%, Using a rectangular collimation instead of a round reduces the absorbed by 60-70%, Can be limited by using longer source-to-film distance, long-cone & paralleling technique, Exposure can be limited by using a higher kilovoltage peak
Two Types of Filtration:
inherent and added
_____ absorb x-radiation during x-ray exposure and store the energy from the radiation.
silver halide crystals