Basuca, paco, oxi
International cheap stimulant(s)
The administration of crack that leads to fastest dependancy
The most efficient administration, in regards to effects.
What percentage of the time do people who are admitted to the hospital, with marijuana involved, is another substance involved?
This drug is only counted by the hospitals as involved when another drug is involved
Also, it is responsible for the most admissions to the hospital.
The only culture historically, to not have a traditional intoxicant
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4th drive is learned or acquired (not innate); irrepressable
4th drive is triggered by the exposure to the appropriate drug
Believes the 4th drive is innate
Believed to potentially be mans first source of altered mind
What percentage of high schoolers have played the “choking game”?
Human nervous system
Drugs do not contain highs, the high exists within the ___________
(All drugs do is trigger highs, or provide an excuse to notice them)
Drug alternatives
These states are probably mediated by the brain’s own transmitters
Endogeneous drugs
Chemical substances, produced internally by the body, that can alter conciousness
Can be stimulated by your own thoughts
Beliefs and expectations
__________ are real/physical events in your brain –> placebo effects= drug effects
Advantages of drugs
Powerful land quick (easy)
Drug disadvantages
They reinforce the notion that the state we desire comes from something outside us
10,000 years ago
Paleontologists believe that humans cultivated the cannabis or jarijuana plant and he opium poppy contemporaneously with the rise of aggriculture over _______
Definition delineates the “objective”, reality of drugs
Definition delineates the “Subjective” reality of drugs
Three relevant contexts for drugs
Medical utility; psychoactivity; illegality
A substance that is used to treat or heal the body or mind
Or, any substance that is psychoactive, that has an effect on the mind.
the study of the effect of drugs on biological organisms; the scientists who study the effects of drugs are called “pharmacologists”
the study of the effect of drugs specifically on the brain, that is, on the mind.
A psychoactive substance is one that affects the working of the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal column) and thus influences thinking, mood, feeling, sensation, emotion- and, as consequence, behavior as well.
The 3 eras of drug use
1st: The “natural” era
2nd: The “transformative” era
3rd: The “synthetic” era
Natural era
weed, coca leaves, shrooms, peyote, opium
ancient and tribal societies use mind-altering drugs tended to take place either in a religious and ceremonial context or as medicine
The distillation of alcoholic beverages, resulting in the production of liquor
Transformative era
18th & 19th centuries
the key was that a new substance was created from the natural plant product by means of a chemical extraction
Synethetic era
Early 20th century
Scientist began to create drugs entirely from chemicals not found in nature
“pharmacological revolution”
Drug action
Specific and takes place at the molecular level.
The outcome of chemicals that interact with the body’s neurochemical system
Drug effect
Nonspecific and more highly variable, and result from more than a given dose of a particular drug.
Nerve cells, that send electrical impulses or signals from one part of the body to another.
When neurons send signals, they release chemicals that are conducted from one site or locus to another. These chemicals, called ______ , ac as chemical messengers.
At the end of each neuron are ______;
between the receptor of one neuron and the receptor of the one next to it is a microscopic space called a synapse
The Acute-Chronic Distinction
“Acute” effects
“Chronic” effects
“Acute” effects
short term effects of a drug, those that take place within the period of its administration and during the immediate aftermath of a single episode of use
“Chronic” effects
Long term effects, those that occur after the continued use of one or more drugs.(direct and indirect effects) indirect being the effects caused not by the drug itself but by the circumstances of use(ex. contaminated needles)
the chemical by-product of drugs
Intravenous administration (IV)
injecting directly into the vein a liquid solution into which a drug has been mixed is called _____
Only drugs that dissolve in water can be injected this way
Injecting IV under the skin
injecting IV directly into a muscle
Rather than into a vein are much slower and more inefficient routes of administration
Snortin that shiznit
refers to the fact that batches containing the same drug will vary in the percentage of the drug they contain
Drug mixing effects
Antagonistic- 1+1=0
Additive- 1+1=2
Synergistic- 1+1=4
Classic drug addiction model
Recognizes cross-dependance, behavioral dependance, physical dependance
Positive reinforcement
_______, or the pleasure that organisms derive from taking a drug, is the driving force in generating continued, compulisve, abusive drug use.
Sensual appeal
capacity to generate intense pleasure without the intervention of learning or other cognitive processes
Painkillers; the major representative of this category are narcotics
Narcotics- Opiates
the natural derivitaves of opium; morphine, codeine, and heroin.
Narcotics- Opioids
Entirely synthetic narcotics with effects very similar to the opiates: methadone, Demerol (meperidine, Dilaudid, OxyCotin and fentanyl)
Factual bias
Making factually and emircally false claims or assertions in order to justify a particular model, ideological, or political position
Selection bias
focusing on the particualr facts that support certian slant or position and ignoring those that challenge or undermine it
Four theories of media bias
Ruling elite theory
Money machine theory
Grassroot theory
Proffessional subculture theory
Ruling elite theory (or top down theory)
argues that the media consciously and purposely serve the interests of the ruling elite.
Hegemony (or institutional dominance) as part of the Ruling Elite Theory
mainstream society, including representatives of the media, has been socialized to accept the ruling elite’s version of truth
Money machine theory
argues that owners of newspapers and television stations are interested in the bottom line, not political indoctrination
Grassroot theory
argues that the press responds to the biases of the public at large by reporting stories in ways that are appealing to their readership as a whole
Proffessional subculture theory
argues that the media approach the events of the day according to the distinct norm, expectations and ethics of practitioners of the profession of journalism
most directly relavent bias, to stories on drugs, intending to amaze, thrill, or excite intense reactions through the use of exaggerated, superficial, or lurid elements
Criminogenic effect
New drugs are overhyped and attributed with causing violence and crime
term researchers use to refer to using two or more sources of information to focus on a single phenomenon
Multiple confirmation
If triangulation results in the multiple data sources agreeing, researchers call this ___________
Descriptive statistics
describe what something is like in quantitative terms0that is, in the form of numbers
Inferential statistics
attempt to measure cause-and-effect relationships between and among 2 or more factors or vairables
arrestees who test positive for drugs
Judgmental heuristic
The public bases its notion of the frequency of a given behavior not on logic or systematic evidence but on “rules of thumb” hat are both commonsensical and illusory. Congnitive psychologists, refer to these “rules of thumb” as ___________
Availability heuristic
The most relevant of the judgemental heuristic that distort our reasoning ability.

“availability” is a mental process that mistakenly tells us that what sticks in our minds is more common than something that takes more effort to recall; people tend to exaggerate the frequency of phenomenon that come readily to mind.

Absolute alcohol
refers to the volume of ethanol or
absolute” alcohol that is contained in a given alcoholic beverage.
Volstead act 1920
made it illegal to manufacture or sell alcoholic beverages anywhere in the United States.
Retrospective estimates
projections backwards in time, based on the respondant’s age and the age at which he or she began using one or more drugs.
of the 400 chemicals in a cannabis plant, 61 of them, can not be found anywhere else, called_________
pharmacological school
the hypothesis or approach that argues that the properties of drugs dictate drug related behavior-for instance, the belief that the use of marijuana automatically “leads to” the use and abuse of harder drugs
Sociocultural school
An explanation of drug use that argues that drug-related behavior is influenced by the norms users acquire through contact with specific social circles or groups. Thus, this school would argue that the “stepping-stone” theory is false because the progression from marijuana to harder drugs is a product not of the effects of marijuana-using social circles
Predisposition school
The arguement that the explanation for the connection between drug addiction and criminal behavior is that the kinds of people who are likely to engage in compulsive drug-taking behavior are also the kinds of people who are likely to engage in criminal behavior
eititic imagery
eyeball movies
mixing of senses
Sensory overload
A consequence of taking a psychedelic drug; being bombarded by an excess of stimuli as a resulut of being incapable of filtering out those that are relevant.
Ecstacy, a category in itself
Disassociative anesthetic
Drugs that have the capacity both to reduce the perception of pain and to generate a psychological state that makes the user feel removed from the reality of the immediate setting; examples include PCP and ketamine
A category of sedative drugs that includes Valium and Ativan; commonmly referred to as “tranquilizers” or anti-anxiety agents.
Pure food and drug act
prohibitied interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded food and drugs
Shanhia Commision
AKA The International Opium Commision; convened representatives from 13 countries
The American delegation presented evidence demonstrating the evils of narcotics, but the lack of national American drug bans “embarrassed the commision officials
Marijuana tax act
Three provisions:
1. “a requirement that all manufacturers, dealers, and practitioners register and pay special occupational tax.
2. “a requirement that all transactions be accomplished through use of written forms”
3. “the imposition of a tax on all transfers in the amount of 1$/per ounce for transfer to registered persons and a prohibitive 100$/ounce for tranfer to unregistered persons”