Culture and Social Structure Unit 2

Culture
knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members of a group
society
a specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture
instincts
innate (unlearned) patterns of behavior
reflex
automatic reaction to physical stimulus
drives
impulse to reduce discomfort
sociobiology
the study of the biological basis of human behavior
symbols
a thing that stands for or represents something else
Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity
theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely upon language
Norms
rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
Folkways
norms that lack moral significance
Mores
norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
taboo
a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
law
a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
sanctions
rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms
formal sanctions
sanctions imposed by persons given special authority
informal sanctions
rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
values
broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society
non-material culture
ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people’s behavior
beliefs
ideas about the nature of reality
material culture
the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
ideal culture
cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
real culture
actual behavior patterns of members of a group
social categories
groupings of persons who share a social characteristic
subculture
a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects
counterculture
a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture.
ethnocentrism
judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards
cultural universals
general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
cultural particulars
the ways in which a culture expresses universal traits
socialization
the process of learning to participate in a group
self-concept
an image of yourself as having an identity separate from other people
looking-glass self
an image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you
significant others
those people whose reactions are most important to your self-concept
role taking
assuming the viewpoint of another person and suing that view-point to shape the self-concept
imitation stage
mead’s first stage in the development of role taking; children begin to imitate behaviors without understanding why
play stage
Mead’s second stage in the development of role taking; children act in ways they imagine other people would
game stage
Mead’s third stage in the development of role taking; children anticipate the actions of others based on social rules
generalized other
integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one’s community or society
“me”
the part of the self formed through socialization
“I”
the part of the self that accounts for unlearned spontaneous acts
hidden curriculum
the informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught in school
Peer group
set of individuals of roughly the same age and interests
mass media
means of communication designed to reach the general population
total institutions
places in which people are separated from the rest of society and controlled by officials in charge
desocialization
the process of giving up old norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
resocialization
the process of adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
anticipatory socialization
the voluntary process of preparing to accept new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
reference group
group whose norms and values are used to guide behavior; group with whom you identify
social structure
the underlying patterns of relationships in a group
status
a position a person occupies within a social structure
ascribed status
a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned
achieved status
a position that is earned or chosen
status set
all of the statuses that a person occupies at any particular time
master status
a position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person’s life
role
an expected behavior associated with a particular status
rights
a behavior that individuals can expect from others
obligations
a behavior that individuals are expected to perform toward others
role performance
the actual behavior of an individual in a role
social interaction
the process of influencing each other as people relate
role conflict
condition in which the performance of a role in one status interferes with the performance of a role in another status
role strain
condition in which the roles of a single status are inconsistent or conflicting
society
people living within defined territorial borders and sharing a common culture
hunting and gathering society
a society that survives by hunting animals and gathering edible plants
horticultural society
a society that survives primarily through the growing of plants.
pastoral societies
a society in which food is obtained primarily by raising and taking care of animals
agricultural society
a society that uses plows and draft animals in growing food
industrial society
a society that depends on science and technology to produce its basic goods and services
mechanization
the process of replacing animal and human power with machine power
urbanization
the shifting of population from farms and villages to large cities
gemeinschaft
pre industrial society based on tradition, kinship, and close social ties
gesellschaft
industrial society characterized by weak family ties, competition, and impersonal social relationships
social solidarity
the degree to which a society is unified
mechanical solidarity
a type of social unity achieved by people doing the same type of work and holding similar values
organic solidarity
a type of social unity in which members’ interdependence is based on specialized functions and statuses
postindustrial society
a society in which the economic emphasis is on providing services and information
group
at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common ways of thinking and behaving
social category
people who share a social characteristic
social aggregate
people temporarily in the same place at the same time
primary group
people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company
primary relationships
interactions that are intimate, personal, caring and fulfilling
secondary group
people who share only part of their lives while focusing on a goal or task
secondary relationships
impersonal interactions involving limited parts of personalities
reference group
group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms
in-group
exclusive group demanding intense loyalty
out-group
group targeted by an in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition.
social network
a web of social relationships that join a person to other people and groups
cooperation
interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach a goal
conflict
interaction aimed at defeating an opponent
social exchange
a voluntary action performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return
coercion
interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way
conformity
behavior that matches group expectations
groupthink
self deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs and created by group pressure to conform
formal organization
a group deliberately created to achieve one or more long term goals
bureaucracy
a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency
power
the ability to control the behavior of others
authority
the legitimate or socially approved use of power
rationalization
the mind set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning
informal organization
groups within a formal organization in which personal relationships are guided by norms, rituals, and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization
iron law of oligarchy
theory that power increasinly becomes concentrated in the hands of a few members of any organization
deviance
behavior that departs from societal or group norms
negative deviance
involves behavior that underconforms to accepted norms
positive deviance
involves behavior that overconforms to social expectations
deviant
a person who breaks significant societal or group norms
social control
ways to encourage conformity to society’s norms
social sanctions
rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms
anomie
A social condition in which norms are absent, weak, or in conflict
strain theory
theory that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means
control theory
theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society
differential association theory
theory that individuals learn deviance in proportion to number of deviant acts they are exposed to
labeling theory
theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
Primary deviance
deviance involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person’s lifestyle or self-concept
secondary deviance
deviance in which an individual’s life and identity are organized around breaking society’s norms
stigma
an undesirable trait or label that is used to characterize an individual
victim discounting
process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status
white-collar crime
job-related crimes committed by high-status people
crime
an act committed in violation of the law
criminal justice system
system comprising institutions and processes resonsible for enforcing criminal statutes
deterrence
discouraging criminal acts by threatening punishment
retribution
punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts
incarceration
a method of protecting society from criminals by keeping them in prisons
rehabilitation
process of changin gor reforming a criminal through socialization
recidivism
a repetition of or return to criminal behavior