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Cultural Geography Modeling and Analysis in Helmand Province

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Geography Helmand Province is located in the south-west of Afghanistan, bordered by Paktya, Ghor, Daikundy, and Uruzgan in the North-East, Kandahar in the East, Nimroz in the West, and Farah in the North-West. It also has a southern border with Pakistan. The Helmand River is the largest river running through the province, from Baghran district in the north of the province to the fishhook of the Helmand River running west into Nimroz province then into Iran.

Except for the mountainous northern reaches of the province which experience heavy snowfalls in winter, Helmand is a desert plateau with rocky outcrops of up to 1,000 metres. The province covers an area of 61,829 km2, representing about 9% of the total Afghan territory. More than a quarter of the province (28. 9%) is mountainous or semi mountainous terrain while above three-fifths of the area (61%) is made up of flat land, as the following table shows: Topography Type by District District Flat Mountainous Semi Mountainous Semi Flat Not Reported

Page 1 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Total 61. 0% 15. 8% 13. 1% 9. 7% .4% Source: CSO/UNFPA Socio Economic and Demographic Profile The province is divided into 13 districts. The provincial capital is Lashkargah which has a population of about 201,546 inhabitants. B. Demography and Population Helmand has a total population of 1,441,769. There are 189,552 households in the province and each household on average has 9 members. The following table shows the population by district: Population by District

District Lashkargah-Helmand Centre Nahr-i-Saraj Nad Ali Nawa-i-Barikzayi Garm Ser Sangin Qala Kajaki Baghran Musa Qala Nawzad Washeer Reg-i-khan Nishin Dishu Total Total Population 201,546 166,827 235,590 89,814 107,153 66,901 119,023 129,947 138,896 108,258 31,476 17,333 29,005 1,441,769 Source: CSO/UNFPA Socio Economic and Demographic Profile Around 94% of the population of Helmand lives in rural districts while 6% lives in urban areas. Around 51% of the population is male and 49% is female. The population is largely Pashtun, although there is a significant minority made up of Balochi tribes.

Pashtu is spoken by 92% of the population. The second most frequent language is Dari, spoken by the majority of residents in 75 villages representing 4. 4% of the population, followed by Balochi which is the majority language in 28 villages. Helmand province also has a population of Kuchis or nomads whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter 95,325 individuals, or 4% of the overall Kuchi population, stay in Helmand living in 49 communities. Nearly one in five of these (17%) are short-range partially migratory, and more than three in five (63%) are long-range partially migratory.

Overall, for both categories, 20% of the community is settled. In the winter the long-range migratory Kuchi stay mostly in one location and don’t move around during the season. In the summer season, all of the short-range migratory communities that move to Garm Ser, Nishin, and Lashkargah districts belong to the Balochi tribes, while the Pashtun tribes are predominantly long-range migratory and travel mostly to Ghor, Ghazni, and Zabul provinces. Page 2 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile C. Institutional framework In total the government employs 4,363 people in Helmand province.

As the table below shows, 66% of these are employees and 34% are contract workers, 94% of government workers are men and 6% are women: Number of Government Employees Male 1,345 Contract workers 2,764 Employees 4,109 Total Workers Source: CSO Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2006 Female 118 136 254 Total 1,463 2,900 4,363 In addition, each province has a Provincial Development Committee (PDC) which is responsible for overseeing the progress made on implementation of the Provincial Development Plan, and which will lead the provincial development planning process in the future.

The PDC involves all government line departments and other key stakeholder groups involved in development activities in the province. It also has a number of working groups devoted to different sectors, each of which should be chaired by the director of the core responsible line department. The structure of the PDC and its associated working groups approved by the Ministry of Economy for use in all provinces is shown in the diagramme below: Provincial Development Committee Structure endorsed by Ministry of Economy Governor/D. Gov PDC Central office Ministry of Economy Secretariat Department of Economy

Economic Governance & Private Sector Development Economy (DEc) Dep of Finance Chamber of commerce Banks Youth and Culture Donors AISA UN Agencies Private sectors Provincial Council (PC) Social Protection Agriculture & Rural Development Health & Nutrition Education Infrastructure & Natural Resources Governance, Rule of Law & Human Rights Courts Attorney General Department of Justice Women’s Affairs Civil Service Commission Human Rights Commission Audit & Control Office Anti corruption (GIACC) Provincial Council (PC) PRT UN agencies NGOs( N &Int)

Security Labour and Social Affairs (DoLSAMD) Women’s Affairs Rural Rehabilitation and Development Refugees and Repatriates Border Affairs Tribal and Kuchi Affairs Red Crescent Provincial Council (PC) UN agencies PRT NGOs (N & Int) Agriculture (DoAIL) Rural Rehabilitation and Development Counter Narcotics Environmental protection Provincial Council (PC) PRT UN agencies NGOs (N &Int) Public Health (DoPH) Urban Development Municipality Red Crescent Water Supply Private sector Environmental protection Provincial Council (PC) UN agencies NGOs (N& Int)

Education (DoE) Higher Education Women’s Affairs Labour and Social Affairs, Martyrs and disabled Youth and Culture Border Affairs Tribal and Kuchi Affairs Provincial Council (PC) UN agencies PRT NGOs (N &Int) Public works (DPW) Urban. Development Transport Rural Rehabilitation and Development Municipality Communications Mines& industries Water& Power Agriculture Environmental Protection Provincial Council (PC) Private sector Banks PRT UN agencies NGOs (N &Int) National Security Council National Police.

National Army National Security Border Affairs Demining Counter Narcotics Foreign Affairs Provincial Council (PC) UN agencies PRT Source: Ministry of Economy The Provincial Development Committee in Helmand province was formed in late 2005. In April 2007 UNAMA made the following assessment of the PDC in Helmand : UNAMA assessment of Provincial Development Committee in Helmand province Supporting Agencies Functioning Status of PDC meetings PRT and DFID support. UNAMA requested to train PDC members Meetings take place regularly once a month

Page 3 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Source: UNAMA, April 2007 Helmand also has a number of other bodies which play an active role in development planning at the local level. There are 14 District Development Assemblies active in 14 districts of the province, involving 435 male members and no females. Each DDA has its own District Development Plan. There are also 487 Community Development Councils in the province which are active in development planning at the community and village level.

The following table shows the number of CDCs active in each district: CDCs by District District Lashkargah Nahr-i-Saraj Musa Qala Baghran Nawzad Nawa-i-Barikzayi Garm Ser TOTAL Number of CDCs 80 152 32 1 72 38 112 487 Source: MRRD, National Solidarity Programme (NSP) D. Donor Activity In addition to the activities of government agencies, a number of national and international organizations play an active role in promoting development in the province. For example, 8 UN agencies are currently involved in reconstruction and development projects in different parts of the province.

These are shown in the following table: UN Operations in Helmand Activities Governance, follow up on DIAG, human rights UNAMA and capacity building in government. WHO Health and vaccination programmes WFP Work for food, school feeding, emergencies UNICEF Education, health, WATSAN UNOPS Infrastructure development UNDP Support to MRRD UNHCR Muhktar IDP Camp UN Habitat City profile Source: UNDSS Provincial Profile provided by UNAMA Agency Location Lashkargah All Districts All Districts All Districts All Districts All Districts Muhktar IDP Camp Lashkargah

There are also at least 7 national and international Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) supporting development projects across a range of sectors in the province, as the following table shows: International and Non-Governmental Organizations in Helmand Organization BRAC USAID/Communics Ibnesina Activities NSP and micro-finance activities Alternative Livelihood Programs Health activities Location Lashkargah Lashkargah Lashkargah Page 4 of 13

Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Mercy Corps CADG PEP Emergency Agriculture Agriculture Poppy Eradication Program Health Lashkargah Lashkargah Lashkargah Lashkargah Source: UNDSS Provincial Profile, provided by UNAMA In addition the following Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) operates as a facilitating partner (FP) for the National Solidarity Programme (NSP) in different districts in the province, as shown below: NGOs Facilitating NSP by District Facilitating Partner Garmser BRAC Lashkar Gah BRAC Musa Qala BRAC Nahri Sarraj BRAC Naw Zad BRAC Naway i Barakzayi BRAC Reg Source: MRRD,

National Solidarity Programme (NSP) District II. CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROVINCE A. Infrastructure and Natural Resources The provision of basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation, energy, transport and communications is one of the key elements necessary to provide the building blocks for private sector expansion, equitable economic growth, increased employment and accelerated agricultural productivity. In Helmand province, on average only 28% of households use safe drinking water.

About 94% of households have direct access to their main source of drinking water within their community, and the remainder 6% of households has to travel for up to an hour to access drinking water, as the table below shows: Time required accessing main source of drinking water In Community 94% Source: NRVA 2005 Less than 1 hour 6% 1-3 hours 0% 3-6 hours 0% On average only 5% of households in the province have access to safe toilet facilities.

The following table shows the kinds of toilet facilities used by households in the province: Toilet facilities used by households None/ Dearan / Sahrah (area in compound bush but not pit) open field 7% 12% Source: NRVA 2005 Open pit Traditional covered latrine 64% Improved latrine 5% Flush latrine 12% 0% In terms of meeting the basic requirements for energy, on average 21% of households in Helmand province have access to electricity with more than two-thirds of these having access to public electricity. Page 5 of 13

Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile The transport infrastructure in Helmand is reasonably well developed, with 62% of roads in the province able to take car traffic in all seasons, and 32. 5% able to take car traffic in some seasons. However, in 5% of the province there are no roads at all, as shown in the following table: Road Types District Lashkargah-Helmand Centre Nahr-i- Saraj Nad Ali Nawa-i-Barikzayi Garm Ser Sangin Qala Kajaki Baghran Musa Qala Nawzad Washeer Reg-i-khan Nishin Dishu Total Cars all season 62. % 51. 5% 78. 0% 91. 8% 90. 5% 60. 8% 78. 2% 19. 0% 98. 1% 66. 9% 45. 3% 42. 9% 32. 8% 62. 0% Cars some seasons 37. 3% 36. 9% 21. 3% 7. 5% 8. 8% 37. 3% 12. 4% 68. 6% . 9% 33. 1% 39. 1% 50. 0% 67. 2% 32. 5% No roads . 0% 11. 2% . 0% . 0% . 0% 2. 0% 8. 8% 11. 7% . 0% . 0% 15. 6% 4. 8% . 0% 5. 0% Not Reported . 0% . 5% . 6% . 7% . 7% . 0% . 6% . 7% . 9% . 0% . 0% 2. 4% . 0% . 5% Source: CSO/UNFPA Socio Economic and Demographic Profile (AIRD analysis)

The following table indicates road travel times between the provincial capital, Lashkargah, and the major district centres in the province, and other key provincial centres in the region: Road Travel Times Time Approximately 2 hrs–200 Lashkargah Kandahar City km Approximately 45 minutes– Lashkargah Grishk 80 km Approximately 2 hrs–150 Lashkargah Sangin km Approximately 2 hrs–150 Lashkargah Musa Qala km Approximately 2 hrs –150 Lashkargah Garm Ser km Approximately 4 hrs–300 Lashkargah Baghran km Source: UNDSS Provincial Profile, provided by UNAMA From To Road Condition Excellent/good (Route 1-bitumen road) Good (hard-packed gravel) Poor/Good (mix of desert and hard-packed gravel) Poor/Good (mix of desert and hard-packed gravel) Poor/Good (mix of desert and hard-packed gravel) Poor/Good (mix of desert and hard-packed gravel) As far as telecommunications is concerned, both the main mobile telephone operators, Roshan and AWCC, are present in the province.

The signal of these two mobile operators covers mainly the provincial capital, Lashkargah, and Route 1 from Lashkargah to Khanadahar City. Page 6 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile B. Economic Governance and Private Sector Development Creating the conditions in which a dynamic and competitive private sector can flourish, is key to promoting economic growth, employment creation and poverty reduction. Helmand is mainly an agricultural province. There are two industrial crops grown in the province, Cotton is produced in 57% of villages, mainly in Nad Ali, Nawa-i-Barikzayi, and Garm Ser districts. Tobacco is produced in 24% of villages, mostly in Garm Ser, Kajaki, Baghran, Nad Ali, and Nahr-i-Saraj.

To a smaller extent, sesame is produced in 10% of villages, mainly in Kajaki, Garm Ser, and Nad Ali; and sugar extracts in 6% of villages, again in Kajaki and Nad Ali mostly. The majority of commercial activity in Helmand is related to agriculture, animal husbandry, transport companies for import and export as well as the production and trafficking of narcotics. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 69% of households in Helmand province, including 70% of rural households. Sixty seven percent of rural households own or manage agricultural land or garden plots in the province. However, more than one quarter of households (26%) in rural areas derive income from trade and services. A fifth of households (20%) earn some income through non-farm related labour.

Livestock also accounts for income for a quarter of rural households (25%) as the following table shows: Sources of income reported by households Source of Income Agriculture Livestock Opium Trade and Services Manufacture Non-Farm Labor Remittances Other Source: NRVA 2005 Rural (%) 70 25 41 26 0 20 2 1 Urban (%) Total (%) 69 26 41 26 0 20 2 2 In 2005 there were 29 agricultural cooperatives active in Helmand involving 5,266 members. This was an increase of around 15% in membership over 2003 when the figure was only 4,616 members. In 2005, agricultural cooperatives controlled a total of 20,063 Ha of land and achieved a surplus of produce for sale of 10,000 tons. As a result of this, each member held a share in the capital of the cooperative to the value of 825,900Afs.

To all extents and purposes small industry is absent in Helmand and there is only a small production of handicrafts mostly related to jewelry, mainly in Nad Ali, Nawzad, and Garm Ser districts, and rugs in Nad Ali, Baghran, and Nawzad. Honey is also produced in 16 villages of 693, and karakul skin in seven. In 2005 23% of households in Helmand reported taking out loans. Of these loans, a small percentage was used to invest in economic activity such as buying land (1%), agricultural inputs (10%) and business investment (1%). C. Agriculture and Rural Development Enhancing licit agricultural productivity, creating incentives for non-farm investment, developing rural infrastructure, and supporting access to skills development and financial services will allow individuals, households and communities to participate licitly and productively in the economy.

As agriculture represents the major source of income for more than two-thirds of the households in the province, rural development will be a key element of progress in Helmand. The most important field crops grown in Helmand province include wheat maize, and melon/water melons. The most common crops grown in garden plots include fruit and nut trees (67%) and grapes (26%). Wheat is also frequently gown in garden plots in the province (4%). Page 7 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Almost all of the households with access to fertilizer use this on field crops (95%) and to a much lesser degree on garden plots (1%), although 4% of households use fertilizer on both field and garden.

The main types of fertilizer used by households in the province are shown in the following table: Main types of fertilizer used by households Human % Animal % % 93 Urea Average Kg per Household 466. 3 Kg % 86 DAP Average Kg per Household 268. 4 Kg 31 46 Source: NRVA 2005 On average 97% of households in the province have access to irrigated land, and 5% of households have access to rain-fed land. Households (%) access to irrigated and rain-fed land Access to irrigated land Access to rain-fed land Source: NRVA 2005 Rural 97 5 Urban Average 97 5 Seventy six percent of rural households and 97% of Kuchi households in the province own livestock or poultry.

The most commonly owned livestock are poultry, sheep, cattle and goats as the following table shows: Households (%) owning poultry and livestock Livestock Cattle Oxen Horses Donkey Camel Goats Sheep Poultry Source: NRVA 2005 Kuchi 6 0 0 88 31 97 94 91 Rural 57 6 2 21 0 45 57 71 Urban 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Average 56 6 2 22 1 45 58 71 D. Education Ensuring good quality education and equitable access to education and skills are some of the important ways to raise human capital, reduce poverty and facilitate economic growth. The overall literacy rate in Helmand province is 5%, however, while 8% of men are literate, this is true for only 1% of women. In the population aged between 15 and 24 the situation for men is not much better with 9. 1% literacy, whereas for the women there is no improvement 0. 9%).

The Kuchi population in the province has particularly low levels of literacy with just 0. % of men and no women able to read and write. On average only 6% of children between 6 and 13 are enrolled in school, however the figure is higher for boys at 11%. Furthermore, amongst the Kuchi population in Helmand, no boys or girls attend school during the summer or winter months. Overall, there are 225 primary and secondary schools in the province catering for 80,121 students. Boys account for almost 94% of students and about 99% of schools are boys’ schools. There are 1,452 teachers working in schools in the Helmand province, about one of ten of whom are women (12%). Page 8 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Primary and Secondary Education

Students boys girls 70,761 4,992 Primary 4,243 125 Secondary 75,004 5,117 Total 225 80,121 Source: CSO Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2006 boys 164 58 222 girls 1 2 3 Schools Teachers Male female 1,280 172 1,452 Primary schools exist in only 101 of the total 1,705 villages which are home to 9% of the population. Fourty three percent of students must travel more than 10 kilometres to reach their closest primary school, while 29% must travel up to five kilometres. Secondary schools exist in only 45 villages, which are home to 2. 9% of the population. To reach their closest secondary schools 57% of students have to travel more than 10 kilometres, and more than one in five have to travel at least five kilometres. Access to high schools is even more difficult.

They exist in only 17 villages in the province, and almost seven out of ten students must travel more than 10 kilometres to reach their high school, while another 12% must travel at least five kilometres. Helmand province also has a number of higher education facilities, although there is currently no governmental or private university in the province. There is an Agriculture Vocational High School with 2 teachers catering for a total of 146 students, all of whom are men and a Mechanics High School with 8 staff and 117 male students. In 2005, 14 students graduated from the Agriculture School and 8 from the Mechanics School. There is also a teacher training institute which had 134 students in 2005, 75% of whom were men and 25% women.

Seventy two new teachers graduated from Helmand Teacher Training Institute in 2005, of which 67% were women and 33% men. E. Health Ensuring the availability of basic health and hospital services, and developing human resources in the health sector is essential to reduce the incidence of disease, increase life expectancy and enable the whole population to participate in sustainable development. A basic infrastructure of health services exists in Helmand province. In 2005 there were 31 health centers and 2 hospitals with a total of 172 beds. There were also 60 doctors and 120 nurses employed by the Ministry of Health working in the province, which represented a decrease of about 15% in the number doctors and 14% in the number of nurses compared to 2003.

The major health facilities in the province are shown in the following table: HEALTH CENTERS District Lashkargah Reg-i-khan Nishin Nahr-i-saraj Sangin Qala Musa Qala Kajaki Nawzad Washeer Garm Ser Nad Ali Nawa-i-Barikzayi Baghran Basic Health Center 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 4 2 3 3 Comprehensive Health Center 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 Provincial/District Hospital 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Page 9 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Dishu 0 0 Source: UNDSS Provincial Profile, provided by UNAMA 0 The province also has 205 pharmacies of which 203 are owned privately and 2 are run by the government. The majority of communities do not have a health worker permanently present in their community.

Eighty five percent of men’s shura and 73% of women’s shura reported that there was no community health worker present, and both groups most commonly said that their closest health facility was a Basic Health Center clinic without beds. Out of the total 1,705 villages, only 39 have a health center within their boundaries, and only 64 have a dispensary. Access to health care is very difficult for many people in the province with more than half of the population having to travel over 10 Km to get medical attention – 62. 4% for health centers and 56% for dispensaries. F. Social Protection Building the capacities, opportunities and security of extremely poor and vulnerable Afghans through a process of economic empowerment is essential in order to reduce poverty and increase self-reliance.

The level of economic hardship in Helmand is reasonably high. A quarter of households in the province (25%) report having problems satisfying their food needs at least 3 – 6 times a year, and a further almost third of households (31%) face this problem up to three times a year, as the following table shows: Problems satisfying food need of the household during the last year Never Households 39 (%) Source: NRVA 2005 Rarely (1-3 times) 31 Sometimes (3-6 times) 25 Often (few times a month) 5 Mostly (happens a lot) 1 Nearly half of the population in the province (49%) is estimated to receive less than the minimum daily caloric intake necessary to maintain good health.

Almost two thirds of the population (64%) has low dietary diversity and poor or very poor food consumption as shown below: Food consumption classification for all households Households Very poor (%) food consumption 21 Rural 20 Total Source: NRVA 2005 Low dietary diversity Better dietary diversity Poor Slightly better Better food consumption food consumption food consumption 43 35 1 44 34 2 In 2005, 30% of the population of Helmand province received allocations of food aid, which reached a total of 428,608 beneficiaries. In addition, of the 23% of households who reported taking out loans, 58% said that the main use of their largest loan was to buy food. A further 14% used the money to cover expenses for health emergencies.

In the same year, nearly a quarter of the households in the province (23%) reported feeling that their economic situation had got worse compared to a year ago, and a third (34%) felt that it had remained the same, as the following table shows: Comparison of overall economic situation compared to one year ago Much worse 7 Households (%) Source: NRVA 2005 Worse 16 Same 34 Slightly better 35 Much better 9 Page 10 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile In 2005 two in five of all households in the province (40%) report having been negatively affected by some unexpected event in the last year, which was beyond their control.

Households were most vulnerable to shocks related to agriculture, followed by problems related to drinking water, natural disasters and insecurity as the following table shows: Households experiencing shocks in the province (%) Types of shocks Drinking water Agricultural Natural disaster Insecurity Financial Health or epidemics Source: NRVA 2005 Rural 27 86 24 22 3 3 Urban Average 27 83 25 21 3 3 Of those households affected, over a third reported that they had not recovered at all from shocks experienced in the last 12 months (37%), and three in five said they had recovered only partially (61%). G. Governance, Law and Human Rights Establishing and strengthening government institutions at the central and sub-national levels is essential to achieve measurable improvements in the delivery of services and the protection of rights of all Afghans No relevant data analysed at provincial level available from national sources has been identified in this area. H. Security

Ensuring a legitimate monopoly on force and law enforcement that provides a secure environment for the fulfillment of the rights of all Afghans is essential to ensure freedom of movement for people, commodities and ideas, and to promote social and economic development. A recent assessment made by the United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) reported that the prevailing security situation in Hilmand province remains extremely unstable, and is assessed by some security actors as being the most volatile province in Afghanistan. The prevailing security situation can best be considered by three distinct geographic areas; north, center and south. The north of the province, encompassing the Districts of Nawzad, Musa Qala, Sangin Qala, Baghran, Washeer and Kajaki is by far the most unstable area in the province, and perhaps the most volatile in the country.

Throughout 2006 and 2007 insurgents and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) experienced significant, unprecedented clashes, each suffering large numbers of casualties. It is assessed that both ISAF and the Government have no control in these areas. The center consists of the provincial capital, Lashkargah and four other districts. These are also assessed to be extremely volatile, although they are calmer than the northern and southern regions of the province. ISAF and the Government are also assessed to have little control of the area outside of Lashkargah, in particular because of constant attacks against Government targets in these areas.

The south of the province encompasses the districts of Garm Ser, Dishu and Reg-i-khan Nishin, and the southern international border with Pakistan. ISAF assesses that the southern ‘frontline’ is an east-west line running parallel to the Hilmand river as it fishhooks to the west in Garm Ser District, South of that line Government and ISAF have effectively no control of the area. At times patrols will enter the area for specific targeting and counter narcotics operations however there is no enduring presence. Garm Ser District Centre fell into the hands of insurgents on several occasions during 2006; ISAF forces remain in the District Centre and conduct operations through out the district. Page 11 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile

The UNDSS assessment highlights the following key factors of insecurity in the province: Factors of Insecurity Illegally Armed Groups (IAG) continue to operate in the province in a quasi-legitimate way, due to a lack of Government presence. Many groups are being referred to as “Reserve Police” or “Special Police” and are being deployed to the northern districts of Helmand and other problematic areas of the province for military operations. The Disarmament of Illegally Armed Groups (DIAG) programme is not currently operating in the province. The security situation within the province remains volatile with capable insurgent groups active, or at least present, in most districts.

Criminality is no more significant in Helmand than in the surrounding southern provinces. Aside from drug-related crime, the Ring Road has been targeted by bandits as well as by insurgents. Property crime is also prevalent. Helmand is the largest opium producing province in Afghanistan.. Eradication efforts to date have not been successful. Although tens of millions of dollars have been spent and Ministry of Interior policemen have been killed carrying out eradication activities, in 2005-2006 the opium crop increased by 162%. Poppy cultivation is concentrated around the Helmand River with the bulk of production taking place in the Sangin Valley and surrounding areas.

The quality and potency of the opium from these areas is renowned in the region. Involvement of Government officials in the drug trade is widespread in the province and beyond. Moreover, there are also clear linkages between the narcotics trade and the insurgency, with the groups cooperating with each other for mutual benefit. The Afghan Eradication Forces (‘AEF’) sponsored by the Ministry of the Interior has been deployed to the province in order to undertake eradication and have met with fierce resistance. Illegally Armed Groups (IAGs) Anti-Government Elements (AGEs) Criminality and Organized Crime Narcotics Source: UNDSS Provincial Profile, provided by UNAMA Profile compiled by NABDP / MRRD Information Sources

Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2006, Central Statistics Office Geography: Area Demography and Population: Rural and Urban population Institutional Framework: Total Government employees Economic Governance & Private Sector Development: Agricultural cooperatives, members, land, surplus, capital Education: Primary and secondary schools, students and teachers, Higher education faculties, total students, first year students and graduates, Students in university dormitories, Vocational high schools, staff, students and graduates, Teacher training institutes, students and graduates. Health: Number of Health centers, Hospitals, beds, Doctors, Nurses, Pharmacies.

Social Protection: Allocations of food aid, Page 12 of 13 Provincial Development Plan, Helmand : Provincial Profile Socio Economic and Demographic Profiles (per province), 2003, Central Statistics Office/ UNFPA Geography: Topography, No of Districts, Provincial capital – population Demography and Population: Population by district, Number of households, Main Languages Spoken Infrastructure and Natural Resources : Road types (analysis by Afghanistan Institute for Rural Development) Economic Governance & Private Sector Development:– Industrial crops, small industries and handicrafts Education: Distance from educational services Health: Distance from Health Services

The National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment 2005, Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development and the Central Statistics Office, June 2007 Demography and Population: Average household size Infrastructure and Natural Resources : Use of safe drinking water, Travel time to drinking water, Access to safe toilet facilities, Toilet types, Household access to electricity, Access to public electricity Economic Governance & Private Sector Development:

Source of household revenue, Households taking out loans, loan investment in economic activity Agriculture and Rural Development: Most important field crops and garden crops, Fertilizer use and type, Access to irrigated and rainfed land, Ownership of livestock and poultry Education: Literacy rate overall and for population 15 to 24, school enrolments Health: Availability of community health workers, closest type of health facility Social Protection: Problems satisfying food needs, Population receiving less than minimum recommended daily caloric intake, dietary diversity & food consumption, Comparison of economic situation with 12 months ago, Loan use for food and medical expenses, Vulnerability to shocks, Kinds of shocks , Recovery from shocks National Multi sectoral Assessment on Kuchi, Frauke de Weijer, May 2005 Demography and Population: Kuchi population Winter and Summer Education: Literacy rate for Kuchi, School attendance for Kuchi (summer / winter)

UNDSS Provincial Assessments or UNAMA Provincial profiles, Supplied by UNAMA Geography: MAP , Location and description, Demography and Population: Major ethnic groups and tribes, Institutional Framework: Line Department offices, Donor Activity: UN agencies and projects, IO/NGO agencies and projects Infrastructure and Natural Resources : Road Travel times, Mobile Network Coverage Economic Governance & Private Sector Development: General economic profile, Major industries/ commercial activities Health: Health facilities Security: Assessment of the security situation, Factors of insecurity Information supplied by United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA) Provincial Development, Provincial Budgeting and Integration of the Provincial Development Plans into the Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS). Draft Discussion Paper for the ADF) Institutional Framework : Assessment of functioning of PDC Information supplied by Ministries Institutional Framework: PDC structure (Ministry of Economy), DDAs and CDCs (Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development) Donor Activity: NGO facilitating partners for NSP (Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development)