Cultural Anthropology final exam study guide

Margaret Mead
showed gender roles are variable in “Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies” and was a student of Franz Boas
E.B. Tylor
the father of modern anthropology
Karl Marx
Not an anthropologist, introduced “conflict theory” which said
societies are held together by power/strife (the haves vs. the have-nots) because individiuals fight for the 3 p’s
Carol Stack
Studied “fictive kin” in an African American community
Kath Weston
studied the gay community of San Francisco,said families by association and choice, “love makes a family”
Franz Boas
the father of American anthropology, he also introduced empiricism- direct observation
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Bronislaw Malinowski
the father of fieldwork, admonished people in fieldwork to “learn the language, including means and methods of communication”
Jane Elliot
did the brown/blue eye people experiment to teach 3rd graders about racism
sex
biological differences between males and females
gender
a person’s identity based on how they were raised based on their sex
sexual dimorphism
obvious physical differences between males and females
emic eyes
seeing the culture as a member of that culture
etic eyes
scientific and objective study of a society and its practices
ethnocentrism
judging another based on one’s own cultural standards and views
culture
a people’s total way of life that is learned within the culture and shared within the culture and shared within the society
3 components of culture
Cognitive- what we think
Behavioral- what we do
Material- artifacts
cultural relativism
understanding cultural traits from within the context of the culture
cultural integration
how cultures develop through cultural borrowing
• Borrow by trade, travel, conquest, and migration/emigration
social stratification
Unequal access to resources (3ps- power, prestige, and property)
areas of social stratification
age, gender, race/ethnicity, religion, and class
difference between race and ethnicity
race is the obvious phenotypre differences between populations of people, ethnicity is the culture of that biological make up
Apartheid
segregation based on a racial hierarchy in South Africa, 1948- 1994
Jim Crow Laws
A system of racial separation in the US, 1870-1954
majority group
These members have access to the 3ps, Their traits are highly valued, Being in this group does not mean that you have more numbers
minority group
Members have limited/no access to the 3ps
Their traits aren’t valued
class
one’s socioeconomic status, it is achieved and can change
caste
a socioeconomic status that is ascribed, it cannot be changes
phenotypic traits
how a person looks, the physical expression of their genotype
socialization
how a person is taught their roles in the society
3 areas of learning
situational, symbolic, and social learning
situational learning
(trial and error)- learn by doing, least used method of learning
symbolic learning
learning by observing others
social learning
the major method of learning, learning through imitation and emulation
primary agents of socialization
family (mainly the mother) and peers
secondary agents of socialization and what they do
school, business, social organizations, civil organizations
they reinforce societal norms
social races
based on what people think your race is, can be a misrepresentation of your biological race, ethnicity
biological race
the obvious physical differences between populations of people , it is natural and biological
achieved status
a status you obtain through your own hard work (skills, knowledge, actions)
ascribed status
a status that is given to you, you are born into it
gender roles
typically women care for the children and men work, but these roles can vary by culture
gender stereotypes
oversimplified, but strongly held ideas about the roles and characteristics of males and females
affinal relatives
relatives that you are related to by marriage
consanguineal relatives
relatives you are related to by blood
Hijra
a person of the “third gender” in Indian culture
Berdache
a person of the “third gender” in Native American culture
Puritan Work ethic
honesty, thrift, hard work
class status factors
income, education, occupation, sometimes language
ethnicity
Social category based on ancestry, culture, and self-identification, Members see themselves as “different”
example of Asian ethnicities
Chinese, Japenese, Koreans, Thais, etc.
acculturation
1st level of interaction, minority group takes on the cultural values of the majority group
assimilation
Level 2 of interaction, assimilation- majority group accepts the minority group
Let the minority in on the cultural level, structural level (education, institutional), and allow them to intermarry (marital level)
The further away you are from the dominant culture, the less likely you are to be assimilated
pluralism
level 3 of interaction, groups participate in the larger society, but maintain some of their own cultural heritage (co-existence)
Ex- ethnic festivals, ethnic communities (Little Italy, Little Havana, Chinatown, Little Saigon, etc.)
ethnocide
level 4 of interaction, the cultural destruction of a group, deny individuals the right to maintain connections to their own culture
genocide
level 5 of interaction- physical destruction of a group
marriage
a union between two individuals, Coming together of two groups through the union of two individuals, Cross culturally it is based on economic factors, sexual factors, rituals like courtship/dating, and exchanging gifts
most common form of marriage gift exchange
bride wealth
monogamy
one spouse at a time, Most common form of marriage but not the most preferred, Found in 20% of cultures
polygamy
highly organized state of marriage where individuals can have more than one spouse at the same time
polygyny
most common form of polygamy, males can have more than one wife, Some societies limit the number of wives a man can have, and wives must be treated equally (socially and economically)
polyandry
when a woman can have more than one husband
reasons for polygyny
•Marriage is viewed as a value (something that everyone should be in)
•Personal and economic stability
•Reproduction
•Provision and protection of women and children
•Balance of the sex ratio since there are normally more women than men in any given society
•Status, wealth, and power (more wives and children more wealth)
joint/intragenerational families
lateral families, ex. siblings who combine families into the same household
blended/step family
occurs when two individuals marry who already have children from other relationships
single parent family
one parent raising the child(ren), usually it is the mother who is the single parent
family of procreation
the family you (ego) establish
Consists of your spouse, children, and in-laws
Based on affinal relatives (Related by marriage, not blood)
family of orientation
family you were born into, Consanguineal relatives (blood relatives)
egalitarian society
does not exist, both sexes share the power
matriarchy
a society ruled by women
patriarchy
a society ruled by men
formal social control
•Controlled through laws, which are modified mores
•Administered by organizations such as police, courts, and jails
informal social control
being ostracized, ridiculed, talked about, and shunned
prejudice
judging someone based on their religion, race/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, age, etc.
rapport
developing harmonious relationship with the people you’re studying
fieldwork
the hallmark discipline of anthropology, going out into the culture you are studying and developing a rapport with the people
participant-observation
a method of fieldwork involving participating in the society and observing the society with etic eyes
fraternal polyandry
brothers marry one woman, a form of polyandry, keeps the resources in the family
non-fraternal polyandry
men who are not related are married to one woman
reasons for polyandry
more men than women in the society, keeps birth rates low, keeps resources in the family for fraternal polyandry
levirate
widow marries her deceased husband’s brother, “brother-in law marriage”, Keeps resources in the family, If the husband doesn’t have a brother, the widow marries a male in her husband’s kin group
sororate
the widower marries his deceased wife’s sister, “sister-in law marriage”
same sex- marriage statistics
10 countries allow same sex marriages
Holland was the first country to allow it
7 US states recognize same sex marriages: Massachusetts (the first state), Connecticut, New Hampshire, Iowa, Vermont, New York, Washington (June 2012), Maryland (January 2013), and Washington DC
bride wealth
•It is a bond/promise from the groom and his family to take care of the bride
•Gratitude- the groom’s family saying thanks to the bride’s family for raising a chaste daughter
•Access to her labor- the bride’s family is losing her labor so the groom’s family compensates for the lost labor
•Access to children- grandchildren belong to the groom’s family
•Leverage against separation and divorce, Bride price has to be returned if there is a divorce/separation
dowry
-female brings resources to the marriage
•Occurs in societies that have a lower value of women
half marriage/bride service
a man pays partial bridewealth to the wife’s family and lives with her and her family, the children belong to the wife’s family
dowry death
“burning bride syndrome”- Indian women die when their families can’t afford a dowry during her marriage
gift exchange
gifts between the bride’s family and the groom’s family
family
is a married couple or other adult kin who cooperate economically, raise children, and typically live in the same house- is the most important agent of socialization
nuclear family
Smallest unit of family
•2 generations (typically parents and children) usually residing in the same household
These families are highly mobile and highly independent
extended family
Communal, consists of two or more generations living in the same area or household (grandparents, parents, and children)
High dependence among members
Perpetuates itself (junior members eventually become senior members)
AAA statement on race
no pure race, more differences within a race than between races, many races depending on traits (3-300+), outer layers (superficial adaptations)
AAA statement on marriage
supports all family types as viable and legitimate, even same sex unions
de facto discrimation
discrimination that occurs because it is traditional and habitual
de jure discrimination
discrimination that is set in place by laws
ego
the person an anthropologist is interviewing
kindred
blood relatives that interact with, depend upon, and assist each other
pater
social father
genitor
biological father
divorce
the end of a marriage
reasons for divorce
Economics
Age at marriage
Incompatibility- sexual, intellectual, and/or different goals (professional and personal)
Cultural differences- religious and lifestyle differences
Abuse- physical, sexual, verbal, and emotional abuse
Lack of communication
Abandonment (5 years)
Pressures of life- physical and mental issues
intergenerational families
vertical families, multiple generations living together
matri-focal
societies where the children belong to the woman’s family
structural mobility
changes to laws, social changes, political changes, and economic changes
individual mobility
changing your class
intra-generational mobility
achieved status changes within one person’s lifetime
inter-generational mobility
ascribed, mobility is passed from one generation to the next