CSET Multiple Subject Subtest III Physical Education

Body Awareness
Recognition, identification, and differentiation of the location, movement and interrelationship between body parts. Awareness of body in space.
Space Awareness
refers to personal and shared space, and the body in relation to dimensions in space
Movement Exploration
young children. teacher is in control. teacher questions that require exploratory or creative movement responses
Proper follow through third grader throwing
As the trunk rotates, weight is completely shifted to the foot opposit the throwing side of the body
Target heart rate
The number 220 minus your age multiplied by 0.70 equals the target heart rate
Isometric exercises
Isolate specific muscle groups, produce strength in a short period of time, not comprehensive
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Least impact on physical body type
Environment
20th century US moved away from….
Gymnastics and calisthenics
Proprioception
Body awareness
Exercises for body awareness
Shape, balance, quality, space, exploring
Locomotor skills
Skills used to move the body from one location to another: Jumping, skipping, galloping, sliding.
Jumping
Requires the body to leap with both feet and to land with both feet. Arms can be used to create upward momentum
Skipping
A series of step-hops completed with alternate feet, teach by taking a step and a small hop on the same foot and then shift
Galloping
As the lead foot steps forward, the back foot steps up to meet the lead foot, teach by holding hands in a circle and sliding to a beat
Sliding
Lead foot steps to the side, the other foot quickly follows done on the balls of the feet while shifting weight from the lead foot to the trailing foot
Nonlocomotor skills
Skills in whic the individual does not have to change location in order to practice an activity. Stretching, twisting, pushing.
Stretching
Movement carries body parts away from the body’s center core and moves joints and muscles through a range of movements
Twisting
Rotation of a body part around its own long axis
Pushing
Controlled, forceful action performed against an oobject, moves the body away from the object while applying force
Throwing
Propelling an object into space, flexing the hip and moving the shoulder foward while extending the elbow
Catching
Using hands to stop a moving object which requires mature hand-eye coordination, and eventually reduce the size helping perception, and bouncing which teaches angles
Kicking
Striking action performed by the feet; punt kicking, place kicking, soccer kicking requiring an extension of the hip
Striking
An object is hit with an implement such as a bat, racket, hand involving movement of the body to create the force necessary to increase the speed of the object
Newton’s law of motion
The force of the energy in the body causes changes in physical motion
Newton’s first law
When an object in in motion, it will remain in motion until it meets and outside force.. Basketball backboard gravity
Newton’s second law
Relationship between object’s mass, acceleration, and applied force.. sit in chair try to shoot a hoop, stand and the ball can reach the hoop
Netwon’s third law
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction…bat and ball
Gravity
Center of the human body is the center of gravity of the point around which the mass of the body is equally distributed… during movement and exercise the body adjusts to maintain stability
Friction
Resistance of motion of two moving objects… ball on grass slower than asphalt
Daily recommendation of physical activity
60 minutes
Clavicle
Collar bone
Femur
Upper leg bone
Humerus
Upper arm bone
Patella
Knee cap
Scapula
Shoulder blade
Sternum
Breast bone
Tibia
Inner bone of the lower leg
Ulna and radius
Lower arm bones
Biceps
Top muscles of the upper arm
Deltoids
Shoulder muscles
Gastronomies
Calf muscles
Gluteus maximus
Buttock muscles
Hamstrings
Back thigh muscles
Quadriceps
Front muscels of the thigh
Triceps
Underneath muscles of the upper arm
Components of physical fitness
Muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, body composition, cardio-respiratory
Muscular strength
Amount of force exerted with muscles
Isotonic
Signs of movement (dynamic)
Endurance
The ability to sustain physical effort for long periods of time
Flexibility
Movement which joints and muscles move through a full range of motion, able to retain full range of movement, prevent injury, improve posture
Body composition
The proportion of body fat to lean body mass
Cardio-Respiratory
Aerobic, The ability of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system to sustain work by delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body over time
Aerobic activity should include
a 20 minute activity at your target heart rate
Maximum heart rate
220 – age
Lower limit threshold
70% of your MHR
Upper limit threshold
85% of your MHR
Resting heart rate
Heart rate when standing still
Heart rate procedure
Count the beats for ten seconds using index finger and multiply the number of beats by six to equal your heart rate per minute
FITT
Frequency, intensity, time, type
Frequency
The number of sessions that the activity might take to achieve the desired results
Intensity
Provides an indication of how difficult the activity might be
Time
The duration of the activity is dependent on the intensity and type of activity
Type
Describes the mode of activity
All physcial edcucation instruction should (5)
Establish a safe environment, include class management, employ effective teaching behaviors, transfer learning, encourage practice
Components of Classroom Fitness Activity (5)
Warm-up, instructional component, physical activity, cool-down, discussion and evaluation
Peak growth spurt for boys
13-15 with as much as 3.5 inches per year
Peak growth spurt for girls
11-13 with as much as 3 inches per year
Self-responsibility
Promoting responsibility for one’s self including self appraisal
Goal-setting
Setting and acheiving realistic, personal fitness goals including goals that are progressively more varied at different skill levels
Social interaction
Developing social interaction among students inculding communication, cooperation, encouraging and praising others, practicing respectful criticism, and accepting individual difference
Group interaction
Fostering social concepts of supportive learning as a group or team; working together to form group decisions, respecting the sport rules, and exhibiting good sportsmanship
Influences of social developmet appear in (3)
Team activities, self-responsibility, social intearaction
Beanbags are a fundamental manipulative tool for what age?
Early-primary
Beanbag activities reinforce what kind of abilities at the early-primary level?
Perceptual-motor abilities
Which perceptual-motor abilities do bean bag activities advance?
* Balance
* Hand-eye coordination
* Laterality
* Sensory perceptions
* Proper body imaging
Bean bag activities also promote:
* Kinesthetic awareness
* Sensory functioning in:
> vision
> hearing
> touch
Why are bean bags conducive to early primary exploration?
* Easy to manipulate
> Flexible
> Soft
> Greatly reduce fear factor in catching objects
Describe a bean bag activity for early primary.
* Throw bean bag over head and clap one’s hands before catching bean bag
* Improves:
> Hand-eye coordination
> Laterality
An example for early primary combining locomotor and nonlocomotor activities:
* Balance bean bag on various body parts while body is in motion
List 2 examples of health-related fitness
* Cardiovascular fitness
* Body composition
List 2 examples of skill-related fitness
* Agility
* Balance
Health related fitness helps ensure an individual is able to ______ _____ in daily _____
function
effectively
tasks
The key to developing health-related fitness is:
physical activity
5 Elements of health-related fitness:
* Cardiovascular fitness
* Body composition
* Flexibility
* Muscular strength
* Endurance
Elements of skill-related fitness:
* Skills supporting a particular sport
* Some example skills are:
> agility
> balance
> coordination
> power
> speed
Health fitness is directly related to _____ and remediating the _____ aspects of _____
preventing
degenerative
disease
How is aerobic fitness related to overall health fitness?
* Aerobic fitness of proper duration, intensity & frequency can improve overall health fitness
* Improves:
> cardiovascular fitness
> oxygen intake
> strengthens heart
> lowers heart rate
> reduces blood pressure
Name some beneficial aerobic activities
* jogging, cycling, swimming, low-impact aerobic dancing
Why is jogging, for example, a good aerobic exercise?
* Continuous activity
* Can reach and maintain target heart rate
How often should aerobic activity be performed in order to achieve health fitness?
* At least 3 times/week
* 30 minutes or more each time
Aerobic exercise also improves ____, endurance, and decreases body ____.
strength
fat
What is the difference between skill-based warm-up activities and exercise activities?
* Skill-based warm-up activities
> Simulate game-like conditions during warm-up
* Exercise warm-up activities
> stretch specific muscle groups
Expand on the purpose of skill-based warm-up activities
* Improve skills
* Demonstrate knowledge of game-like situations
* Develop cooperative teamwork
* Improve personal skills
Drills during skill-based warm-up could reinforce:
* Basic mechanics used in soccer
> shooting, kicking, passing, trapping
* Team concepts, cooperation
Name 3 skill-based warm-up activities:
1. One-on-one shooting at goalie drills
2. Two-on-two parallel-passing drills
3. Heading-the-ball drills with a partner
Describe: one-on-one shooting at goalie drills
* Player dribbles ball toward goal and attempts to score against goalie
* Reinforces:
> dribbling w/instep & outside foot
> body control
> shooting off the dribble
Describe: two-on-two parallel-passing drills
* Two players run forward, next to each other, in a parallel path, passing the ball between them
* Reinforces:
> passing off the dribble
> receiving & trapping skills
Describe: Heading-the-ball drills
* Players practice heading the ball at each other
* Reinforces:
> directional accuracy
> heading & passing skills
Correct pull-up technique:
* Palms facing away from the body
* Swaying motion avoided
* Inward facing hand/sway aid exercise providing inaccurate measure of strength or endurance
Correct sit-up technique for upper primary (4th +):
* Hands placed on opposite shoulders
* Elbows in contact with chest
* Knees flexed, feet on floor
Injuries/strains associated with incorrect sit-up technique:
* Hooking feet under an object
> can put stress on back
> potential lower back complications
* Straight leg sit-ups:
> Can cause strain of hip flexor muscle
> Can place undue strain on lumbar vertebrae
* Locking hands behind head or neck:
> hyperflexion of neck and/or damage to disk
Correct stretching technique:
* Slow application of stretch to a muscle
* Hold stretch for minimum 25-30 seconds
* Avoid bouncing
> increase muscle soreness
> can injure or strain muscles and joints
Identify 3 reasons an overweight, withdrawn, female middle school student would repeatedly fail to dress for PE.
1. Fear of embarrassment
2. Ridicule by one’s peers
3. Potentially serious emotional and/or self-esteem issues
Characteristics of middle school child:
* Often going thru rapid physical changes associated with hormones & growth spurts
> Can result in clumsiness & self-consciousness
Overweight children often suffer:
* Ridicule
* Taunting
* Bullying
What underlying factors are associated with being overweight?
* Poor nutrition
* Stress
* Emotional issues
What strategies might a teacher use to effect a positive change in the girl’s attitude?
* Conference with student to determine cause of problem
* Suggest weight-loss program
* Show student how PE can promote healthy lifestyle choices
A withdrawn and overweight student is at risk in what way?
Both physically and mentally
Identify 2 ways a child with mild cerebral palsy can be included in a line dance activity.
* Design a dance program based on the student’s abilities & limits
* Modify the line dance to include his/her disabilities
Mild cerebral palsy implies what limitations?
Limited movement and coordination skills
What modifications would accommodate a student with mild cerebral palsy?
* Change length of activity
* Provide alternative dance steps
A student with mild cerebral palsy can more easily handle which step substitutions?
* Side-to-side step instead of cross-over step
> Step-together movements are likely more easily accomplished
* Jump in place instead of step-back & turn
How should this student be graded without diminishing their self-esteem?
* Assessment tools should recognize the (all?) students’ effort
> performing agreed upon tasks
> completing the social behaviors expected of the group
> cooperation in class activities
> on-task behavior
Agreed upon tasks refers to:
* Modifications and accommodations discussed and agreed upon
* Student should understand they are responsible for performance at this agreed upon level