CSET English Subtest I and II

homophones
These are words that are pronounced the same, but have different meanings and spelling.
example: capital (seat of the government) and capitol (government building)
Homonyms
words that are spelled and pronounced the same,yet have a different meaning
Ex. Tear-when you cry tear-when something rips
Homographs
words that are spelled alike but have different sounds and meanings (bow and arrow vs. bow of a ship) .
Prepositional Phrase
a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun
Example: Out of bed, down the tree, through the forest, up the hill, around the lake, etc.
Adverb Phrase
a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
Example: The bears were in the bed. Mama bear is naive about her bears.
Participial Phrase
A verb form that is used as an adjective
Example: Sleeping soundly, she got her rest. Chewing loudly, people started to stare.
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Gerund Phrase
A verb form that is used as a noun
Example: Disciplinging the dogs is a teadious task. Singing to the audience makes me nervous.
Infinitive Phrase
to + verb used as an adjective, adverb, or noun
Example: To learn how to read, Ana practices reading everyday before bedtime. To calm her nerves, Mama Jo knits.
Independent Clause
a group of words with a subject and verb that is a complete thought.
Example: It was after midnight and Mother was downstairs.
Subordinate Clause
a group of words with a subject and a verb that MUST be combined with an independent clause to form a complete though.
Example: Mrs. Smith, who was cooking breakfast downstairs at the time, did not hear the kids leave the house.
Adjective Clause
A subordinate clause that, like an adjective, modifies a noun or pronoun. Usually it starts with a WHO, WHOM, WHICH and THAT.
Example: Maria, WHO I went to school with, is getting married this Saturday. My friends were surprised THAT the event was kept down low.
Noun Clause
A subordinate clause used as a noun
Example: Do you know WHAT THE DOGS WILL DO NEXT?
ANYONE WHO DISCOVERS THE KIDS ARE OUT AT NIGHT will tell police.
Adverb Clause
A subordinate clause that, like any adverb, modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb. Words used before clause (after, before, when, since, unless, while)
Example: Mama Jo knits WHEREVER SHE CAN. The animals get out at night most THAN I DO. We ate the cookies AFTER dinner.
Trickster Tale
in oral traditions worldwide, a story featuring a protagonist (often an anthropomorphized animal) who has magical powers and is characterized as a compendium of opposites. TT= FEMT
Slave Narrative
autobiographical account of the life of a slave
Villanelle
a nineteen-line poem divided into five tercets and a final quatrain
bildungsroman
a type of novel concerned with the education, development, and maturing of a young protagonist
Example: The Magic Fountain, A Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, A Sentemental Education
classicism
a movement in literature and art during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe that favored rationality and restraint and strict forms
romanticism
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
modernism
was an artistic and literary movement of the early 20th century that championed experimentation, technicality, primitivism, impersonalism, aestheticism, and intellectualism
Neoclassical
characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s -a time when authors and artists tried to bring back the elements and values of the classical times (Greek and Roman)
Alexander Pope, John Dryden, and Samuel Johnson – a fondness for satire and an inclination to make generalizations about the world in the form of aphoristic verse,
Rationalism
17th- 18th century held that all truths, especially religious ones, were accessible and comprehensible through pure
human reason; reason was in itself a source of knowledge superior to and independent of sense
perceptions.
Parnassian
Of or relating to poetry, relating to the Parnassians or their style of poetry- A member of a school of late 19th-century French poets whose work is characterized by detachment and emphasis on metrical form.
new formalist
Mid – late 20th century, return to strict form, response to free verse
Symbolist
Symbolism was an aesthetic movement that encouraged writers to express their ideas, feelings, and values by means of symbols or suggestions rather than by direct statements.
imagist
20th Century movement of poetry; typically written in free verse, draws on a wide range of subject matter, is expressed in common speech, and relies on a clear, concentrated image to convey meaning.
Comic irony
The audience knows more than the character knows and creates humor
stream-of-consciousness narrative
characterized by a writing technique or style that is free and indirect and seeks to record in an all-inclusive way the continuous flow of the narrator’s thoughts, feelings, memories, and expectations. Stream-ofconsciousness narrative can also be somewhat discursive and repetitive. (“Beaten up, broken up, . . . the brutality . . . the eager advance . . . of angular men . . . of flaunting women . . . “)
stream-of-consciousness
a literary genre that reveals a character’s thoughts and feeling as they develop by means of a long soliloquy
Deus ex machina
The phrase has come to mean any turn of events that solves the characters’ problems through an unexpected and unlikely intervention.
ambivalence
the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes or opinions
Theatre of the Absurd
tries to capture the absurdity of the human condition; man is in charge and god is absent, lack of humanity-no meaning to life, actors are clown-like, no hope Example: Waiting for Godot
deference
courteous regard for people’s feelings
condescension
a patronizing manner or behavior
benevolence
an act intending or showing kindness and good will
conciliation
the state of manifesting goodwill and cooperation after being reconciled
postcolonial literary criticism
Postcolonial literary criticism explores how colonization
continues to affect former colonized societies. The literature of colonized cultures reflects their common experience of colonization, an experience that may be presented differently in the texts of colonizing nations.
Structuralist Criticism
relies heavily on linguistics and linguistic theory to analyze literary works. One structuralist view holds that a literary work is a mode of writing that consists of an interaction of various constitutent parts according to wholly literary conventions, codes, and genres.
figurative language
language that is used in writing to produce images in a reader’s mind and to express ideas in fresh, vivid, and imaginative ways
Formalist Criticism
Formalist criticism focuses on the way individual literary
elements combine to create a coherent whole text, independent of outside factors such as the author’s life or intent, or the sociocultural and historical context. Formalist critics, for example, might examine how structure or syntax contributes to the theme or overall emotional impact of a text.
Parallel structures
the repetition of phrases , clauses, or sentencesthat have the same grammatical structure
Psychoanalytic criticism
based on the idea that literary works can reflect the imagined fulfillment of the author’s thoughts and desires that are denied in real, everyday life or are prohibited by social or cultural standards—i.e., thoughts and desires that are censored by the self, or repressed.
Great Vowel Shift
A systematic shifting of the long vowels (in milliseconds) of Middle English into different sounds. The high back and high front vowels became diphthongs while the other long vowels moved higher and sometimes fronter in the mouth, e.g., the vowel in the word “sweet” was “ay” for Chaucer but “eee” by the time of Shakespeare. The spelling of certain vowel sounds no longer corresponded to the pronuciation of those sounds. The drop of the e as well.
Universal Grammar
Chomsky-no dialect or language is more complex or sophisticated than the other. We are all born with the capacity to learn any language w/o formal instruction. A set of principles that apply to all languages and are unconsciously accessible to every human language user.
Creolization
in a linguistic context, the process describing the convergence of two or more languages, forming a separate, new language; development of a language through the merging of two or more different languages.
Overt
(Adj.) Open, not hidden, expressed or revealed in a way that is easily recognized
Inflectional Ending
A form, suffix or element added to the end of a word that changes the form of the word to mark such distinctions as those of case, gender, number, tense person, mood or voice.
Example: pre-TENDS
Orthography
a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols; only partially regular (i.e., the spelling of a word is not a perfect guide to its pronunciation). In the transition to Modern English, the pronunciation of many words changed while their spelling did not.
pramatics
the uses of different types of utterances in different context;
aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social “niceties” of language
second language acquisition
A second-language learner uses familar vocabulary to mentally form sentences before speaking. The process by which children who have already established a solid foundation in their first language learn an additional language. This usually takes place in the context of a school. Universal Grammar Cognitive Learning Theory Sociocultural Learning Theory. An immigrant living in a country where the second language is spoken who feels accepted by speakers of the second language is most likely acquire second language more easily.
Aspects of Language development (social backgrounds)
Children from different sociocultureal backgrounds may differ in the style and structure of their oral narratives.
Critical Period Hypothesis
theory of language development that states language must be learned by a certain age, otherwise, we will experience continual difficulty learning language (after age of five or after an individual reaches puberty).
code-switching
Shifting back and forth between languages in the same conversation
Primary influence of a first language on second-language development
A second-language learner internalizes his own systematic set of rules to use for speaking and understanding the second language, thus creating an interlanguage.
Negative side of second-language development
Second-language learners often have trouble recongnizing and producting certain phonemes in the target language
enumeration
Is listing items in order; provides a list of facts and examples that can support a statement
appositional phrase
identifies or describes a nearby noun, as illustrated in the way that ‘my favourite author’ indentifies the author. An embedded appostional pharse is set within the body of the sentence rather than coming at the beginning or the end.
Verbal Phase
Verbals are formed from verbs but are not used as verbs in a sentence (it is a participal phrase used as an adjective to modify ‘the man’)
tanka
a form of Japanese poetry
Ex. the 1st and 3rd lines have five syllables and the 2nd, 4th, and 5th have seven syllables
New criticism
A movement in literary criticism, dating from the late 1920s, that stressed close textual analysis in the interpretation of works of literature.
gender criticism
feminist and gay criticism reflecting cultural framework
mythological criticism
An approach to literature that seeks to identify what in a work creates deep universal responses in readers, by paying close attention to the hopes, fears, and expectations of entire cultures.
hypercorrection
the act of producing nonstandard forms by way of false anology – usually done with ‘I’ vs. ‘me.’ – this is done by adults – not children just learning the language; seeing the wrong form as correct because it seems correct
negative transfer
interference with learning that results from differences between two otherwise similar tasks
borrowing
Taking words from other languages and incorporating them into your own. sushi
semantic mapping
diagrams that are useful during pre-reading. The word is in the center circle and rays and circles branch out of the word.
Theory of Communicative Competence
Dell Hymes – is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user’s grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
Critical Period hypothesis
Erick Lenneberg – theory of language development that states language must be learned by a certain age, otherwise, we will experience continual difficulty learning language
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Stephen Krashen based on the theory that successful language acquisition depends on the learners feelings. Positive emotions surrounding learning enhance it while negative emotions do the opposite.
positive transfer
Mastery of one task aids learning or performing another
faulty reasoning
Reasoning formed based on either untrue or misunderstood ideas.
negative transfer
interference of previous learning inprocess of learning something new
pragmatic competence
The ability to take contextual factors into account when using and interpreting language. This includes knowledge of the real world, how speakers use and understand speech acts and the relationship between speaker and listener. For example, “It’s hot in here, isn’t it?” could mean “It’s time to get something to eat” depending on the different factors of the situation.
deep structure
The underlying structure of a statement that holds its meaning.
surface structure
the particular words and phrases used to make up a sentence
Ferdinand de Saussure
Thought of language as a structured system of elements, a self-contained whole. In this system, the place of each element is defined by the way in which it relates to other elements.