Criminology Test #1, Chapters 1, 4, and 7.

According to Matza, ____ refers to the process of moving from one extreme behavior to another. Further, this helps to explain why a youth’s behavior may be law abiding sometimes and deviant at other times.
A. anomie
B. drift
c. Strain
D. Dramatization
C. strain
Social Control theory maintains that everyone has the potential to become a criminal but that people are controlled by their bonds to society.
True or False?
True
Children living with a stepparent exhibit less problems as youth in single-parent families and considerably more problems than those who are living with both biological parents. True or False?
False
Sykes and Matza base their neutralization theory on a variety of observations about criminals. Among these observations is that:
A. Criminals sometimes voice a sense of guilt over their illegal acts
B. Criminals view all victims as equal prey for their offenses
C. Criminals hope to plea bargain based upon dispelling their responsibility
D. Criminals show respect for their “street smart” peers
A. Criminals sometimes voice a sense of guilt over their illegal acts
when behavior is punished, this is referred to as:
a. negative reinforcement
b. reconditioning
c. labeling
d. direct conditioning
a. negative reinforcement
In his ______, pioneering control theorist Walter Reckless argued that a strong self image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of crimogenic influences in the environment.
A. Containment Theory
B. Normative group theory
C. Social Bond Theory
D. Social reaction Theory
A. containment theory
The principle that criminal techniques are learned is part of:
a. labeling theory
b. differential reinforcement theory
c. social reaction theory
d. differential association theory
d. differential association theory
What statement is false as a critique of social control theory?
a. Adolescents who report high levels of involvement, which should reduce delinquency, actually report high levels of criminal behavior
b. Attachment to deviant peers decreases the likelihood of criminality
c. social control theory is better able to explain minor delinquency than more serious criminal acts
d. Delinquent youths’ friendship patterns seem quite close to those of conventional youth.
b. Attachment to deviant peers decreases the likelihood of criminality
When a crime is directed at certain persons because they are disliked or engage in behavior that people may find offensive, the offenders sometimes neutralizes their wrongdoing by maintaining it was deserved. This is know as:
a. denial of responsibility
b. denial of injury
c. denial of victim
d. condemnation of condemners
c. denial of victim
Differential association has a number of important findings. What finding is false?
a. Crime appears to be intergenerational
b. The more deviant one’s social network and network of affiliations, the more likely they will engage in antisocial behavior
c. the influence of deviant friends is not supportive of delinquency
d. Differential association is multi-cultural
c. the influence of deviant friends is not supportive of delinquency
The view, according to Akers, that both deviant and conventional behaviors are learned is called:
a. differential association theory
b. labeling theory
c. social reaction theory
d. differential reinforcement theory
d. differential reinforcement theory
when an offender views the world as a corrupt place with dog-eat-dog code, it is know as a denial of injury.
True or False?
False
When young offenders sometimes claim their unlawful acts were simply not their fault, it is called a denial of responsibility.
True or False?
True
According to social reaction theory, labels are believed to produce:
a. Stigma
b. primary deviance
c. secondary deviance
d. anomie
a. stigma
Which of the following has been linked to decreasing crime?
a. family and friends who hold criminal beliefs
b. single-parent households
c. holding religious beliefs
d. lack of educational motivation
c. holding religious beliefs
Criminal Techniques are learned including the motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes associated with crime.
True or False?
True
________ occurs when parents have excellent parenting skills, are supportive , and effectively control their children in a non-coercive fashion resulting in a reduction in antisocial behavior.
a. Parental control
b. Parental efficacy
c. social control
d. differential reinforcement
b. Parental efficacy
When young offenders claim their unlawful acts were beyond their control, its known as:
a. denial of responsibility
b. denial of injury
c. denial of victim
d. condemnation of condemners
a. denial of responsibility
The theory that links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society is:
a. social learning theory
b. differential association theory
c. differential reinforcement theory
d. social bond theory
d. social bond theory
The critique that the origin of criminal definitions is not accounted for is applicable to what group?
a. control theories
b. learning theories
c. labeling theories
d. structural theories
b. learning theories
One consequence of labeling is the concept of ______, which brings out a reassessment of one’s self image that reflects actual or perceived judgements made by others, such as parents.
a. reflected appraisals
b. reflected assessments
c. reflected reactions
d. reflected associations
a. reflected appraisals
According to differential reinforcement theory, what determines whether deviant or criminal behavior persists?
a. the degree that living conditions influence behavior
b. the degree that offenders are able to neutralize their behaviors
c. the degree it has been rewarded or punished
d. the degree that conventional ties to society are broken or weakened
c. the degree it has been rewarded or punished
Communication via symbols which represent something else is know as:
a. symbolic interaction
b. labeling theory
c. subterranean behavior
d. dramatization of evil
a. symbolic interaction
The view that becoming a criminal is a learning process in which potential delinquents master skills that enable them to counterbalance conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior is known as:
a. social reaction theory
b. differential association theory
c. differential reinforcement theory
d. neutralization theory
d. neutralization theory
Differential association theory suggests that crime is a/an ______ behavior
a. learned
b. chronic
c. group
d. isolated
a. learned
Labeling theories use a/an ______ definition of crime.
a. legal
b. perceived
c. interactionist
d. consensus
c. interactionist
Diversion programs are a policy implication of what social process theory?
a. differential association
b. social control
c. labeling
d. differential reinfocement
c. labeling
Social learning theories assume people are born either “bad” or “good” and that their degree of criminality can be unlearned with proper socialization. True or False?
False
A major premise of social reaction theory is that the law is differentially constructed and applied, depending on the offenders. This is known as:
a. differential reinforcement
b. differential enforcement
c. differential association
d. differential control
b. differential enforcement
The interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society is known as:
a. stigmatization
b. socialization
c. drift
d. amplification
b. socialization
By denying the wrongfulness of an act, criminals are able to neutralize illegal behavior. This is known as:
a. denial of responsibility
b. denial of victim
c. condemnation of condemners
d. denial of injury
d. denial of injury
Poor school achievement and limited educational aspirations have been associated with delinquent behavior. True or False?
True
Differential Association theory is able to explain why one youth who is exposed to delinquent definitions eventually succumbs to them, while another, living under the same conditions, is able to avoid criminal entanglements. True or False?
False
Schools contribute to criminality when they:
a. track students to identify academic potential
b. fail to offer diverse curriculums
c. are located in inner-city areas
d. hire substandard teachers
a. track students to identify academic potential
Research indicates that school dropouts, especially those who have been expelled, face a significant change of entering a criminal career. According to the Urban institute, what percentage of American students manage to graduate?
a. 31 percent
b. 46 percent
c. 63 percent
d. 71 percent
d. 71 percent
Social process theories view criminality as a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society. Thus, improper socialization is a key component of crime. True or False?
True
Important findings of social control theory include all but which of the following?
a. Youths who were strongly attached to their parents were less likely to commit criminal acts.
b. Delinquents and non delinquents did not share similar beliefs about society.
c. Youths involved in unconventional behavior, such as smoking and drinking, were more delinquency prone.
d. Youths who maintained weak and distant relationships with people tended toward delinquency.
b. Delinquents and non-delinquents did not share similar beliefs about society.
Whose name do we associate with the prominent social learning theory of differential association?
a. Matza
b. Sykes
c. burgess
d. Sutherland
d. sutherland
The importance and prestige attributed to individuals or groups from whom the definitions are learned is the _____ element of an association
a. priority
b. duration
c. intensity
d. frequency
c. intensity
Differential associations may vary in all but which of the following ways?
a. frequency
b. duration
c. priority
d. motivation
d. motivation
Sykes and Matza found that criminals are immune to the demands of conformity and that criminals rarely respect, if ever, honest, law-abiding persons. True or False?
False
Referring to differential association theory, how does learning criminal behavior differ from learning other behavior?
a. Learning criminal behavior is more of a peer group exercise
b. Learning criminal behavior is a matter of imitation
c. Learning criminal behavior is greater in frequency, intensity, priority, and duration.
d. There is no difference between learning criminal behavior and non-criminal
d. There is no difference between learning criminal behavior and non-criminal behavior.
when friends or parents demonstrate their disapproval of crime it is known as:
a. Aging out and desistance occur
b. disassociations occur
c. anomie occurs
d. definitions unfavorable toward criminality occur
d. definitions unfavorable toward criminality occur
Youth who grow up in households characterized by conflict and tension, and where there is a lack of familial love and support, are susceptible to:
a. depression
b. delinquency
c. poverty
d. dropping out
b. delinquency
This occurs when norm violations or crimes have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten
a. anomie
b. primary deviance
c. secondary deviance
d. stigma
b. primary deviance
People become criminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity. This is part of the:
a. social reinforcement theory
b. social learning theory
c. social control theory
d. social reaction theory
d. social reaction theory
The morally tinged influences, which have become entrenched in the culture but that are publicly condemned are known as:
a. techniques of neutralization
b. symbolic interactions
c. Subterranean behaviors
d. dramatizations of evil
c. subterranean behaviors
Which is not an element of the social bond?
a. achievement
b. attachment
c. commitment
d. involvement
a. achievement
The view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society is referred to as:
a. social structure theory
b. social process theory
c. social conflict theory
d. development theory
b. social process theory
Novice criminals often argue that they are caught in the dilemma of being loyal to their own peer group while at the same time attempting to abide by the rules of the larger society. This is known as:
a. Denial of responsibility
b. condemnation of condemners
c. appeal to higher authorities
d. denial of victim
c. appeal to higher authorities
When deterrence measures convince would be criminals that the risk of committing a particular crime is just too great, offenders adapt in various ways. Of the following, which is not one of those ways?
a. The offender reduces the number of crimes committed.
b. The offender commits more serious crimes, assuming if caught, the punishment would be no worse than for somewhat lesser crimes.
c. The offender takes actions to reduce detection and apprehension
d. The offenders commit the same crime at a different place or time
b. the offender commits more serious crimes, assuming if caught, the punishment could be no worse than for somewhat lesser crimes.
Situational crime prevention tactics such as Lojack tracking systems are an example of what?
a. increasing difficulty
b. increasing risk
c. reducing rewards
d. reducing deterrence
c. reducing rewards
Which of the following is not a crime prevention strategy used today?
a. increasing the effort needed to commit crime
b. increasing the risks for committing crime
c. Reducing the rewards for committing crime
d. reducing the shame for committing crime
d. reducing the shame for committing crime
Policies that convince potential criminals to desist from criminal activities, delay their actions, or avoid a particular target are known as:
a. Situational crime prevention
b. crime displacement
c. crime discouragers
d. situational displacement
a. situational crime prevention
Offenders may react selectively to the characteristics of particular offenses. For instance, the decision to commit a burglary may involve evaluating the target’s likely cash yield and the presence of dogs and escape routes. This crime would be considered:
a. offense specific
b. offender specific
c. target specific
d. risk specific
a. offense specific
Rational choice theory is rooted in the classical school of criminology developed by:
a. James Q. Wilson
b. Cesare Beccaria
c. Jeremy Bentham
d. Andrew Von Hirsh
b. Cesare Beccaria
The basic elements of classical criminology do not include which of the following ideas?
a. free will
b. criminal solutions require much effort but hold the promise of a huge payoff
c. deterrence
d. severity, certainty, and swiftness are needed to ensure punishment works
b. criminal solutions require much effort but hold the promise of a huge payoff
The writings of beccaria influenced by the US Constitution and France’s declaration of the rights of man. True or False?
True
According to the rational choice approach, law-violating behavior occurs when an offender decides to commit the crime after considering what two types of factors?
a. experiential and exponential factors
b. personal and situational factors
c. background and guardian factors
d. physical and emotional factors
b. personal and situational factors
The theory of specific deterrence suggests that the harsher the punishment, the less likely the chance of recidivism. Is this so?
a. the majority of offenders are not deterred and reoffend
b. the majority of offenders are deterred and reoffend
c. this is so but only for first time juvenile offenders
d. this is so but only for first time adult offenders
a. the majority of offenders are not deterred and reoffend
If petty offenses were subject to the same punishment as more serious crimes, offenders would choose the worst crime. This is known as:
a. marginal deterrence
b. the tipping point
c. specific deterrence
d. general deterrence
a. marginal deterrence
General deterrence theory holds that threat of punishment should deter lawbreakers through fear. Which statement is inaccurate as to why some offenders are not deterred?
a. Some offenders cannot think rationally due to mental illness or substance abuse
b. some offenders perceive no other options for success other than engaging in crime
c. some offenders are immune to deterrent effects because the lure of criminal profit (greed) outweighs their fears
d. Chronic offenders are impulsive, but consider the legal consequences of their actions so as to decrease the likelihood of apprehension.
d. Chronic offenders are impulsive, but consider the legal consequences of their actions so as to decrease the likelihood of apprehension.
“Crackdowns” are sudden changes in police activity designed to lower crime rates through an increase in the communicated threat or actual certainty of punishment. How effective are crackdowns?
a. Crackdowns are effective when coupled with problem-solving and community- improvement techniques.
b. Crackdowns can reduce the incidence of drug dealing but only if media attention is focused on the effort.
c. Crackdowns initially deter crime but the effect soon wears off after the high intensity police activity ends.
d. Crackdowns are effective when coupled with problem-solving and community- improvement techniques; crackdowns initially deter crime but the effect soon wears off after the high intensity police activity ends
d. Crackdowns are effective when coupled with problem-solving and community- improvement techniques; crackdowns initially deter crime but the effect soon wears off after the high intensity police activity ends
According to deterrence theory, if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning could be increased, crime rates should:
a. remain stable
b. increase
c. decline
d. initially spike, then decline
c. decline
The seductions of crime increase the likelihood of engaging in crime due to neither fearing legal punishment nor losing respect of peers. True or False?
True
Most burglars prefer to commit crimes in neighborhoods that contain a greater than usual number of access streets. These neighborhoods are referred to as:
a. accessible neighborhoods
b. arterial neighborhoods
c. permeable neighborhoods
d. open neighborhoods
c. permeable neighborhoods
After the famous Minneapolis domestic violence study, other studies and analyses have been conducted. What do these studies indicate regarding the deterrent effect of arrest for domestic abusers?
a. These studies indicate arrest was not a greater deterrence than warning or advising the assailant.
b. These studies indicate that arrest escalates violence in subsequent incidents of abuse.
c. These studies indicate a strong positive effect for arrest.
d. These studies were inconclusive.
a. These studies indicate arrest was not a greater deterrence than warning or advising the assailant.
If a crime is offense-specific, offenders have weighed their abilities, resources, needs, and levels of fear. True or False?
False
The effect of shaming may vary according to what?
a. the age of the offender
b. the level of dysfunction within the family unit
c. Correct the cohesiveness of the community structure
d. the amount of media coverage received
c. Correct the cohesiveness of the community structure
Personal factors such as economic opportunity, learning and experience, and knowledge of criminal techniques condition people to choose crime.
True or False?
True
The three components of deterrence theory are severity, certainty, and speed of legal sanctions (punishment). Of these components, deterrence theorists tend to believe that the _________ of punishment seems to have the strongest impact.
a. severity
b. certainty
c. speed
d. the impact of the components is equal
b. certainty
Criminologists argue that “three strikes and you’re out” policies will not work for various reasons. which statement is false?
a. Most three-time losers are on the verge of aging out anyway.
b. Current sentences for violent crimes are already severe.
c. There would be racial disparity in sentencing.
d. The expansion of the prison population will stabilize costs
d. The expansion of the prison population will stabilize costs
__________ occur when significant others, such as parents, peer, neighbors, and teachers, direct their disapproval toward the offender.
a. Informal sanctions
b. Symbolic sanctions
c. Delayed sanctions
d. Reactive sanctions
a. Informal sanctions
Situational inducements, such as the thrill or relieving stress, which directly precede the commission of a crime, and draw offenders into law violations are called______.
a. boosters
b. seductions of crime
c. encouragement
d. edgework
b. seductions of crime
The view that crime is a matter of rational choice is held by a number of criminologists who believe that the decision to violate any law is made for a variety of personal reasons including greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrill-seeking, or vanity. True or False?
True
The view that criminals evaluate their skills and needs prior to engaging in a crime is:
a. offense specific
b. offender specific
c. target specific
d. risk specific
b. offender specific
Evaluations of incarceration strategies reveal that their impact may be less than expected. Which statement is false regarding why incarceration may not work?
a. The more prior incarceration experiences inmates have, the more likely they are to recidivate and return to prison.
b. Most criminal offenses are committed by teens who are unlikely to be sent to prison for a single felony conviction.
c. The associated expense will continue to overburden the prison system, especially as the population ages.
d. As criminals are incarcerated, opportunities for replacements are minimized.
d. As criminals are incarcerated, opportunities for replacements are minimized.
The utilitarian calculus, which is a cost-benefit analysis, is associated with Jeremy Bentham. True or False?
True
There is little evidence that the fear of apprehension and punishment reduce crime rates. Which of the following is not a reason given to explain this discrepancy?
a. Many criminals suffer personality disorders that impair their judgment and render them incapable of making truly rational decisions.
b. The vast majority of criminals are compulsive and lack the capacity to fear punishment or appreciate consequences of crime.
c. Many offenders are part of the underclass and as such, they perceive few other options for success.
d. Profits from crime are worth the risk of punishment.
b. The vast majority of criminals are compulsive and lack the capacity to fear punishment or appreciate consequences of crime.
According to Von Hirsch’s view on “just deserts,” why is punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation wrong?
a. Because punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation does not allow for the possibility of rehabilitation.
b. Because punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation is only used within the adult criminal justice system. Thus, it ignores juvenile offenders.
c. Because punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation involves an offender’s future actions.
d. Von Hirsch did not view punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation as wrong.
c. Because punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation involves an offender’s future actions.
Some law violators describe the adrenaline rush that comes from successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations. This integration of danger, risk, and skill, is for some, a seduction of crime and is referred to as
a. rushwork
b. edgework
c. riskwork
d.thrillwork
b. edgework
According to rational choice theory, why might a criminal decide not to commit crime?
a. The criminal has developed a conscience as he/she matured.
b. The criminal has legitimate means to achieve financial success and does not need to commit crime.
c. The criminal perceives the crime is too risky.
d. The criminal has learned that crime is only one of many solutions to their personal problems.
c. The criminal perceives the crime is too risky.
Crime persists because most offenders believe all but which of the following?
a. There is only a small chance they will be arrested for committing a crime.
b. Police officers are sometimes reluctant to arrest even when aware of crime.
c. Even if apprehended there is a good chance of receiving a lenient punishment.
d. They face punishment soon after their apprehension
d. They face punishment soon after their apprehension
What do immediate studies indicate about capital punishment’s deterrent effect on murder?
a. Impact studies indicated that the overall impact of executions might actually increase the incidence of homicide
b. Impact studies indicated that a deterrent effect does not exist even though the death penalty is being used more often over the past decade.
c. Impact studies were inconclusive regarding capital punishment’s deterrent effect on murder.
d. Impact studies indicated a deterrent effect but only for expressive forms of murder.
a. Impact studies indicated that the overall impact of executions might actually increase the incidence of homicide
Beccaria believed that criminals choose to commit crime and that criminal choices could be controlled by:
a. fear of punishment
b. improving economic conditions
c. selective incapacitation
d. situational crime prevention
a. fear of punishment
Clearly indicating a rational thought process, people will forego crime if they risk losing the respect of their peers and/or damaging their reputation. True or False?
true
The Kansas City, Missouri police department’s study of patrol effectiveness, convinced criminologists that:
a. The mere presence of patrol officers on the street did not have a deterrent effect.
b. Doubling the amount of patrol officers on the street had a deterrent effect.
c. The mere presence of patrol officers on the street had a deterrent effect but only in high crime neighborhoods.
d. Decreasing the amount of patrol officers on the street increased crime
a. The mere presence of patrol officers on the street did not have a deterrent effect.
Well-lit housing projects that maximize surveillance reflect Oscar Newman’s concept of _______ that suggests crime can be prevented via the use of residential architectural designs that reduce criminal opportunity.
a. permeability
b. accessibilty
c. defensible space
d. target-hardening
c. defensible space
To deter people from committing more serious offenses, Beccaria believed punishment should be lenient.
True or False?
False
Situational crime prevention is not without its problems. When crime reduction programs re-direct offenders to alternative targets, it is termed:
a. temporary deterrence
b. crime displacement
c. crime shifting
d. temporary displacement
b. crime displacement
This occurs when crime control efforts targeting a particular locale help reduce crime in surrounding areas and populations.
a. desistance
b. diffusion
c. discouragement
d. extinction
c. discouragement
Crime reduction programs may produce a short-term positive effect, but benefits then dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions. This phenomenon is known as:
a. correction
b. extinction
c. latent effect
d. extinction
b. extinction
According to __________, crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment.
a. specific deterrence
b. general deterrence
c. diffusion of benefits
d. crime displacement
b. general deterrence
The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished is known as:
a. specific deterrence
b. just desert
c. revenge
d. retribution
b. just desert
Guardians who monitor targets, handlers who monitor potential offenders, and managers who monitor places are ____________ who have varying levels of responsibility and research indicates they impact crime rates.
a. crime discriminators
b. crime deterrents
c. crime depressors
d. crime discouragers
d. crime discouragers
When efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevent another and when crime control efforts in one locale reduce crime in other non-target areas, this is called:
a. extinction
b. diffusion of benefits
c. crackdown effects
d. discouragement benefits
b. diffusion of benefits
Some crime experts argue that violence is a matter of choice and serves many goals. Which statement is not a goal of violence?
a. Offenders want to control their victim’s behavior and life.
b. The perpetrator engages in restorative justice and punishes the person outside the purview of the criminal justice system
c. The attacker wants to deter someone from repeating acts considered hostile or provocative.
d. Violence may be motivated by the need to enhance one’s reputation.
b. The perpetrator engages in restorative justice and punishes the person outside the purview of the criminal justice system
Most burglars prefer to commit crime in neighborhoods with a limited number of access streets to ensure a decrease in traffic.
True or False?
False
The view that proposes placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years in order to lessen their opportunity to commit crime is known as:
a. preventative incapacitation
b. specific incapacitation
c. opportunity reduction effect
d. incapacitation effect
d. incapacitation effect
Mala in se crimes are those crimes that reflect existing social conditions and are enacted through legislation. True or False?
False
In ________, the Supreme Court declared that laws banning sodomy were unconstitutional because they violated the due process rights of citizens because of their sexual orientation.
a. Map v. Ohio
b. Base and Bowling v. Res
c. Lawrence v. Texas
d. Roper v. Simmons
c. Lawrence v. Texas
_____ serve as models or frameworks for understanding human behavior and the forces that shape its content and direction.
a. Theories
b. Social control mechanisms
c. Research methods
d. Corrections
a. Theories
College students who are drunk when they assault other people may claim they were suffering from a mental impairment that prevented them from understanding the harmfulness of their acts. They are using what type of defense?
a. Excuses
b. Justifications
c. intent
d. insanity
a. excuses
Deviant behavior:
a. violates the legal code
b. is considered a felony
c. is mala in se
d. departs from social norms
d. departs from social norms
Criminal justice explains the etiology, extent, and nature of crime in society. True or False?
False
Those laws that set out the basic rules of practice in the CJ system are procedural criminal laws. True or False?
True
A battered wife who kills her mate might argue that she acted out of duress – committing her crime to save her own life. She would be using the defense of:
a. justification
b. excuse
c. denying the actus reus
d. denying the mens rea
a. justification
The sub-area of criminology concerned with the role social forces in shaping criminal law and the role of criminal law plays in shaping society is known as:
a. victimology
b. penology
c. criminal statistics
d. the sociology of law
d. the sociology of law
This type of law is used to resolve, control, and shape such personal interactions as contracts, wills and trusts, property ownership, and involves tort law.
a. substantive law
b. procedural law
c. civil law
d. administrative law
c. civil law
The evolution of criminal law has created and eliminated many laws. Among those currently recognized it ______, which is the “willful, malicious, and repeated following and harassing of another person.”
a. stalking
b. domestic violence
c. bullying
d. assault
a. stalking
Failure to act can be considered a crime under all but which of the following circumstances?
a. If the parties are bound by relationship
b. If the state has a statue requiring that people give aid
c. If a contractual relationship exists
d. If an individual trusts another will act in their best interest
d. If an individual trusts another will act in their best interest
The perspective that views crime as the reflection of the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in a particular legal jurisdiction is:
a. The consensus view
b. the conflict view
c. the interactionist view
d. the marxist view
c. the interactionist view
The sub-area of criminal statistics involves measuring the amount and trends of criminal activity.
True or False?
True
Criminologists who devise valid and reliable measures designed to calculate the amount and trends of criminal activity fall under which sub-area of the criminological enterprise?
a. Theory construction and testing
b. criminal statistic and crime measurements
c. penology and social control
d. victimology and victimization
b. criminal statistic and crime measurements
Shifting definitions of deviant behavior are closely associated with our concepts of crime.
True or False?
True
The rules of evidence, the law of search and seizure, questions of appeal, jury selection, and the right to counsel fall under what category of criminal law?
a. substantive law
b. procedural law
c. civil law
d. administrative law
b. procedural law
Several sub-areas of criminology exist within the broader areas of criminology. These subareas are termed:
a. The criminological enterprise
b. the victim-offender enterprise
c. the sociological enterprise
d. the justice-offender enterprise
a. The criminological enterprise
__________ is an academic discipline that makes use of scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
a. Sociology
b. Criminal Justice
c. Criminology
d. Psychology
c. Criminology
Trials by ordeal were based on the principle that:
a. divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
b. oath-takers would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
c. physical characteristics would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
d. common law would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
a. divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed
the sub-area of the sociology of law is concerned with the role social forces play in shaping criminal law.
True or False?
True
Conspiracy, solicitation, and attempted crimes are also known as:
a. misdemeanor offenses
b. felonies
c. inchoate offenses
d. civil offenses
c. inchoate offenses
Duress, self-defense, and entrapment are defenses in which the individual usually admits committing the criminal act but maintains that he or she should not be held criminally liable. These are a type of what defense?
a. excuses
b. justification
c. intent
d. insanity
b. justification
The intent to commit the criminal act is known as:
a. mens rea
b. actus reus
c. mala in se
d. mala prohibitum
a. mens rea
Government and institutional funding have little influence on the direction and nature of criminological research. True or False?
False
Studying the correction and control of known criminal offenders is:
a. criminal statistics
b. the sociology of law
c. theory construction
d. penology
d. penology
Murder, rape, and other crimes deemed inherently evil are also referred to as ________ crimes.
a. mens rea
b. actus reus
c. mala in se
d. mala prohibitum
c. mala in se
Criminologists use _____ methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
a. scientific
b. economic
c. sociological
d. psychological
a. scientific
All criminal law in the US must conform to the rules and dictates of the US constitution. True or False?
True
Theories are based on social facts that are observed and can be consistently quantified and measured. True or False?
True
The consensus view of crime links illegal behavior to the concept of:
a. political harm
b. social power
c. social harm
d. political power
c. social harm
Deviant behavior is behavior that departs from social norms. True or False?
True
The branch of the law that defines crimes and their punishment is known as ______.
a. substantive law
b. procedural law
c. civil law
d. administrative law
a. substantive law
______ law governs the regulation of city, county, state, and federal government agencies.
a. administrative law
b. procedural law
c. civil law
d. administrative law
d. administrative law
criminal law is shaped by all but which of the following?
a. shifts in culture and social conventions
b. judicial decision-making
c. legislative statues
d. social control mechanisms
d. social control mechanisms
criminal law constantly evolves to reflect social and economic conditions. True or False?
True
Research conducted on the links between crimes and criminals is known as ____.
a. phrenology
b. crime typology
c. sociology
d. psychology
b. crime typology
According to early victimologists, victim behavior is very rarely a key determinant of crime. True or False?
False
Common law was developed after the Norman conquest of England in 1066 through the verdicts of ____ who used local customs and rules of conduct as guides for decision-making.
a. juries
b. popes
c. kings
d. royal judges
d. royal judges
The Code of Hammurabi established a system of crime and punishment based on physical retaliation. But, the severity of this physical retaliation depended upon one’s:
a. economic standing
b. political standing
c. class standing
d. military standing
c. class standing
Common law originated in early England where royal judges would use local rules and custom to decide cases. true or false?
true
Public welfare offenses, such as traffic offenses, are crimes that do not require mens rea to prove legal guilt because they endanger public welfare or violate safety regulations. They are also referred to as:
a. mala prohibitia
b. strict liability crimes
c. limited liability crimes
d. felonies
b. strict liability crimes
The consensus view states that criminal laws are acts created to protect the have from the have-nots. True or False?
False
Statutory crimes are referred to as:
a. mala in se
b. mala prohibitum
c. actus reus
d. mens rea
b. mala prohibitum
Which of the following is not a social goal the government expects to achieve via contemporary criminal law?
a. encouraging revenge
b. maintenance of social order
c. deterrence of criminal behavior
d. express public opinion
a. encouraging revenge
Crimes less serious in nature and punished with a fine or a period of incarceration in a jail are referred to as:
a. strict liability offenses
b. misdemeanors
c. felonies
d. wrongful offenses
b. misdemeanors
When referring to the evolution of criminal law, which statement is inaccurate?
a The globalization of crime will prompt changes in the criminal law.
b. Highly publicized cases may generate fear but rarely prompt changes in the law.
c. Criminal law may shift to reflect tolerance of behavior previously condemned.
d. Criminal law will constantly evolve to reflect social and economic conditions.
b. Highly publicized cases may generate fear but rarely prompt changes in the law.
The interactionist perspective holds that the definition of crime evolves according to the moral standards of those in power. True or False?
True
Under this view, groups able to assert their political power use the law and criminal justice system to advance their economic and social positions. Criminal laws are viewed as acts created to protect the haves from the have-nots.
a. conflict
b. consensus
c. interactionist
d. common
a. conflict
Changing technology requires modifications of the criminal law. A new defined crime that involves sending out bulk e-mail messages designed to trick consumers into revealing personal information is called:

a. phishing
b. spam
c. hacking
d. vishing

a. phishing