criminology essay 2

Survivors ink
-Ohio ranks 5th
-there is a Johns school so Johns go to a one day class and get nothing on their record
-7 year life expectancy: disease, suicide, violence, drugs
-1 in 7 men buy sex
-2nd largest industry
-most traffickers are usually not arrested and if they are they are usually not prosecuted
who are the victims of crime
-property crimes are more common than violence crime victimization
-black rates of victimization are higher than white rates
-women are more likely to be victim of rape, robbery, and assault
-men are more likely to be victims specifically violent crime
-men are more likely to be a victim to strangers and women are more likely to be victim to an intimate person/partner
-as you age you are less likely to be victim of a crime
Victims rights movement
-victims ignored in the criminal justice system
-three coinciding movements that led to victims rights:
–> feminist movement: provided assistance to women victims
–> civil rights movement
–> tough on crime movement
-increase in concern about crime
-putting more focus on the victims: they have a right to be heard, say how they feel, and to assistance
victim compensation
-pays for time off work, mental health care, etc.
-By 1979, 28 states has programs
-California first program 1965
victims assistance programs and activism
-in 1972 there were only 3 and 2 were rape crisis centers
-rape victims and battered women started finding programs and shelters
-MADD founded in 1978
-organization for homicide survivors (the friends and families)
victims rights in the 1980s
• 1981- Reagan declares national victims’ rights week
• Federal victim and witness protection act of 1982
• Victims of crime act (VOCA) in 1984
o Established office of victims of crime (1988)
DOJ – aid and promote justice
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advances in responding to victims
-neurobiology – trauma and PTSD
-research on crisis counseling
—-victim group response team
—-ex: Boston marathon
-domestic abuse – use to be seen as a household and family issue instead of a legal issue. It was a family problem not a crime
-child abuse: didn’t use to be seen as a crime and there were no laws against it
-anti-stalking laws
victim impact statement
-written or verbal
-the first one was in 1976 and was a victim of Charles Manson
-All states have some form
–> most states have them during parole hearing
—> generally in presentencing sentencing investigation
1982 -presidents task force on victims and crime recommended judges allow for victim crime statement
1992 – Payne vs. Tennessee: capital punishment cases
-there are reasons for having a victim heard (inducing bias) and having them not heard.
reading notes
• Some people feel they are victimized twice, once by the offender and once by the criminal justice system.
• Not enough to make demands – victims need voice heard
• Criminal justice system response to crimes and victims
• Procedural justice – can apply to victims and general population
Hate crime
-blacks experience the most hate crime
-Jews are most targeted for their faith. Jews –> muslims –> other –> catholics
-the numbers aren’t that great, it may be do to non-reporting
In 2001 muslims passed jews (9/11), then it decreased again
-some states have no hate crime laws, a hate crime is just an advancement on a law
-hate crime state laws vary greatly
Hate crimes- federal laws
• Civil rights act of 1968, part of fair housing act
• Violent crime control and law enforcement act (1994)
• Mathew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate crimes prevention act (2009)
o James Byrd Jr. was a black man walking back from a family event and he got in a car with a few white men he knew and they drug him until he died
o Shepard was apparently “hitting” on homophobic so they beat him and they hung him to a pole in the middle of Wyoming
• Now includes women in it, involves a larger amount of individuals
– a long term sentence
is somewhere you would be held overnight or until trial/misdemeanor
mass incarceration
• Percent of world population and prison population
• Rate of incarceration of adult population in prison and jails
• We incarcerate 1% of the adult population, but the US is roughly 5% of the world population and we incarcerate 25% of the worlds incarcerated people
• Federal prisoners most inmates are drug offenders
• State prisons are made up mostly (53%) of violent crimes
• Incarceration continues to rise even after some crime is falling
what causes mass incarceration
-1969- Nixon says drug abuse is a serious national threat
-1971 Nixon declares a war on drugs, saying drug abuse is enemy number 1
-1984 nancy Reagan does the just say no campaign
-198 Reagan signs the anti-drug abuse act of 1986
—> set mandatory minimums
—-> 1.7 billion on the war on drugs
crack vs. cocaine debate
-28 grams of crack vs 500 grams of cocaine for 5 years
more African Americans use crack and more
mandatory minimum laws
• By 2002 all states had adopted a mandatory minimum law
o Some three strikes
o John Oliver mandatory minimum laws
o 1 out of 100 adults is locked up
Geroge H.W. Bush vs. Dukakis – 1988 election
o Willie Horton
o Lee Atwater – willie Horton ad with a black man to test integration, except willie ended up not coming back and killing people
-1988 federal ban on syringe programs (somewhat lifted in 2016)
President Bill Clinton
o Execution of Ricky Ray Rector
o Ricky ray did not know what was happening to him. Clinton went and watched so people could not say he was soft on crime
o They wanted him to do the federal syringe program and he said no
From 1985-2000
o Drug convictions account for 2/3 increase in federal prisons
o Half of the increase in state prisons
• Stricter sentences across the board
• Sentences for both non-violent and violent crimes
o 36 percent longer sentence than offenders released in 1990
marijuana, race, and the criminal justice system
• Weed use among whites is slightly higher than blacks
• But black arrest rate Is 3.4/4 x the white arrest rate for weed, despite them having lower rates
stop and frisk
• Rudowsky (2001):
o Rate of being stopped is greater for blacks, but that leads to arrest less than whites
o 10% of 40,000 officers account for 78% of all misconduct complains
o 86% of NYPD – no complaints
drug war- group threat
• Whites became threatened by minority groups coming in and taking their jobs. This way they could arrest minorities, but have a reason too.
• In the community and the police have a higher propensity to shoot for black targets
• Participants are slower to press “don’t shoot” when unnamed target is black
• Participants are quicker to press shoot when an armed target is black
race and the criminal justice system
• Persons of color are more likely than whites to be:
o Stopped by the police (driving while black)
o Abused by the police
o Arrested
o Denied bail
o Convicted
o Receive a harsher sentence when convicted
• “filtering out of CJS” – Angela Davis
o Prosecutors have a considerable amount of influence over sentencing
lifetime likelihood of imprisonment
• 1 in 3 black men
• 1 in 9 of all men
• 1 in 17 white men
• 1 in 6 Latino men
• 1 in 56 all women
another reason for an increase in imprisonment
• Decline of mental hospitals
o Had to release people without having fully treated them.
percentage of mental illness
• Most common mental illness is depression
• 44.8% in federal prisons are mentally ill
• 56.2% of inmates in state prisons are mentally ill
• 64.2% in local jail have mental illness
privatized prisons
• CCA and GEO group are the largest
• Prisoners for profit
• Conditions in privatized prisons
o They have to insure people are going into the prison
• They spend as little as possible on inmates and pay their works very small
• Conditions aren’t favorable for the inmates or the guards
Police Militarization
• 10-33 program
• Tactics
• Give military gear to police departments often
• Concerns:
o Police departments are losing some of these very powerful weapons
o Difference in training
o Ex. Ferguson
• Incarceration how it affects employment outcomes
• Alcohol and drug abuse affects incarceration and employment outcomes?
• Call back rates for black men with a record: 5% and white men with a criminal record: 17%
• Call back rates for no criminal records black: 14% and white: 34%
children of incarcerated parents
• Behavioral and mental health issues
• Foster care placement
• Incarcerated mothers
• Causality?
price of prison
-about $30,000 per inmate per year
felon disenfranchisement
• 1 in 13
• 2000 Bush vs. Gore
o Everything came down to Florida
o In Florida you cannot vote if you are a felon
changing tides
• Democrats and republicans agreeing
• April 2008 – Bush signs Second Chance Act
o Allocates 362 million to help recently released prisoners
• 2013 Attorney General Eric Holder – “Smart on Crime” initiative
o Divert nonviolent ow level drug offenders to treatment
• Decline in incarceration
o Alexander’s concern
juvenile delinquency risk factors:
-individual: early antisocial behavior, hyperactivity, low self control
-family factors: large family size, abuse, violence, teenage parenthood
-peer factors: association with deviant peers, peer rejection
-school and community: living in poverty, high crime neighborhood, academic performance, access to weapons
school to prison pipelines
-zero tolerance policies:
–> gun free school act of 1994
-school recourse officers (SROs)
-suspension and expulsion are risks
juveniles were called
Roper vs. Simmons
-death penalty
-8th amendment
life without possibility of parole
-graham vs. florida
-miler vs Alabama
solitary confinement
-Obama executive action 2016
-Kalief Browder-Rikers Island
autumns law
A law that would make abusive and/or neglectful parents/guardians who have custody of their children CRIMINALLY responsible for murders committed by their minor children, when they know or should have known the propensity toward violence existed.
Miranda rights
-J.D.B vs. North Carolina
youth gangs/ gangs
-no single definition
-risk for joining gangs: exposure, little supervision, childhood trauma for victim victimization, exclusion-status-protection
—-> MS13
—-> early development of the bloods and crips
alternatives to prison
-community based alternative – restorative justice
-non-imprisonment terms: treatment facilities and bootcamp

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