Creative Photography Segment 2

The language of a technical document is. . .

efficient.
prosaic.
none of these.
entertaining.
confidently judgmental.

efficient.
Executives consistently rank () skills as the most vital of employee qualities.
communication

Effective communicators “let the data speak for themselves.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

As you advance in your profession, your ability to communicate is likely to become more important than your technical background.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Raw data is a highly usable type of information.

TRUE
FALSE

false
A computer can transmit data, but it cannot give () to the information.
meaning
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In the best technical documents, the writer “disappears.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

Direct, straightforward communication is valued by all cultures.

TRUE
FALSE

false

A technical document is based on. . .

usable information.
none of these.
intuition.
the writer’s deepest impressions.
inspiration.

usable information

A technical document focuses on. . .

the writer’s feelings.
both the subject and the writer’s feelings.
marketing.
none of these.
the subject.

the subject

For most technical documents, choose a tone that is. . .

prosaic.
embracing.
serious.
formal.
conversational.

conversational

When combining sentences, place the idea that deserves most emphasis in a clause that is. . .

dependent.
relative.
independent.
none of these.
subordinate.

independent

Never use “I” in technical writing.

TRUE
FALSE

false

For best emphasis, avoid placing the key word or phrase at the sentence’s. . .

end.
terminal position.
none of these.
beginning.
middle.

middle

The less specialized your audience, the fewer acronyms you should use.

TRUE
FALSE

true

In its style, an efficient sentence is clear, concise, and. . .

short.
entertaining.
fluent.
informative.
mellifluous.

fluent

Technical communicators should generally avoid. . .

euphemisms.
short sentences.
topic sentences.
analogies.
the active voice.

euphemisms

Whenever possible, you should preface your assertions with “I think,” “In my opinion,” “I believe,” or some other qualifier.

FALSE
TRUE

false

The passive voice is usually more forceful and direct than the active voice.

TRUE
FALSE

false

You should avoid using short sentences in technical writing.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Nontechnical audiences are merely interested in the bare facts, without explanations.

TRUE
FALSE

false

When unable to identify all members of an audience, you should aim at the least specialized members.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Audience analysis is only necessary when the document is long or complex.

TRUE
FALSE

false
Briefly explain the difference between primary and secondary audiences
Primary audiences usually are those who requested the document and who will use it as a basis for decisions or actions. Secondary audiences are those who will carry out the project, who will advise the primary readers about their decision, or who will somehow be affected.
We focus on our audience and purpose by answering these questions: Who wants the report? Who else will read it? List two other questions writers ask about their audience.
You should have at least two of these answers. Why do they want the report? How much do they already know? What is the technical background of the primary and secondary audience? When is the report due? What does the audience need to know?

Information needs may be culturally determined.

TRUE
FALSE

true
Briefly explain the difference between writing for a college professor and writing for an audience on the job.
In college, the audience you write for knows more than you and is testing your knowledge; on the job, the audience you write for knows less and is using your knowledge.
When does a message have informative value for its audience?
Writing has informative value when it conveys knowledge that is new and worthwhile, or when it has fresh insight about something familiar.

Primary audiences usually expect a semi technical message.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Primary and secondary audiences often have different technical backgrounds.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Justification reports are unique in that they are. . .

authorized or requested by the readers.
often initiated by the writer.
rarely written by junior employees.
none of these are correct

often initiated by the writer.

Memos are major means of written communication within organizations because they. . .

leave a “paper trail.”
are easy to write and read.
are less expensive than other communications media.
all of these are correct

leave a “paper trail.”

Short reports are always written at the lowest level of technicality.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Email increases both the quantity and quality of information.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Monitoring of email by an employer is legal.

TRUE
FALSE

true

A typical memo does not have. . .

a distribution notation.
a complimentary close and signature.
single spacing.
a subject line.
topic headings.

a complimentary close and signature.

As a form of internal correspondence, memos have few legal implications.

TRUE
FALSE

false

A memorandum usually should be no more than one page long.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Writing in FULL CAPS increases the readability of email.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Use your company’s email network to send. . .

a dinner invitation to a colleague.
all of these
an evaluation of an employee.
a formal letter to a client.
an announcement for a company picnic.

an announcement for a company picnic.`

or users who will be facing complex information or difficult steps, you should not. . .

use visuals.
shorten the paragraphs.
increase all white space.
widen the margins.
use a 10-point or smaller type size.

use a 10-point or smaller type size.`

Whenever possible, begin a sentence after a heading with This, It, or some other pronoun that refers to the heading.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Technical documents usually are read with undivided attention.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Margins of 1/2 inch or smaller are desirable for most documents.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Words in lowercase letters are easier to read than those in uppercase letters.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Page design requirements vary from organization to organization.

TRUE
FALSE

true

For more personal forms of communication (letters/ memos, and so on), choose. . .

warm designs.
barely justified text.
unjustified text.
justified text.
short lines

unjustified text

When adding headings, be sure to. . .

use no more than two levels of headings.
use headings sparingly.
use “catchy” phrasing.
make each higher-level heading yield at least three lower-level headings.
insert one additional line of space above your heading.

insert one additional line of space above your heading.

For highlighting your document. . .

use dramatic typefaces sparingly.
use FULL CAPS often.
use color generously.
use long lines of italic type.
use all of these.

use dramatic typefaces sparingly.

For any document that your audience is likely to read completely (such as a letter, memo, or instructions) you should. . .

double-space within paragraphs and triple-space between.
use any of these.
single-space within paragraphs and double-space between.
double-space between all lines.

single-space within paragraphs and double-space between.`

Workplace surveys show that people view meetings as a big waste of time.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Electronically mediated collaboration is preferable when. . .

all of these
the issue is sensitive or controversial.
none of these
it is important to neutralize personality clashes.
people don’t know each other.

it is important to neutralize personality clashes.

Conflict in a collaborative group can be productive.

TRUE
FALSE

true

A collaborative group functions best when each of its members has equal authority.

TRUE
FALSE

false

“Reviewing” is a more precise term for “editing.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

Sources of conflict in collaborative groups include. . .

interpersonal differences.
gender differences.
cultural differences.
all of these

all of these

In collaborating to produce a document, all members of a collaborative team participate in the actual “writing.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

Strategies for creative thinking include all of the following except. . .

mind mapping.
storyboarding.
brain scanning.
brain-writing.
brain-storming.

brain scanning.

In mixed-gender groups, assertive females are considered highly persuasive.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Conflict in collaborative groups can increase when the group transacts exclusively online.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Of all kinds of technical communication, instructions have the most demanding requirements for clarity and phrasing.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Any warnings or cautions should be spelled out. . .

in an appendix.
just before the respective steps.
in the introduction.
all of theses

just before the respective steps.

Any visual in a set of instructions should be. . .

placed in an appendix so as not to interrupt the steps.
placed in the introduction to increase interest.
incorporated within the discussion of the related step for immediate reference.
none of these

incorporated within the discussion of the related step for immediate reference.

Above all, make your instructions brief.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Always use the imperative mood in phrasing instructions for cross-cultural audiences.

TRUE
FALSE

false

To avoid cluttering your instructions, use as few transitional expressions as possible.

TRUE
FALSE

false

In general, phrase instructions in the. . .

active voice and imperative mood.
active voice and the subjunctive mood.
passive voice and the indicative mood.
all of these

active voice and imperative mood.

Instructions emphasize. . .

the writer’s performance.
the subject’s performance.
the user’s performance.
all of these
none of these

the user’s performance.

Because users are often impatient, the introduction to a set of instructions should give very little background.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Working definitions of specialized terms for instructions belong. . .

in the introduction.
just before the related step.
in a glossary.
none of these

in the introduction

Definitions should be. . .

impressionistic.
judgmental.
eclectic.
objective.
engaging.

objective

Circular definitions help clarify technical concepts.

FALSE
TRUE

false

Parenthetical definitions are often synonyms.

FALSE
TRUE

true
Besides etymology, history, and background, list three strategies for expanding definitions.
🙂

If your report has many parenthetical or sentence definitions, place them. . .

in an index.
in the introduction.
in a glossary.
in the informative abstract.
at appropriate places throughout the discussion.

in a glossary

Abstract and general terms (e.g. condominium, loan, partnership) often call for. . .

expanded definition.
sentence definition.
none of these
all of these
parenthetical definition.

expanded definition

Working definitions often are stated as. . .

none of these
eclectic definitions.
expanded definitions.
sentence definitions.
parenthetical definitions.

sentence definitions.

Expanded definitions usually belong in report appendixes.

TRUE
FALSE

false

The specific strategies of expansion you choose will depend on. . .

the information you have.
the amount of space in your report.
the needs of your audience.
none of these
the time you have.

the needs of your audience.
list three parts of sentence definition
🙂

For illustrating a trend, the appropriate figure is typically. . .

a pie chart.
a photograph.
a block diagram.
a bar graph.
a line graph

a line graph

Pie charts generally should have no more than eight segments.

FALSE
TRUE

true

The more complex and richly detailed the visual, the more interesting readers will find it.

FALSE
TRUE

false

An outstanding benefit of the more popular computer graphics programs is. . .

clip art.
none of these
engaging visual designs.
relative ease of use.
the many colors that can be produced on a map, graph, and so on.

relative ease of use.

All visuals belong in. . .

appendices.
none of these
in a glossary.
the report text.
in either the report text or the appendices, depending on their relationship to the discussion.

in either the report text or the appendices, depending on their relationship to the discussion.

Distortion for the sake of emphasis in a visual often is justified.

TRUE
FALSE

false

To illustrate concepts, the parts in a block diagram are represented as symbols or as geometric shapes.

TRUE
FALSE

true

For illustrating specific parts in a complex mechanism, photographs are generally better than diagrams.

TRUE
FALSE

false

To show how the parts of an item are assembled, use. . .

an organizational chart.
an exploded diagram.
a bar graph.
a photograph.
a pie chart.

an exploded diagram.

A legend is. . .

none of these
a list that credits data sources for the visual.
a caption that explains each bar or line in a graph.
a prose introduction to a visual.
a visual achievement of historic magnitude.

a caption that explains each bar or line in a graph.
Besides a spatial sequence, list two possible sequences for describing an item.
Functional and Chronological
Besides “What is it?” List three reader questions that are typically answered by a technical description.
What does it do? What does it look like? what is it made of? How does it work?

Users of any technical description need as much information as possible.

TRUE
FALSE

false

The most precise technical descriptions are. . .

objective.
creative.
vividly subjective.
all of these
visionary.

objective

“Phlebotomy specimen” is a more precise and descriptive way of saying “blood.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

Words such as impressive, new, improved, large, and better often are seen in technical descriptions.

TRUE
FALSE

false

The details you select for a description will depend on all these elements except. . .

your purpose.
the intended use of the description.
your user’s information needs.
your writing situation.
your personal preferences.

your personal preferences.

Any item can be described in many ways.

TRUE
FALSE

true

When in doubt about how much to include in a description, one should remember that too many details always are better than too few.

TRUE
FALSE

true

The main purpose of technical description is to stimulate consumer interest in products.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Usability criteria for a document are defined by. . .

constraints of the setting.
none of these
the type of task.
user characteristics.
all of these

all of these

Online documents are often harder to navigate than printed pages.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Usability testing is usually performed only on complex products or documents.

TRUE
FALSE

false

In testing a document for usability, each evaluator should work alone.

TRUE
FALSE

true

A usable document enables users to do all of the following except. . .

easily locate the needed information.
carry out the task safely, efficiently, and accurately.
develop creative approaches to the task.
understand the information.
use the information successfully.

develop creative approaches to the task.

A basic usability survey focuses primarily on a document’s content.

TRUE
FALSE

false
Three “human factors” that enhance or limit performance include. . .
attitudes, abilities, and limitations

Expert users tend to read a document sequentially (page by page).

TRUE
FALSE

false

Online documents tend to be organized in modular fashion.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Usability testing should occur under controlled conditions.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Every problem has a definite solution that can be revealed in an exhaustive analysis.

TRUE
FALSE

false

An analytical report may address two or more types of analytical problems.

TRUE
FALSE

true

You should always construct a formal outline of your analysis before writing a first draft.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Writers of analytical reports. . .

begin with a clear identification of the problem or question.
usually discover the problem or question only during their investigation or drafting.
ignore the problem or question until they have completed their research.
eschew visuals.

begin with a clear identification of the problem or question.

Thinking critically about your recommendations means. . .

considering all the details.
locating the weak spots.
making improvements.
all of these

all of these

Among the typical analytical problems are “Why does X happen?” and “How do I do X?”

TRUE
FALSE

false

The general purpose in any analysis is to prove the writer’s point. In your analytical report, therefore, cite only data that support your thesis.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Audiences for analytical reports always expect. . .

just the facts, so that they can interpret them as they see fit.
a full interpretation of the data.
valid conclusions and recommendations.
detailed instructions.

a full interpretation of the data

Analytical reports typically. . .

lead to recommendations.
rely only on secondary sources.
are written for clients and readers outside the organization.
rely heavily on supplements.
are written for readers within the organization.

lead to recommendations.

Audiences for analytical reports are likely to be most interested in. . .

the conclusion.
the headings.
the body.
the introduction.
the visuals and appendices.

the conclusion.

Decisions in the research process are recursive.

TRUE
FALSE

true

In research, “balance” and “accuracy” are synonymous.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Effective research eliminates contradictory conclusions.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Web pages usually are dependable sources for information that offers both depth and quality.

TRUE
FALSE

false

At its deepest level, secondary research examines. . .

specialized and government sources.
electronic newsgroups.
tabloids.
trade and business publications.
the popular press.

specialized and government sources.

Effective research depends on all of the following except. . .

asking the right questions.
achieving sufficient depth.
getting at the facts.
sampling a full range of opinions.
finding a definite answer.

finding a definite answer.

Expert testimony usually offers a reliable “final word.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

An ethical researcher reports all points of view as if they were equal.

TRUE
FALSE

FALSE

Likely sources for relatively impartial views are. . .

specialized and government sources.
Web pages.
all of these
none of these
trade and business sources.

specialized and government sources.

The research process can be visualized as a “looping” structure.

TRUE
FALSE

true

“Correlation” is a more precise term for “causation.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

The basic criteria by which we measure the dependability of any research are. . .

validity and reliability.
timeliness and efficiency.
conciseness and emphasis.
relevance and focus.
all of these

validity and reliability.

“Framing” offers an ethical way to present the facts.

TRUE
FALSE

false

The most recent information is almost always the most reliable.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Research is most effective when it achieves “certainty.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

Valid research typically produces. . .

a conclusive answer.
a probable answer.
an inconclusive answer.
any of these

any of these

Indicators of quality for a Web site include all of the following except. . .

objective coverage.
presentations that include graphics, video, and sound.
material that has been peer reviewed.
options for contacting the author or organization.
links to reputable sites.

presentations that include graphics, video, and sound.

In statistics, the mode is the value that occurs most often.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Personal bias among researchers is inescapable.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Numbers tend to be less misleading than words.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Especially important to nonspecialized audiences for long proposals is/are. . .

the appendices.
the letter of transmittal.
the conclusion.
the introduction.
the abstract.

the abstract

Generally, unsolicited proposals have longer introductions than those that have been solicited.

TRUE
FALSe

true

In some long proposals, the conclusion can be omitted.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Proposals are usually written at the lowest level of technicality.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Successful proposals are usually those that are. . .

most prosaic.
most ambitious.
most specific.
most elaborately designed.
most creative.

most specific

Business and government proposals are most often unsolicited.

TRUE
FALSE

false

The guidelines for developing a proposal for a specific client are typically included in. . .

the RFP.
the proposing firm’s operations manuals.
any comprehensive textbook.
the letter of transmittal.

the RFP

A proposal for improving your company’s employee morale, requested by the vice-president in charge of personnel, would probably be classified as. . .

an unsolicited external planning proposal.
a sales proposal.
none of these
a solicited internal planning proposal.
a solicited internal research proposal

a solicited internal planning proposal.

Besides being clear, the proposal plan must be. . .

highly optimistic.
inexpensive.
realistic.
coercive.
creative.

realistic

The body section of a proposal receives most attention from readers.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Lies that are “legal” in the workplace include all of the following, except. . .

inflated claims about your commitment.
promises you know you can’t keep.
credentials you don’t have.
broken contractual promises.
assurances you haven’t verified.

broken contractual promises.

In reports to their superiors, subordinates tend to suppress bad news.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Ethical employees stand a better chance of speaking out and surviving if they avoid everything except. . .

procrastination.
crusading.
overstating the problem.
keeping a “paper trail.”
overreacting.

keeping a “paper trail.”

The law offers full protection for employees who take an ethical stand against an employer.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Among managers polled nationwide, those who felt pressured by their company to compromise their ethical standards numbered. . .

greater than 50 percent.
25 percent.
40 percent.
fewer than 10 percent.
over 90 percent.

greater than 50 percent

In ethical organizations, “groupthink” is preferable to “team play.”

TRUE
FALSE

false

To be effective, a message must be ethical.

TRUE
FALSE

false

The law provides adequate guidelines for ethical behavior.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Ethical employees always owe their greatest loyalty to. . .

co-workers.
themselves.
none of these
their company.
clients and customers

none of these

The Challenger disaster was an unavoidable consequence of mechanical failure.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Generally you should summarize someone else’s material in your own words.

TRUE
FALSE

true

To avoid confusing anyone in a large and unspecified audience, make your summary. . .

as entertaining as possible.
as brief as possible.
highly technical.
nontechnical.
graphically engaging

nontechnical.

Above all, a good summary is. . .

grammatically correct.
entertaining.
brief.
concise.
obtuse.

concise

A descriptive abstract presents. . .

the essential message from the original.
the pedantic perspective.
the most general view.
a visual depiction.
the most detailed view.

the most general view.

The length of your summary should be your primary interest.

TRUE
FALSE

false

More people are likely to read your summary than any other part of your report.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Whenever possible, you should insert personal comments about material in the summary.

TRUE
FALSE

false

For a summary, the essential message does not include. . .

major findings.
key statistics.
controlling ideas.
conclusions and recommendations.
examples and visuals.

examples and visuals.

A summary never should be longer than 5% of the original.

TRUE
FALSE

false

New employees often summarize professional literature for decision makers.

TRUE
FALSE

true

If necessary during your talk, liven things up with clever digressions.

TRUE
FALSE

false

You should use as many visuals as possible during your presentation.

TRUE
FALSE

false

To be sure you stay on track during your presentation, prepare beforehand a. . .

cue cards.
numbered list of key words.
verbatim script of the entire presentation.
topic outline.
sentence outline.

sentence outline

The impromptu delivery is usually effective for a formal report.

TRUE
FALSE

false

A good strategy for connecting with your audience is. . .

an authoritarian tone.
an occasional anecdote.
well-timed digressions.
eye contact.
a rich array of jokes.

eye contact

Before giving your talk, you should carefully rehearse.

TRUE
FALSE

true

For most subjects, you should distribute any handouts only after your presentation.

TRUE
FALSE

true

Complex and elaborate visuals help keep your audience interested.

TRUE
FALSE

false

Generally, the most effective way of presenting an oral report is to. . .

none of these
use extemporaneous delivery.
repeat it from memory.
give an oration.
read it aloud.

use extemporaneous delivery.

To keep your audience’s attention, aim for a maximum delivery time of. . .

40 minutes.
30 minutes.
20 minutes.
any of these
10 minutes.

20 minutes
Macro photography should be done in color, not in black and white as this hides detail.
False
Adults’ hands can be photographed engaging in a favorite activity or holding hands with someone.
True
The amount of magnification gained from the extension tube depends on the focal length of the lens.
True
Lighting becomes less important with macro photography since you are so close to the subject.
False
Many amateur photographers use a macro lens.
False
Only pretty objects should be used in macro photography.
False
You can create a backdrop for a macro flower photograph with a piece of paper.
True
What is the magnification on a true macro lens?
1:1
What is a disadvantage of using a macro filter?
It can degrade the quality of the image.
In extreme close-up photographs what background works best?
Blurred background
What is true of extension tubes?
They are hollow.
Which of the following is true of macro photography with people?
People are not good subjects for macro photography.
Macro photography often involves what type of depth of field?
Shallow
Close-up photography is another word for what?
Macro photography
What lighting direction can make a flower’s petals almost glow?
Backlighting
It is very difficult to enter the field of photography as a career.
False
Many professional photographers take business courses or training to help them run their businesses.
True
The need for photographers is decreasing in the United States.
True
Photojournalists may be employed by newspapers and magazines.
True
Many photographers work non-traditional hours, such as weekends.
True
Professional photography is a competitive job field.
True
A college degree is required for professional photographers.
False
Photographers who own studios are responsible for what costs?
All of the above
A scientific photographer concentrates on which subject?
Disease
What is the educational path for professional photographers?
There is no uniform educational or training path or requirements
A commercial photographer concentrates on which subject?
Fashion
What do professional photographers who own their own business have to do to be successful?
All of the above
What is the first step in becoming a professional photographer?
Having a passion and interest for photography
Forensic photographers photograph which of the following?
Crime scenes
Some buildings are also copyrighted, so it’s a good idea to check if you plan to license a photograph with a famous building in it.
True
A model release can be either oral or written down.
False
A model release is a document that spells out under which conditions a photographer may use a photograph of someone.
True
Commercial use is typically defined as the use of an image for advertising purposes.
True
It is always legal to license or sell a photograph with a person in it.
False
Photographers may photograph into someone’s house as long as they are standing in the street.
False
What a photograph will be used for impacts its legal and ethical position.
True
Which word describes a photograph that is considered for editorial use?
Newsworthy
The copyright symbol looks like which of the following?
©
What permits the copying of a photograph in certain circumstances?
Fair use
Where might photography be banned?
Military bases
Which convention automatically transfers copyright to the producer of a work of art?
The Berne Convention
Which amendment in the United States protects the freedom of speech?
First Amendment
When do you need a model release?
The person is recognizable in the photograph, and you want to be able to license the photograph for commercial use.
The idea of copyright dates back to when and where?
1500s and Great Britain
In 1941, Alfred Eisenstaedt worked for the War Relocation Authority to document the forced evacuation of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast to relocation camps.
False
Edward Weston had a beach named after him.
True
Eisenstaedt’s work illustrates the need for photographers to be ready for those perfect spontaneous moments that create great photographs.
True
Weston’s “Print of the Month” club brought him financial stability.
True
Ansel Adams is best known for his black and white photographs of national parks.
True
The government celebrated Lange’s documentation of the relocation process in Japanese American camps.
False
Dorothea Lange helped to co-found the photography magazine Aperture.
True
Annie Liebovitz is known for her photographs in which area?
Portraits
Which photographer was known for his/her work as an environmentalist?
Ansel Adams
What group did Ansel Adams and Edward Weston help to found?
Group f/64
Which photographer produced iconic images of the Great Depression?
Dorothea Lange
Which photographer was born in Germany?
Alfred Eisenstaedt
Annie Leibovitz worked at which publication?
Rolling Stone
Which of the following celebrities have been photographed by Annie Leibovitz?
All of the above
Which photographer had a “Print of the Month” club?
Edward Weston
Which tool or feature is a sort of transparency or overlay that is placed over the top of an image to change that image in some way?
Layers
Which filter would you use to take a close-up of a flower?
Marco
Which is the best image editing software program?
Whichever program works best for the individual photographer’s needs and preferences
The ND of the ND filter stands for which of the following?
Neutral density
What should you do when taking a black and white photograph?
Look for active skies.
Which of the following photo editing software programs is free?
GNU Image Manipulation Program
When doing black and white photography, which file format should you use if possible?
RAW
Why would photographers want to process their film in the darkroom?
It gives the photographer greater control over the print.
Which of the following was a famous photographer who specialized in black and white photographs?
Ansel Adams
What is the difference between light and dark called?
Contrast
Photo editing can transform any image into a great photograph.
False
Light can make or break a black and white photograph.
True
Digital cameras are less susceptible to UV light.
True
A filter is a camera accessory that is mounted on the optical path of the lens.
True
The first flexible photographic film was developed by Kodak Eastman in the 1960s.
False
Filters can only be used on film cameras.
False
Images are immediately visible to the naked eye on film once they have been taken by a camera.
False
Darkrooms require very little training to use or stay safe in.
False
Macro filters are used to add saturated colors to landscape photographs.
False
GIMP does not have a traditional support department or customer service.
True
Tonal contrast is the difference between highlights and dark tones.
True
To develop a print, you’ll need ten trays of chemicals.
False
Professional photographers often use the lowest quality settings on their cameras since this can be reversed in Photoshop.
False
While developing a print, it is important to gently agitate the trays.
True
Many of the changes added by filters can be duplicated by photo editing software.
True
Stock agencies are often concerned about what?
Noise
Early displayed photographs often had what characteristic?
They were mounted on plywood without frames.
Noise is the presence of what in a photograph?
Color specks
Where is the photographer’s signature generally located?
In the lower right-hand side below the photograph.
Who is often credited with displaying the first fine art photographs?
John Jabez Edwin Mayall
For product photography, which background is often preferred?
White
A product photograph is mostly likely to be used in which of the following situations?
With a stock agency
Many stock photographs are meant to convey what?
A particular concept
Stock photographers typically use which file format for their images?
RAW
What can cause noise?
All of the above
Whereas traditional stock agencies showcase the work of professional photographers, anyone can submit to microstock agencies, provided that the images meet the criteria that the microstock agency has set up.
True
It is best to position a product directly next to the background to eliminate glare.
False
Fine art photography overlaps with a number of other areas of photography.
True
When displaying photographs in a gallery, museum, or other location, photographers should check with the location itself about any presentation guidelines.
True
In addition to, or in place of, a front signature, many photographers sign and date the back of a photograph.
True
The presentation of a photograph does not really add or detract from the photograph and should not be a concern for photographers.
False
Model releases are needed for stock images when a person is recognizable in them.
True
Noise in a photograph can appear for different reasons, including using a high ISO, using a long exposure, or heat in the image generator itself.
True
Light boxes and tents are typically used for fine art photography.
False
When you are photographing a product, it is important for the product to be clean, defect-free, and in good condition.
True
Fine Art and Commercial photography have little in common.
False
Snapshots taken on vacations and during family outings are often popular stock images.
False
The beginnings of fine art photography can be dated back to the Victorian era.
True
When photographers wish to use a stock photograph, they generally pay a fee to license the image for a particular product, such as a brochure, for a particular amount of time.
True
Few fine art photographs are sold today.
False
Photojournalists may carry several different cameras and lenses to help them get different shots.
True
Due to the internet, photojournalism is declining rapidly.
False
Photojournalists help to record and provide proof of events such as genocide, massacres, and natural disasters.
True
A telephoto lens is rarely used by photojournalists.
False
Photojournalists should never introduce themselves to the people they are photographing.
False
Law enforcement and emergency personnel always respond positively to photojournalists.
False
Photojournalists typically earn the most out of all photography areas.
False
Photojournalists often work in pressure-filled situations.
True
There is usually little need to assess a situation before photographing.
True
Photojournalists should always photograph the most emotionally loaded scene that they can find.
False
Photojournalism plays an important role in the world today by documenting events and situations.
True
Photojournalists should feel free to manipulate their images with photo editing software in order to tell the story, even if that means deleting or adding things.
True
Photographers generally have unlimited access to sporting events.
False
Whereas journalism records written information, photojournalism records visual information.
True
As recorders of information, photojournalists need to be mindful of presenting the world as they see it, without manipulating the scene or telling half-truths through the visual image.
True
Which of the following is a good tip for documentary photography?
Shoot with your heart ?
What depth of field do you generally want in sports photography?
Large
To introduce more drama to an image, a photographer might include which of the following?
Action
Photojournalism helps to gather and record which of the following?
Information
What responsibility does a photojournalist have?
To record accurately
When panning, your camera should move in which direction?
Parallel to the subject
What is one technique that can help a photojournalist capture a great candid photograph?
Anticipate what might happen.
Documentary photographers strive to produce what type of image?
True
What can help photojournalists get a close-up shot when they are positioned away from the scene they are shooting?
Telephoto lens
To get a great sports photograph, you need to do what?
Anticipate the action
Macro photography should be done in color, not in black and white as this hides detail.
False
Adults’ hands can be photographed engaging in a favorite activity or holding hands with someone.
True
The amount of magnification gained from the extension tube depends on the focal length of the lens.
True
Lighting becomes less important with macro photography since you are so close to the subject.
False
Many amateur photographers use a macro lens.
False
Only pretty objects should be used in macro photography.
False
You can create a backdrop for a macro flower photograph with a piece of paper.
True
What is the magnification on a true macro lens?
1:1
What is a disadvantage of using a macro filter?
It can degrade the quality of the image.
In extreme close-up photographs what background works best?
Blurred background
What is true of extension tubes?
They are hollow.
Which of the following is true of macro photography with people?
People are not good subjects for macro photography.
Macro photography often involves what type of depth of field?
Shallow
Close-up photography is another word for what?
Macro photography
What lighting direction can make a flower’s petals almost glow?
Backlighting
It is very difficult to enter the field of photography as a career.
False
Many professional photographers take business courses or training to help them run their businesses.
True
The need for photographers is decreasing in the United States.
True
Photojournalists may be employed by newspapers and magazines.
True
Many photographers work non-traditional hours, such as weekends.
True
Professional photography is a competitive job field.
True
A college degree is required for professional photographers.
False
Photographers who own studios are responsible for what costs?
All of the above
A scientific photographer concentrates on which subject?
Disease
What is the educational path for professional photographers?
There is no uniform educational or training path or requirements
A commercial photographer concentrates on which subject?
Fashion
What do professional photographers who own their own business have to do to be successful?
All of the above
What is the first step in becoming a professional photographer?
Having a passion and interest for photography
Forensic photographers photograph which of the following?
Crime scenes
Some buildings are also copyrighted, so it’s a good idea to check if you plan to license a photograph with a famous building in it.
True
A model release can be either oral or written down.
False
A model release is a document that spells out under which conditions a photographer may use a photograph of someone.
True
Commercial use is typically defined as the use of an image for advertising purposes.
True
It is always legal to license or sell a photograph with a person in it.
False
Photographers may photograph into someone’s house as long as they are standing in the street.
False
What a photograph will be used for impacts its legal and ethical position.
True
Which word describes a photograph that is considered for editorial use?
Newsworthy
The copyright symbol looks like which of the following?
©
What permits the copying of a photograph in certain circumstances?
Fair use
Where might photography be banned?
Military bases
Which convention automatically transfers copyright to the producer of a work of art?
The Berne Convention
Which amendment in the United States protects the freedom of speech?
First Amendment
When do you need a model release?
The person is recognizable in the photograph, and you want to be able to license the photograph for commercial use.
The idea of copyright dates back to when and where?
1500s and Great Britain
In 1941, Alfred Eisenstaedt worked for the War Relocation Authority to document the forced evacuation of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast to relocation camps.
False
Edward Weston had a beach named after him.
True
Eisenstaedt’s work illustrates the need for photographers to be ready for those perfect spontaneous moments that create great photographs.
True
Weston’s “Print of the Month” club brought him financial stability.
True
Ansel Adams is best known for his black and white photographs of national parks.
True
The government celebrated Lange’s documentation of the relocation process in Japanese American camps.
False
Dorothea Lange helped to co-found the photography magazine Aperture.
True
Annie Liebovitz is known for her photographs in which area?
Portraits
Which photographer was known for his/her work as an environmentalist?
Ansel Adams
What group did Ansel Adams and Edward Weston help to found?
Group f/64
Which photographer produced iconic images of the Great Depression?
Dorothea Lange
Which photographer was born in Germany?
Alfred Eisenstaedt
Annie Leibovitz worked at which publication?
Rolling Stone
Which of the following celebrities have been photographed by Annie Leibovitz?
All of the above
Which photographer had a “Print of the Month” club?
Edward Weston
Which tool or feature is a sort of transparency or overlay that is placed over the top of an image to change that image in some way?
Layers
Which filter would you use to take a close-up of a flower?
Marco
Which is the best image editing software program?
Whichever program works best for the individual photographer’s needs and preferences
The ND of the ND filter stands for which of the following?
Neutral density
What should you do when taking a black and white photograph?
Look for active skies.
Which of the following photo editing software programs is free?
GNU Image Manipulation Program
When doing black and white photography, which file format should you use if possible?
RAW
Why would photographers want to process their film in the darkroom?
It gives the photographer greater control over the print.
Which of the following was a famous photographer who specialized in black and white photographs?
Ansel Adams
What is the difference between light and dark called?
Contrast
Photo editing can transform any image into a great photograph.
False
Light can make or break a black and white photograph.
True
Digital cameras are less susceptible to UV light.
True
A filter is a camera accessory that is mounted on the optical path of the lens.
True
The first flexible photographic film was developed by Kodak Eastman in the 1960s.
False
Filters can only be used on film cameras.
False
Images are immediately visible to the naked eye on film once they have been taken by a camera.
False
Darkrooms require very little training to use or stay safe in.
False
Macro filters are used to add saturated colors to landscape photographs.
False
GIMP does not have a traditional support department or customer service.
True
Tonal contrast is the difference between highlights and dark tones.
True
To develop a print, you’ll need ten trays of chemicals.
False
Professional photographers often use the lowest quality settings on their cameras since this can be reversed in Photoshop.
False
While developing a print, it is important to gently agitate the trays.
True
Many of the changes added by filters can be duplicated by photo editing software.
True
Stock agencies are often concerned about what?
Noise
Early displayed photographs often had what characteristic?
They were mounted on plywood without frames.
Noise is the presence of what in a photograph?
Color specks
Where is the photographer’s signature generally located?
In the lower right-hand side below the photograph.
Who is often credited with displaying the first fine art photographs?
John Jabez Edwin Mayall
For product photography, which background is often preferred?
White
A product photograph is mostly likely to be used in which of the following situations?
With a stock agency
Many stock photographs are meant to convey what?
A particular concept
Stock photographers typically use which file format for their images?
RAW
What can cause noise?
All of the above
Whereas traditional stock agencies showcase the work of professional photographers, anyone can submit to microstock agencies, provided that the images meet the criteria that the microstock agency has set up.
True
It is best to position a product directly next to the background to eliminate glare.
False
Fine art photography overlaps with a number of other areas of photography.
True
When displaying photographs in a gallery, museum, or other location, photographers should check with the location itself about any presentation guidelines.
True
In addition to, or in place of, a front signature, many photographers sign and date the back of a photograph.
True
The presentation of a photograph does not really add or detract from the photograph and should not be a concern for photographers.
False
Model releases are needed for stock images when a person is recognizable in them.
True
Noise in a photograph can appear for different reasons, including using a high ISO, using a long exposure, or heat in the image generator itself.
True
Light boxes and tents are typically used for fine art photography.
False
When you are photographing a product, it is important for the product to be clean, defect-free, and in good condition.
True
Fine Art and Commercial photography have little in common.
False
Snapshots taken on vacations and during family outings are often popular stock images.
False
The beginnings of fine art photography can be dated back to the Victorian era.
True
When photographers wish to use a stock photograph, they generally pay a fee to license the image for a particular product, such as a brochure, for a particular amount of time.
True
Few fine art photographs are sold today.
False
Photojournalists may carry several different cameras and lenses to help them get different shots.
True
Due to the internet, photojournalism is declining rapidly.
False
Photojournalists help to record and provide proof of events such as genocide, massacres, and natural disasters.
True
A telephoto lens is rarely used by photojournalists.
False
Photojournalists should never introduce themselves to the people they are photographing.
False
Law enforcement and emergency personnel always respond positively to photojournalists.
False
Photojournalists typically earn the most out of all photography areas.
False
Photojournalists often work in pressure-filled situations.
True
There is usually little need to assess a situation before photographing.
True
Photojournalists should always photograph the most emotionally loaded scene that they can find.
False
Photojournalism plays an important role in the world today by documenting events and situations.
True
Photojournalists should feel free to manipulate their images with photo editing software in order to tell the story, even if that means deleting or adding things.
True
Photographers generally have unlimited access to sporting events.
False
Whereas journalism records written information, photojournalism records visual information.
True
As recorders of information, photojournalists need to be mindful of presenting the world as they see it, without manipulating the scene or telling half-truths through the visual image.
True
Which of the following is a good tip for documentary photography?
Shoot with your heart ?
What depth of field do you generally want in sports photography?
Large
To introduce more drama to an image, a photographer might include which of the following?
Action
Photojournalism helps to gather and record which of the following?
Information
What responsibility does a photojournalist have?
To record accurately
When panning, your camera should move in which direction?
Parallel to the subject
What is one technique that can help a photojournalist capture a great candid photograph?
Anticipate what might happen.
Documentary photographers strive to produce what type of image?
True
What can help photojournalists get a close-up shot when they are positioned away from the scene they are shooting?
Telephoto lens
To get a great sports photograph, you need to do what?
Anticipate the action
Camera
A light-tight box that contains a light-sensitive material or device in a way of letting in a desired amount of light at particular times to create an image on the light-sensitive material.
Lens
The optical element of a camera. A ground or molded piece of glass, plastic, or other transparent material with opposite surfaces, either or both which are curved, by means of which light rays are refracted so that they converge or diverge to form an image
Converging or Convex Lens
-Will bend the light toward the center of the lens, since one or both sides of the glass curve out. It takes various rays of light and bends them toward the same point, which ultimately allows an image to form
Focal Length
The magnification of a lens. The distance between the lens and the film, when the lens is focused at an infinite distance.
Telephoto Lenses
Lenses that magnify an image or make an object seem closer than it really is.
Wide-Angle Lens
Lens that shrinks the object in front of it, by way of a shorter focal length
Shutter
Opens and closes between the film and the lens, letting light in only when you have told the camera to do so
Shutter Speed
Length of time that light is let into the camera in order to expose the film
Iris Diaphragm
A set of overlapping metal plates that expand out and allow more light or fold in on each other to reduce the amount of light
Pentaprism
Light passes through the lens and onto a mirror, which is located between the lens and the shutter. The mirror reflects the light upward to this five sided mirror.
SLR Camera
Camera that has a semiautomatic movement of the mirror, which produces an exact image in the viewfinder
Large and Medium format cameras
Cameras use a negative film size that is greater than the usual 35mm.
Pinhole Camera
One of the earliest cameras made. Do
Digital Cameras
Cameras that use an electronic image sensor to digitally record an image
Pixel
The smallest unit of the picture that can be controlled
JPEG
joint Photo Experts Group which is the default file format in many digital cameras on the market today
TIFF
The Tagged image File Format, a lossless file format that keeps all of the information in the picture, but it means a much larger file size than a compressed file
RAW or NEF
A file format that is offered on some cameras, particularly higher-end cameras. This file saves the actual data, which are not processed by the camera
Optical Zoom
Works like a telephoto lens; the image quality remains the same as the image is magnified
Digital Zoom
Crops the image and enlarges the cropped image to fill the frame of the camera. This means that this generally results in a loss of quality in the image
White Balance
Simply an adjustment that can be made to the color so that whites will appear white in the photograph, and not yellow or blue.
False
Pinhole Cameras use a conflex lens
True or False
A shutter
What opens between the lens and the film in order to create the photograph
True
True or False:
a lens can simply be a curved piece of glass
True
true or False:
Digital Cameras use an electronic image sensor to digitally record an image
False
true or false:
TIFF is the default file format for most digital cameras
Light
Film is sensitive to what?
False
True or false:
Digital zoom tends to have no effect on the quality of the image
Focal Length
The magnification of a lens is also known as which of the following:
Focal Length
Aperture
Digital Zoom
Shutter Speed
False
True or false:
Generally, each pixel in an image creates 25 bytes of data
False
True or False:
A camera in manual mode means that the camera will make all of the adjustments for the photographer
True
True or False:
In a pinhole camera, the image seen in the camera will be inverted
JPEG
Which popular file format loses some of the information from the image
True
True or False:
The white balance of an image can be affected by the particular lighting at the photograph site
Iris Diaphragm
Aperture is controlled by what in the camera?
Iris Diaphragm
Lans
White Balance
Pentaprism
True
True or False:
An Iris Diaphragm is a set of overlapping metal plates that can expand out to allow more light to fold in on each other to reduce the amount of light
John Herschel
A well-known English astronomer who first used the term photography in 1839. Also used terms Positive, negative and snapshot in relation to photography
Joseph Niepce
French inventor who produced the first photograph in the 1820s. used a pewter plate and a substance known as bitumen of Judea
Louis Daguerre
Partnership with Niepce. Used Niepce’s notes to invent a process called daguerreotype in 1839. The french government bought the rights for the process
Calotype
Technique for taking photographs invented in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot. Used paper coated with silver iodine
Collodion Process
Technique for creating photographs invented by Fredrick Scott Archer in 1851. Used wet plates, which were glass plates that had been covered with a mixture of chemicals before being places in the camera for the exposure
Sergei Levitsky
Russian count who designed a bellows camera in 1847 that made focusing on the subject easier
Richard Maddox
in 1871 he developed a way to use gelatin instead of glass for the negatives. This allowed photographers to develop a dry plate technique rather that the wet plates of the collodion process
George Eastman
Created a dry gel on paper, or what we think of as film in 1884
Kodak Brownie
Cameras introduced in 1900-1901. Made cameras available to mass market. Became very popular because they were simple to use and relatively inexpensive
Oskar Barnack
Invented the 35mm film. First prototype in 1913 called the Ur-Leica. Remained too expensive for most people until the 1930s
James Clerck Maxwell
Used filters to create three monochrome images (one photograph in red, blue, and green). When projected together with three different lanterns, the image would return to a more natural color
Autochrome Lumiere
One of the color processes patented in 1903 by French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere. Involved coating a glass with microscopic grains that had been dyed colors like green, violet, and orange
Kodachrome
In 1935 Kodak began to produce this color still film that used a subtractive process
Kodak DCS 100
The first commercially available digital camera which entered the market in 1990. The images could be downloaded from the camera to a computer
Commercial Photography
Any photography in which the photographer is paid for images that were not produces as works of art
Royalty-free images
images that the user pays a one-time fee for the image, Under this license, users can use the image for as long as they like after they pay the license fee.
Rights-managed images
Images in which the price of the license is determined by the use of the image. Some of these considerations include how long the user will be using the image, the location that the image will be used in
Aperture
Refers to the lens opening that allows us to control the amount of lights that reaches the film or digital sensor
f-stops
What aperture in measured in. Typically expressed as f/number, such as f/2.8
Depth of Field
Refers to the amount of your pictures that will be in focus. A large one means that most of your picture will be in focus, including both the objects closeThe amount to your camera and those further away from your camera
Shutter Speed
The amount of time that the shutter remains open or the amount of time that the digital sensor “sees” the image
Manual Mode
Mode in which the photographer makes all of the decisions about the aperture, shutter speed, white balance, ISO, and so on
automatic Mode
Means that your camera selects the aperture, shutter speed, white balance, and so on
Portrait Mode
Your camera will automatically use a large aperture. This will make the background slightly out of focus, putting the emphasis on the person you are photographing
Sports Mode
Your camera will automatically choose a faster shutter speed. Specifically designed to capture moving objects and keep them in focus.
Landscape Mode
Uses a small aperture to keep the photograph as in focus as possible. This means that even items further away will often be in focus
Macro mode
Allows you to get closer to your subject. Your distance to the object will depend on your particular camera’s abilities; some cameras will allow you to get closer to the subject than others
Night Mode
Makes taking pictures in low light situations easier. This mode uses a longer shutter speed to capture the image and uses a flash to light up items closer to the camera
Shutter priority Mode
Represented by an “S” or “TV” on the camera settings. This mode allows the photographer to set the shutter speed, while that camera will adjust to other aspects (like aperture, white balance, and so on) in relation to the shutter speed setting
Aperture priority mode
Semiautomatic mode. Instead of the photographer setting the shutter speed, the photographer selects the particular aperture for the photograph. The camera will the make the necessary adjustments to the shutter speed, white balance, and so on.
composition
The visual arrangement or placement of the elements in a photograph. While some great photographs may happen accidentally, more often they are carefully planned and thought out.
Rule of Thirds
One of the best known composition guidelines that involves imagining that your photograph is split into thirds both horizontally and vertically. this produces nine squares in the photo and four points of intersection within the photograph. The grid helps identify four good places to position points of interest.
Framing
Involves blocking some elements within the photograph in order to show off other elements
Active Space
Technique when you have movement or when the subject is looking off into space
Frontlighting
One of the common terms used to identify the direction of the light on the subject. Occurs when the sun is in the back of the photographer
Backlighting
Occurs when the light source is behind the subject. This can be used to create a silhouette effect.
Sidelighting
Happens when the light source is at an angle to the subject. This can create some interesting shadows and effects in the photograph, and the technique is often used in black and white photography
Existing Light Photography
Photography that only uses light already present in the scene. this can include light from the sun, lamps, candles, or neon lights
Continuous Source lights
Artificial lights that remain on. Including lamps, fluorescent lights, and other lights that remain constantly on.
Flash Lights
second main type of studio lights that only emit light when you tell them to. also known as strobe lighting
Softboxes
Lighting devices that enclose the lighting source in a “box” with reflective back and side walls and a front diffusing material, where the light passes through
Reflector
Any object that reflects light back toward the subject of your photograph
filter
camera accessory that is mounted on the optical path of the lens. May correct color, protect the lens, or add special effects to the photograph, such as reducing or increasing contrast
Polarizing Filters
Improve the saturation in the photograph (makes the colors deeper) and reduce the amount of reflected light that hits the camera’s sensor
UV/ Haze filters
Can add extra protection for the camera lens. UV stands for “ultraviolet” or the light that is invisible to the human eye. Used to cut down on the haze that could appear in photographs of mountains or coasts
Neutral Density filters
help change the exposure time for a photograph. Specifically, they decrease the amount of light that enters the camera, allowing for a larger aperture for a longer period of time.
Macro filters
Used to create close-uo images, even with regular or telephoto lenses. They are almost like another lens that you put on the camera to be able to focus at closer distances.
Color filters
Sometimes used to enhance certain colors in the photograph. The filter creates deeper, brighter colors. Some of these filters help to compensate for different types of light that might alter the color of the photograph
Tonal Contrast
The difference between the highlights and dark tones
Shape
Refers to the two-dimensional representation of an object
Form
An object’s appearance in three dimensions
Panoramic Photography
Also known as wide format photography, consists of photographs with a longer field of view than traditional photographs
Portraits
Pictures of individuals in which their face and expression are the primary focus
Representational landscape photographs
Photographs of landscapes as they appear in reality. Types of photographs that show mountains, rivers, waterfalls, beaches, and so on as they appear to the photographers when they take the picture.
Impressionistic landscape photographs
Show an impression of the scene rather than an exact representation of the scene. The results are photographs that are more subtle and less “real” than representational landscapes
Abstract landscape photographs
Emphasize shape, form, contrast, or color in such a way that the scene itself is not recognizable. The photographs are not meant to convey a particular scene, but to focus on particular elements within it
Macro photography
close-up photography, involves projecting an image on the digital sensor (or film) that is as close to real sized as possible. Involves taking close-up pictures of small things
Panning
A technique where you pan, or move, the camera in the same direction as the movement of the person or object you are photographing
Documentary photographs
Created to produce a historical record of an event, place, or person. The purpose of the photographs is not to produce artistic work, although some are incredibly moving and fascinating photographs
Berenice Abbot
(1898-1991) Best known for their black and white photography of NYC architecture.
Ansel Adams
(1902-1984) Best known for their black and white national park photographs.
Robert Adams
(1937-Alive) Focused on the changing landscape of the American West.
Eugene Atget
(1857-1927) A pioneer of documentary photography, noted for their determination to document all of the architecture and street scenes of Paris before their disappearance.
Matthew Brady
(1822-1896) One of the first American photographers, documented the civil war and had many portraits of famous people of the time.
Bill Brandt
(1904-1983) One of the most important British photographers, known for his images of British society, distorted nudes, portraits, and landscapes.
Brassai
(1899-1984) Captured the beauty of Paris in between the World Wars, many images implemented fog.
Harry Callahan
(1912-1999) An innovator of street photography, used their spouse and daughter in many of their streetscapes and landscapes.
Henri-Cartier Bresson
(1908-2004) A master of candid photography and largely considered the founder of street photography.
Imogen Cunningham
(1883-1976) Known for botanical photography, nudes, and industrial landscapes. Took very sharp photos and was a member of f/64.
Robert Doisneu
(1912-1994) Pioneer of photojournalism, took pictures of juxtaposing social classes in the streets of Paris.
William Eggleston
(1939-Alive) Legitimized color photography as an artistic medium.
Walker Evans
(1903-1975) An American photographer known for his work for the Farm Security Agency documenting the effects of the Great Depression. Influenced others to show what was really happening in the world.
Lewis Hine
(1874-1940) A sociologist and photographer who used their camera as a tool for social reform. Their photographs were instrumental in changing child labor laws.
Dorothea Lange
(1895-1965) A documentary photographer known for her work for the Farm Security Agency documenting the effects of the great depression.
Marvin Newman
(1927-Alive) Known for editorial and sports photography.
Gordon Parks
(1912-2006) Known for the photograph “American Gothic” and for his photo essays in life magazine.
W Eugene Smith
(1918-1978) Developed the photo essay and is famous for war photos.
Aaron Siskind
(1903-1991) Part of the abstract movement, legitimized photography as an art form.
Alfred Stieglitz
(1864-1946) An American photographer who was instrumental in making photography an accepted art form.
Paul Strand
(1890-1976) Helped to make photography an accepted art form with Alfred Stieglitz.
Edward Weston
(1886-1958) Took photos exactly as the scene was observed.
Stephen Shore
(1947-Alive) A pioneer of the use of color photography, many banal scenes.
William Henry Jackson
(1843-1942) Sent by the government to photograph the West.
1902
In this year Alfred Stieglitz organized the show “Photo-Sessionist”.
1990
Adobe Photoshop 1.0 is released this year.
1931
Strobe photography is developed at MIT this year.
2003
The Canon digital rebel is introduced as a DSLR camera priced under $1000 this year. This makes the DSLR camera affordable to the masses
1880
The first half-tone photograph appears in a newspaper this year. The newspaper is called the the New York Graphic.
1963
The first instant color film is sold by Polaroid this year.
1855
Tintypes and ambrotypes become popular in the US this year.
2001
Polaroid goes bankrupt this year.
1878
The dry plate is commercially produced this year.
1834
The first permanent negative image process is developed by Henry Fox Talbot in this year.
1973
The C-41 color process is introduced this year. It is still used today.
1889
The first Kodak camera that used film is produced this year.
2004
Kodak stops the production of the 35mm film format this year.
1932
Group f64 is formed by Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, and Edward Weston this year.
2005
The Canon EOS 5D camera with full frame a 24mm x 36mm cmos sensor is introduced this year. This is the first full frame DSLR camera for under $3000.
1991
The first digital SLR camera is introduced this year; it is the Kodak DCS-100. It is a modified Nikon F3.
2000
The camera phone is introduced in Japan by Sharp this year.
1983
The disk camera is introduced by Kodak in this year.
1837
The daguerreotype process is invented by Louis Daguerre in this year.
1998
The first autofocus SLR camera is marketed by Minolta in this year.
1975
The first working digital camera is developed at Kodak using CCD technology in this year.
1871
The dry plate process is proposed by Richard Leach Maddox in this year. His process uses an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide.
1907
The first commercial color film is produced in France this year. It is manufactured by the Lumiere brothers.
1544
The German mathematician and physicist Gemma Frisius used the pinhole camera to study the eclipse of the sun in this year.
1936
Kodachrome film is developed this year. It is the first multi-layered color film.
5th century BC
One of the earliest recorded accounts of the camera obscura is written by the Chinese philosopher Mo Ti.
1924
The first high quality 35mm film camera is marketed by “Leica” in this year.
1861
The American Civil War began to be photographed by Matthew Brady and his staff this year. This coverage brings the graphic reality of war to people far removed from the battles.
1970
The 110 format camera is introduced by Kodak this year.
1485
Leonardo da Vinci provides the first detailed description of the workings of the pinhole camera in the manuscript Codex Atlanticus in this year.
1826
The first permanent image is created by Nicephore Niecpe in this year.
1948
The first instant black-and-white film is sold by Polaroid in this year.
1917
Nippon Kogaku is established in Tokyo, Japan in this year. The company will later become Nikon.
1999
Nikon introduces the first DSLR camera that is produced as a digital camera not a modified film camera in this year. It is called the D1SLR with 2.74 megapixels and a selling price of $6,000.
1727
The first photosensitive compound is created by mixing chalk, nitric acid, and silver in this year. The compound is created by professor J. Shulze.
1870
U.S. Congress sends photographers to the West this year. Tim O’Sullivan and William Jackson are the best-known photographers involved with the project.
Berenice Abbott
_______ photographed shops.
Robert Adams
________ photographed the impact of man on the environment.
Eugene Atget
______ photographed Paris in its early twentieth-century glory.
Bill Brandt
______ photographed the social classes of London.
Harry Callahan
______ used his wife in cityscapes.
Ansel Adams
______ was a photographer of Yosemite.
Marvin Newman
______ was a sports photographer.
Lewis Hine
_____ photographed immigrants at Ellis Island.
William Eggleston
_____ was the first to have a color print in the Museum of Modern art.
Dorothea Lange
_____ photographed the human suffering of the Great Depression.
Canon
The first digital SLR camera under $1000 was introduced in 2003 by _______.
Contrast
The difference between the darkest values and the lightest values in a photograph is called _____.
Louis Daguerre
In 1927 the daguerreotype process was introduced by _____.
William Jackson
The US congress sent photographers to the West. One of the most famous was _____.
1990
Adobe Photoshop was released this year.
Eugene Atget
This French photographer photographed Paris buildings and the street life of Paris in the late 1800’s. He never photographed the Eiffel Tower.
CMOS/CCD
A type of image sensor used in digital cameras today.
USB
The wiring used to quickly transfer digital data between devices is called_____.
aperture
Which part on the camera controls depth of field?
viewfinder
Which part of the camera do you use to compose and focus an image?
single lens reflex camera
This camera is known for its wide variety of changeable lenses and its through the lens metering and viewing.
rangefinder camera
This camera uses a viewing and focusing aid known as a rangefinder and has a quit shutter action.
view camera
This camera creates a very high-quality, single, large-format negative on sheet film.
point and shoot camera
This camera is easy to operate and has no additional equipment available.
twin lens reflex camera
This camera creates a medium format negative and uses one lens to view the subject and another to expose the film.
pinhole camera
simple camera with a black box, shutter, and hole
DSLR camera
a digital camera that has interchangeable lenses
twin-lens reflex
a camera with two lenses
point and shoot
a simple digital camera with a fixed lens
view camera
a camera that uses large sheets of film
fish eye
a lens that has a focal length under 20mm is known as a _____ lens
lens
Which part on the camera collects light and creates the angle of view
camera body
What is another word used to describe the light tight box part of the camera
Balance
_____ is created by visual weights in an image.
emphasis
When the viewer’s attention is drawn to a certain part of a picture there is an _______.
proportion
Larger objects appearing close and small objects appearing far is an example of _____.
rythym
_____ directs the viewer’s eye across similar, repeated elements.
unity
When all parts of a photograph are in visual agreement to the whole, it creates a sense of _____.
variety
______ is said to be the spice of life.
pattern
Related to texture, _____ is made by repetition of a design or element with a higher degree of regularity.
color
The mood or feeling of a picture is set by the _____ in the picture.
form
Objects in a picture that have three dimensions are used as _____.
line
A shape that is much longer than it is wide is called a _____.
shape
A perceived area of like value or color is called a _____.
space
How the area in a picture is divided is known as _____.
texture
The implied _____ in a photograph is determined by the value , or lights and darks, of certain shapes.
Value
_____ is the artistic term for lights and darks.
True
An example is an example of a line. True/False
CCD
The tones of a scene are changed into numbers by the ____.
2500
If your camera is set for 10 megapixels and you have an 8gb card, how many JPEG pictures can you expect to take?
True
The purpose of a UV or haze filter is to filter out unwanted ultraviolet light.
False
After opening a version set for viewing you must close it before you begin to work on another image or exit the program. True/False
True
The shadow/highlight adjustment is better than the brightness adjustment slider to improve brightness because it allows you to control parts of the picture instead of the whole picture. True/False
False
The first step in editing an image should be cropping. True/False
False
The marquee tool can be used to do free hand selections of an area in a picture. True/False
False
Auto contrast is the best way to make adjustments to the contrast in a picture. True/False
True
The levels adjustment should be the first step in the editing process. True/False
False
The clone stamp tool is a great tool for fixing flaws in a photograph. True/False
True
In the format window you must make sure it says “JPEG (*JPEG.*JPEG.*JPE).” True/False
False
When you want to save a picture after editing, you should always use the “Save As” function in the “File” dropdown menu. True/False
Joseph N. Niepce Louis Daguerre
William Henry Fox Talbot
Fathers of photography. Slow shutters are why Abe Lincoln didn’t smile. Niepce got credit. Daguerre got $$$. Talbot got nothing. Called photography pencil of nature.
Julia Margeret Cameron
Took up photography at 48. Thought up “soft focus”. One of first famous women. Stole orphans for photos.
Edweard Muybridge
The father of motion. Invented zoopraxiscope. Murdered his wife’s lover.
George Eastman
Founded Kodak. Brought photography to masses. Committed suicide.
Stieglitz and Steichen
Responsible for making photography art.
Henry Cartier Bresson
Coined “decisive moment”
Edward Weston
He was a cheater, obsessed with curves, women, and peppers.
Margeret Bourke White
1st woman to photograph war, Life magazine, and allowed in Soviet Union.
Ansel Adams
Best 20th century photographer. Was a custodian. Dropped out 8th grade. Invented zone system. Super sharp.
Robert Capa
AKA Endre Friedman. Capture 1st death on film. Stepped on a land mine. Girlfriend killed by tank. “If not good enough, not close enough”
Richard Avedon
Brought motion to fashion. Captured the Bee Keeper
Harold Edgerton
Called “Papa Flash”. Inventor of flash. Captured “Bullet through Apple”
Alfred Eisenstaedt
Captured “VJ day” most famous picture ever.
Dorothea Lange
Took “Migrant Mother” during the Great Depression. 2nd most famous picture.
Diane Arbus
Photographed freaks. Suicide note “Last Supper”
Irving Penn
Anything can be art. Conquered fashion.
John Rawlings
Worked with Irving Penn. 68 covers on Vogue magazine.
William Wegman
Photographed the dogs, weimaraners
Annie Leibovitz
Most famous 21st century photographer. Photographs celebrities.
Scott Mutter
Surrational images. Did not use photoshop.
Jerry Uelsmann
Did not use photoshop. Featured in TV shows. Did new things in Dark Room
Neil Leifer
Started at 16. Snuck into sports. Photographed Muhammad Ali. Sports illustrated.
Anne Geddes
Baby freak. Babies babies.
Nigel Barker
Photographed fashion and models. Filled up studio with water. Studio called “studio NB”
Sam Abel and Steve McCurry
national geographic photographers
Rosie Hardy
Had photo cover for Maroon 5. Started for better selfies.
Ben Heine
Famous for Pencil Vs. Camera. Uses photoshop.
Take photographs of events and settings of social issues. May be employed by newspapers, television stations, or magazines. Photograph news such as accidents, elections and protests
Photojournalists
Take photos of models, buildings, products, equipment, landscapes, and many other subjects for use by companies and businesses
Commercial Photographers
Take photos that are sold as art at a gallery, museum, art fair or in books
Fine Art Photographers
Work in criminal justice settings to help record crime scenes and evidence. Can also be responsible for presenting their work in court cases
Forensic Photographers
Use photographs to capture and record medical and scientific information.
Scientific Photographers
The right to copy a photograph. An important legal concept because without it, people would be free to use any photograph that you take without paying you any money for its use
Copyright
adopted into law in the united states in 1989, automatically transfers the copyright to the photographer or producer of the work, even if the symbol is not present
The Berne Convention
Permits the copying of a work in certain circumstances, generally private, educational, research, or editorial use
Fair Use
Most well-known photographer in North America. Best known for his black and white photographs of the western United States, particularly national parks
Ansel Adams
Ansel Adams, MH de Young Museum, and Imogen Cunningham formed this group committed to “straight” photography rather than artistic renditions of a scene
Group f/64
Way of adjusting the exposure in a photograph to make the most of the shadows and highlights
The Zone System
Influential photographer from the early twentieth century. His photographs were among the most expensive ever sold. Often emphasized the beauty of natural form, whether it was a seashell or a vegetable
Edward Weston
Remembered for her images of the Southern poor and those starting over in the West. Sought to photograph the hard times of the Depression era and reveal the social difficulties that individuals and families faced
Dorothea Lange
Father of photojournalism. famous for his candid photographs. Captured spontaneous moments, forever recording these moments
Alfred Eisentaedt
She has taken portraits of everyone from John Lennon (taken on the day he was killed) and Queen Elizabeth II to Michael Jackson and Bill Gates
Annie Leibovitz
One of the first steps in critiquing a photograph is to do what?
Determine the purpose of the photograph
Annie Leibovitz is known for her photographs in which area
Portraits
True or False:
You should never consider photo editing in a critique
False
True or False:
Eisenstaedt’s work illustrates the need for photographers to be ready for those perfect spontaneous moments that create great photographs
True
True or False:
Edward Weston had a beach named after him
True
Allow a photographer to edit or manipulate photographs that were taken by a digital camera
Photo editing software programs
Considered the industry standard for image editing for many years. Most popular software for professionals
Adobe Photoshop
Another of Adobe’s photo editing software options, was created to help professionals manage and speed up the processing of RAW photographs
Lightroom
Software program similar to Adobe’s Lightroom in both operations and cost. Designed to handle RAW image file. Ability to work in layers
Lightzone
Another popular image editing software program on the market by Corel. Less expensive that Adobe Photoshop.
PaintShop Pro
Offers another low cost alternative to Photoshop, Although the software lacks some of the higher-end features its often prices below $100
PhotoPlus
Free open source editing program that is often compared to Photoshop, free but doesn’t have all the features of Photoshop
GIMP
Process of resizing an image, making it either smaller or larger in size
Image Scaling
Another tool that many people are familiar with since it appears in most image editing software programs.Create a new image by selecting a particular portion of the original photograph
Cropping
A feature in some software programs that separates various elements of an image. Can be thought of as transparency or overlay that is placed over the top of an image to change the image in some way.
Layers
Reduces speckling, dust particles, scratches, and minute light disturbances in the image
Noise Reduction
Feature help photographers make all lines vertical that are vertical in reality
Perspective Control
True or False:
Computer monitors are very reliable at representing the colors of the photograph
False
True or False:
Filters can add texture or pattern to a photograph
True
What tool can be used to eliminate an unwanted object in a photograph
Cloning
True or False:
Photo Editing can transform any image into a great photograph
False
What file format is best for photo editing?
RAW
True or False:
A lasso is a tool used to select part of an image
True
Light tight areas where photography processing takes place. Light cannot enter the space when photography processing is going on or the images on the film would be ruined
Darkrooms
1720s, German scientist, discovered that exposing silver nitrate to light made it turn purple. The areas that he exposed to light changed, while the areas that were not exposed to light remained the same
Johann Heinrich Schulze
Involves creating a print of all of your negatives or one strip of your negatives onto a sheet of photography paper, allowing you to see what the photograph looks like
Contact Print
What piece of equipment is used to expose a piece of photography paper to light through the negative
Enlarger
When film is taken out of the canister, what is the next step in the developing process?
Putting the film on a reel
Color film always has at least how many layers of light sensitive material?
3
Three-sided boxes, with a top and a bottom, leaving one side open. The inside is often a uniform white color that will reflect the light and help reduce harsh shadows on the product
Light Tents
Stock Agencies are often concerned about what?
Noise
Who is often credited with displaying the first fine art photographs?
John Edwin Mayall
True or False:
Light boxes and tents are typically used for fine are photography
False
True or False:
Its best to position a product directly next to the background to eliminate glare
False
Macro photography should be done in color, not in black and white as this hides detail.
False
Adults’ hands can be photographed engaging in a favorite activity or holding hands with someone.
True
The amount of magnification gained from the extension tube depends on the focal length of the lens.
True
Lighting becomes less important with macro photography since you are so close to the subject.
False
Many amateur photographers use a macro lens.
False
Only pretty objects should be used in macro photography.
False
You can create a backdrop for a macro flower photograph with a piece of paper.
True
What is the magnification on a true macro lens?
1:1
What is a disadvantage of using a macro filter?
It can degrade the quality of the image.
In extreme close-up photographs what background works best?
Blurred background
What is true of extension tubes?
They are hollow.
Which of the following is true of macro photography with people?
People are not good subjects for macro photography.
Macro photography often involves what type of depth of field?
Shallow
Close-up photography is another word for what?
Macro photography
What lighting direction can make a flower’s petals almost glow?
Backlighting
It is very difficult to enter the field of photography as a career.
False
Many professional photographers take business courses or training to help them run their businesses.
True
The need for photographers is decreasing in the United States.
True
Photojournalists may be employed by newspapers and magazines.
True
Many photographers work non-traditional hours, such as weekends.
True
Professional photography is a competitive job field.
True
A college degree is required for professional photographers.
False
Photographers who own studios are responsible for what costs?
All of the above
A scientific photographer concentrates on which subject?
Disease
What is the educational path for professional photographers?
There is no uniform educational or training path or requirements
A commercial photographer concentrates on which subject?
Fashion
What do professional photographers who own their own business have to do to be successful?
All of the above
What is the first step in becoming a professional photographer?
Having a passion and interest for photography
Forensic photographers photograph which of the following?
Crime scenes
Some buildings are also copyrighted, so it’s a good idea to check if you plan to license a photograph with a famous building in it.
True
A model release can be either oral or written down.
False
A model release is a document that spells out under which conditions a photographer may use a photograph of someone.
True
Commercial use is typically defined as the use of an image for advertising purposes.
True
It is always legal to license or sell a photograph with a person in it.
False
Photographers may photograph into someone’s house as long as they are standing in the street.
False
What a photograph will be used for impacts its legal and ethical position.
True
Which word describes a photograph that is considered for editorial use?
Newsworthy
The copyright symbol looks like which of the following?
©
What permits the copying of a photograph in certain circumstances?
Fair use
Where might photography be banned?
Military bases
Which convention automatically transfers copyright to the producer of a work of art?
The Berne Convention
Which amendment in the United States protects the freedom of speech?
First Amendment
When do you need a model release?
The person is recognizable in the photograph, and you want to be able to license the photograph for commercial use.
The idea of copyright dates back to when and where?
1500s and Great Britain
In 1941, Alfred Eisenstaedt worked for the War Relocation Authority to document the forced evacuation of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast to relocation camps.
False
Edward Weston had a beach named after him.
True
Eisenstaedt’s work illustrates the need for photographers to be ready for those perfect spontaneous moments that create great photographs.
True
Weston’s “Print of the Month” club brought him financial stability.
True
Ansel Adams is best known for his black and white photographs of national parks.
True
The government celebrated Lange’s documentation of the relocation process in Japanese American camps.
False
Dorothea Lange helped to co-found the photography magazine Aperture.
True
Annie Liebovitz is known for her photographs in which area?
Portraits
Which photographer was known for his/her work as an environmentalist?
Ansel Adams
What group did Ansel Adams and Edward Weston help to found?
Group f/64
Which photographer produced iconic images of the Great Depression?
Dorothea Lange
Which photographer was born in Germany?
Alfred Eisenstaedt
Annie Leibovitz worked at which publication?
Rolling Stone
Which of the following celebrities have been photographed by Annie Leibovitz?
All of the above
Which photographer had a “Print of the Month” club?
Edward Weston
Which tool or feature is a sort of transparency or overlay that is placed over the top of an image to change that image in some way?
Layers
Which filter would you use to take a close-up of a flower?
Marco
Which is the best image editing software program?
Whichever program works best for the individual photographer’s needs and preferences
The ND of the ND filter stands for which of the following?
Neutral density
What should you do when taking a black and white photograph?
Look for active skies.
Which of the following photo editing software programs is free?
GNU Image Manipulation Program
When doing black and white photography, which file format should you use if possible?
RAW
Why would photographers want to process their film in the darkroom?
It gives the photographer greater control over the print.
Which of the following was a famous photographer who specialized in black and white photographs?
Ansel Adams
What is the difference between light and dark called?
Contrast
Photo editing can transform any image into a great photograph.
False
Light can make or break a black and white photograph.
True
Digital cameras are less susceptible to UV light.
True
A filter is a camera accessory that is mounted on the optical path of the lens.
True
The first flexible photographic film was developed by Kodak Eastman in the 1960s.
False
Filters can only be used on film cameras.
False
Images are immediately visible to the naked eye on film once they have been taken by a camera.
False
Darkrooms require very little training to use or stay safe in.
False
Macro filters are used to add saturated colors to landscape photographs.
False
GIMP does not have a traditional support department or customer service.
True
Tonal contrast is the difference between highlights and dark tones.
True
To develop a print, you’ll need ten trays of chemicals.
False
Professional photographers often use the lowest quality settings on their cameras since this can be reversed in Photoshop.
False
While developing a print, it is important to gently agitate the trays.
True
Many of the changes added by filters can be duplicated by photo editing software.
True
Stock agencies are often concerned about what?
Noise
Early displayed photographs often had what characteristic?
They were mounted on plywood without frames.
Noise is the presence of what in a photograph?
Color specks
Where is the photographer’s signature generally located?
In the lower right-hand side below the photograph.
Who is often credited with displaying the first fine art photographs?
John Jabez Edwin Mayall
For product photography, which background is often preferred?
White
A product photograph is mostly likely to be used in which of the following situations?
With a stock agency
Many stock photographs are meant to convey what?
A particular concept
Stock photographers typically use which file format for their images?
RAW
What can cause noise?
All of the above
Whereas traditional stock agencies showcase the work of professional photographers, anyone can submit to microstock agencies, provided that the images meet the criteria that the microstock agency has set up.
True
It is best to position a product directly next to the background to eliminate glare.
False
Fine art photography overlaps with a number of other areas of photography.
True
When displaying photographs in a gallery, museum, or other location, photographers should check with the location itself about any presentation guidelines.
True
In addition to, or in place of, a front signature, many photographers sign and date the back of a photograph.
True
The presentation of a photograph does not really add or detract from the photograph and should not be a concern for photographers.
False
Model releases are needed for stock images when a person is recognizable in them.
True
Noise in a photograph can appear for different reasons, including using a high ISO, using a long exposure, or heat in the image generator itself.
True
Light boxes and tents are typically used for fine art photography.
False
When you are photographing a product, it is important for the product to be clean, defect-free, and in good condition.
True
Fine Art and Commercial photography have little in common.
False
Snapshots taken on vacations and during family outings are often popular stock images.
False
The beginnings of fine art photography can be dated back to the Victorian era.
True
When photographers wish to use a stock photograph, they generally pay a fee to license the image for a particular product, such as a brochure, for a particular amount of time.
True
Few fine art photographs are sold today.
False
Photojournalists may carry several different cameras and lenses to help them get different shots.
True
Due to the internet, photojournalism is declining rapidly.
False
Photojournalists help to record and provide proof of events such as genocide, massacres, and natural disasters.
True
A telephoto lens is rarely used by photojournalists.
False
Photojournalists should never introduce themselves to the people they are photographing.
False
Law enforcement and emergency personnel always respond positively to photojournalists.
False
Photojournalists typically earn the most out of all photography areas.
False
Photojournalists often work in pressure-filled situations.
True
There is usually little need to assess a situation before photographing.
True
Photojournalists should always photograph the most emotionally loaded scene that they can find.
False
Photojournalism plays an important role in the world today by documenting events and situations.
True
Photojournalists should feel free to manipulate their images with photo editing software in order to tell the story, even if that means deleting or adding things.
True
Photographers generally have unlimited access to sporting events.
False
Whereas journalism records written information, photojournalism records visual information.
True
As recorders of information, photojournalists need to be mindful of presenting the world as they see it, without manipulating the scene or telling half-truths through the visual image.
True
Which of the following is a good tip for documentary photography?
Shoot with your heart ?
What depth of field do you generally want in sports photography?
Large
To introduce more drama to an image, a photographer might include which of the following?
Action
Photojournalism helps to gather and record which of the following?
Information
What responsibility does a photojournalist have?
To record accurately
When panning, your camera should move in which direction?
Parallel to the subject
What is one technique that can help a photojournalist capture a great candid photograph?
Anticipate what might happen.
Documentary photographers strive to produce what type of image?
True
What can help photojournalists get a close-up shot when they are positioned away from the scene they are shooting?
Telephoto lens
To get a great sports photograph, you need to do what?
Anticipate the action
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