Contextual factors on the adoption and infusion of ABC

The chief research aims of this survey are to look into the influence of certain contextual factors on the execution phases, acceptance and extract of ABC, and besides to look into whether the acceptance and extract of ABC better Persian fabrication houses ‘ public presentation ( fiscal and non fiscal )

This chapter provides a treatment to which findings reported in Chapter five are able to supply replies to the research inquiries and achieve the research objectives set out at the beginning of the research. The findings of this survey supply groundss in three distinguishable positions: execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC and in these countries are tested three major contextual facA­tors: environmental factors, technological factors, and organisational factors. Therefore, the following three subdivisions discuss the consequences related to three major contextual facA­tors: environmental factors, technological factors, and organisational factors. Following subdivision provides treatment on hypotheses 7 which predicted that the effects of each contextual factor on ABC execution phases are changed. Then relationships between execution phases, acceptance, extract of ABC and organisational public presentation are presented. Following subdivision provides treatment relationship between execution phases, acceptance, extract of ABC and organisational public presentation. The following subdivision the deduction of the survey, and discusses about both theoretical and practical deductions. This is followed by the treatment on the survey ‘s possible restrictions. For get the better ofing such restrictions, several suggestions are presented for future research. Finally, in the last subdivision, decision on the overall findings is presented.

6.1. Technological factors and ABC

1 ) Degree of information engineering quality ( IT ) : Hypothesis one that predicted the positive consequence of IT on three positions of ABC was non supported. IT did non significantly affect the execution phases, and extract ABC. Furthermore, it was found that IT to be negatively related to ABC acceptance.

As reference in old chapters, acceptance has been the chief event in ABC surveies. In this survey that ABC execution was considered as the seven phases procedure, ABC adoptive parent was defined as a house who meet at least phases 4 or supra. It means the ABC acceptance is vary from ‘plan to follow ABC ‘ to ‘ABC have adopted ‘ . The consequence indicates the negative consequence of IT on ABC acceptance. This determination is considered with survey by Krumwide ( 1998b ) who find that high degree of information system ( IT ) may force houses to reject ABC before following. She argued that houses in high information system quality that are satisfied with information provided from bing system might be loath to put their resources in following ABC system. It seems that houses who have non reached the acceptance phase besides invest in a big sum of resource on IT. Possibly excessively much IT takes the focal point off from following ABC. These consequences suggest houses without high IT quality possibly more able to follow ABC.

This survey used seven execution phases and defined extract ABC as the phase seven “ Used extensively ” . For analysing “ extract ABC ” merely ABC adoptive parent houses are included in the sample ( n = 33 ) . In the phase seven, ABC information is used outside the accounting section for determination devising. This phase is frequently cited as an of import end or ABC success. However, accomplishing this end can be hard ; some research workers believed that organisational factors have consequence on extract ABC more than the other factors ( e.g. , Shields, 1995 ; Krumwiede, 1998b ) . The IT did non play important function for houses to travel higher execution phases of ABC and accomplishing infuse ABC. Besides this consequence is non congruity with of Krumwiede ( 1998b ) who find positive consequence of IT on extract ABC, it seems the comparatively little sample size for the extract analysis failed IT playing important functions.

2 ) Degree of merchandise diverseness ( DIVER ) : In this survey DIVER relates to the assortment of merchandises that are manufactured by a house. H ( 2 ) provinces that degree of merchandise diverseness has a positive consequence on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract. Hypothesis ( 1 ) was partly supported and the consequences suggest that there is a positive and important consequence of DIVER on ABC execution and ABC acceptance, but grounds shows DIVER did non significantly affect ABC extract.

This suggests that as merchandise diverseness is high, the houses make greater following ABC and besides they are motivated to run into higher phase of ABC execution. These happening supported by many research workers ( e.g. , Bjornenak 1997 ; Clarke et al. , 1999 ; Krumwiede, 1998b ; Cagwin and Bouwman, 2002 ; Brown et al. , 2004 ) . They believed that high degree of merchandise diverseness increase the demand of more accurate costing systems which is a primary ground for following a new bing system such as ABC. This is what Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) where they argued that traditional cost systems has some failing ( e.g. , distorted the cost of merchandises ) and this failing in high degree of DIVER will be addition. The consequence suggests that merchandise diverseness increased the houses are more likely to utilizing ABC system. So for get the better ofing this failing the houses that produce more than five merchandises tend to be more likely to utilize ABC than houses with fewer products..

DIVER does non play an of import function in extract ABC. This determination is contestant with Krumwiede ( 1998b ) found similar consequence. Previous surveies ( Cooper and Zmud 1990: Shields 1995 ; Krumwiede, 1998b ) suggest that organisational factors are more of import than technological factors for making the extract phase. It seems achieve the concluding phase of ABC ( utilize extensively ) is an internal challenges which affected by other variables. Furthermore, possibly the comparatively little sample size for the extract analysis failed DIVER playing important functions.

3 ) Degree of operating expense ( OVER ) : The step of OVERE involved with the measuring of house ‘s cost construction and per centum of operating expense calculated and applied as a value of OVER. However, the descriptive statistic consequence ( table 5.15, p.190 ) shows in 52.7 % of houses, more than 24 % of entire cost is overhead, which is high degree of operating expense. These findings are rather similar to Xiong et Al. ( 2008 ) where they found that in Chinese fabrication houses the per centum of fabricating overhead disbursal have increased in recent decennaries. Furthermore, many research workers believed that the operating expenses allotment method in traditional costing system is non accurate, therefore the higher degree of overA­head is the chief ground for altering the traditional costing system to new cost accounting systems such as ABC ( Narong, 2009 ; Xiong et al. , 2008 ) .

H ( 3 ) that was antecedently expected a positive consequence of degree of operating expense on three positions of ABC is marginally supported. However, the determination shows mixes consequences and propose three different functions for relationships between OVER and execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC system. In execution phases, OVER is non an of import factor finding execution phases. In ABC acceptance, OVER positively influence the ABC acceptance. Furthermore OVER effects extract of ABC negatively.

Kaplan ( 1991 ) believed that the overhead allotment system falsify the cost in traditional costing systems. The positive consequence of OVER on ABC acceptance is consistent with many research workers ( e.g. , Brent, 1992 ; Sohal and Chung, 1998 ; Wynder, 2008 ; Cagwin and Bouwman, 2002 ; Foster and Swenson, 1997 ) . The consequence suggested the houses with high OVER are more likely to follow ABC. Krumwiede ( 1998a ) argued that in low degree of overhead cost is a lower potency for cost deformations, and in this status, the benefits of ABC may be limited. In high degree of operating expense, potency for cost deformations is high. ABC may cut down merchandise cost deformations well ; nevertheless, this status might force houses to follow ABC system.

In contrast houses with low OVER are more likely to finish acceptance procedure and meeting extract ABC. Besides this consequence is non congruence with of with Krumwiede ( 1998b ) who found that OVER does non impact extract ABC, is congruity with many research workers who found that the major trouble faced by following ABC successfully was finding of cost drivers and developing an activity lexicon ( e.g. , Khalid, 2005 ; Anand et al. , 2005 ) . They indicate that the higher the grade of OVER, the higher trouble is for happening cost drivers is. So it seems the troubles for happening accurate cost driver within acceptance phases hinder the houses to make extract ABC ( last phase ) .

However, the determination shows mixes consequences for OVER and propose three different functions of OVER on three positions of ABC. This determination contestant by the invention theory that indicated a variable may hold different consequence on different phases ( Cooper and Zmud, 1990 ) . The overall consequence for over indicate the effects of OVER on three positions of ABC are changed.

6.2. Environmental factors and ABC

1 ) Perceived environmental uncertainness ( PEU ) : From expletory factor analysis for PEU, three constituent factors were extracted: “ perceived environmental uncertainty-industrial ” ( PEU-IND ) , “ perceived environmental uncertainty-financial ” ( PEU-FIN ) , “ perceived environmental uncertainty-economical ” ( PEU-ECO ) . Three dimensions of PEU measuring are based on gauging the predictability in many facets included: house ‘s providers, rivals, clients, financial/capital markets, authorities regulative, labour brotherhoods, and economic sciences, politics/technology. As shows by the descriptive statistic ( table 5.17, p.191 ) PEU in all factors have average tonss above 3.00. It means the economical activities of Iran are surrounded by high degree of sensed environment uncertainness ( PEU ) . In this status the houses may non be able to foretell future easy therefore impede them to implement ABC or other new advanced accounting system.

Hypothesis 4 that provinces that PEU has a negative consequence on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract is marginally supported. From three dimensions of PEU merely PEU-FIN affects negatively ABC execution, all three dimensions of PEU negatively affect ABC acceptance. Furthermore, PEU-FIN affects positively ABC extract.

As expected, PEU appears to play a major function in the acceptance ABC. There are negative and important relationships between all three dimensions of PEU and ABC acceptance, bespeaking the lower the grade of PEU, the higher purpose for following ABC is. Besides this consequence is inconsistent with of Anderson ( 1995 ) where found that environmental uncertainness promotes ABC acceptance, is consistent with Jusoh ( 2008 ) who found PEU negatively affect Balanced Scorecard Measures ( BSC ) use.

Although the relationships between environmental uncertainness and the execution phases, acceptance, and extract ABC have non tested in the study surveies before, the extent of literature in other cost invention system ( e.g. , mark costing and balanced scorecard ) and direction accounting systems ( MAS ) supported these relationships ( e.g. , Gul, 1991 ; Lat and Hassel 1998 ; Jusoh, 2008 ; Chenhall and Morris, 1993 ; Hussain, 2003 Ax et al. , ( 2008 ) . The common decision of these surveies is that when the environmental uncertainness is considered high, directors holding less entree to information needed to do determinations and can non delegate chances to the results of the determinations. It seems under unsure conditions, director ( possibly for cut downing the hazard of the altering system ) does non supply resources for implementing new invention system such as ABC. The low rate of utilizing ABC in Iran ( 6.91 % ) may explicate with this determination.

In contrast, merely one PEU declines, PEU-FIN positively affect ABC extract. This consequence indicated that after houses adopt ABC system, the higher PEU-FIN motivates them to finish the execution procedure and involve to last phase ( used extensively ) or concluding end. PEU-FIN related to predictability of financial/capital markets aspect, it seems in unsure environment fiscal resources are instable therefore ; steadfast collapsible shelter to rapidly make the concluding end of execution procedure, if they wait the cost might increase dramatically. Furthermore, these houses need to utilize ABC as chief system cost accounting system to better their cost accounting information. These acquiring consequences are consistent with Anderson ( 1995 ) who indicated that environmental uncertainness promotes ABC. Furthermore, more late Ax et Al. ( 2008 ) found that the execution of mark costing was correlated with the degree of PEU.

The overall determination indicates from three decline of PEU, PEU-FIN has important consequence on three on three positions of ABC. However, an of import determination of this survey is that PEU-FIN is besides associated with ABC extract. There is important consequence with merely one decline of PEU on extract ABC. — Some pervious research workers propose that organisational factors ( e.g. , house size, preparation, and direction support ) may impact the extract ABC procedure more than the technological and environmental variables ( e.g. , Shields, 1995 ; Cooper and Zmud 1990 ; Krumwiede, 1996 ) .

2 ) Degree of competition ( COMPT ) : Competition refers to the grade of competition a house faces in a peculiar market. Hypothesis 5 which predicted the positive consequence of COMPET on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract is partly supported. The COMPET positively affect execution phases and acceptance but COMPET is non an of import factor finding extract ABC.

Malmi ( 1999 ) argued that competition influences the demand of accurate cost accounting information. The incorrect cost information in extremely competitory industries errors made, these errors may work by rivals instantly. Furthermore, Anderson and Young ( 1999 ) believed that in extremely competitory status, houses focus on sale monetary value and cost decrease. They argued that in this status new cost informations such as ABC are most valuable. Furthermore ABC may supply accurate and clear information that may assist tauten to cut down the cost. The determination that COMPET positively affect execution phases and acceptance quit similar to study consequence conducted by Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) who found that non-competitive state of affairss such as monopoly can take to utilize traditional cost accounting than with ABC. Furthermore, Anderson ( 1995 ) found competition played an of import function in conveying cost systems under direction review and improved the hunt for happening new cost direction attacks so high degree of competition encourage houses to follow ABC.

In contrast, COMPET is non an of import factor finding extract ABC. Previous surveies ( Cooper and Zmud 1990: Shields 1995 ; Krumwiede, 1998b ) believed that organisational factors are more of import than environmental or technological factors for making the extract phase. It seems achieve the concluding phase of ABC ( utilize extensively ) is an internal challenges which affected by organisational factors. Furthermore, possibly the comparatively little sample size for the extract analysis failed COMPET playing important functions.

3 ) Business scheme: the accounting literature suggests that houses use peculiar accounting system, is depending on which scheme they adopt. Gosselin ( 1997 ) asserted that Miles and Snow ‘s typology is more appropriate for analyzing the issue of invention direction accounting systems such as ABC. This survey examined the grade to which houses emphasize each of the concern scheme types proposed by Miles and Snow ( 1978 ) who identified four strategic types of organisations harmonizing to the rate of alteration merchandises and markets: prospectors ( STRA-P ) , guardians ( STRA-D ) , analysers ( STRA-A ) , and reactors ( STRA-R ) . Prospectors are characterized by their dynamism in seeking market chances. Defenders have a scheme which is the polar antonym from prospectors they operate within a narrow product-market sphere characterized by high production volume and low merchandise diverseness. Analyzers stand between these two classs, sharing features of both prospectors and guardians. Reactors do non follow a witting scheme. As shows by the descriptive statistic ( see table 5.18, p.192 ) , most houses ( 32.4 ) adopt reactor scheme, prospector scheme is least adopted by houses ( 19.1 % ) .

Hypothesis 6 ( H6 ) suggested that prospectors are more likely to be ( a ) in higher phases of ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC adoptive parents, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC infuser. H ( 6 ) is non supported. Although houses who adopt ABC employ a peculiar scheme, face-to-face with expected, analysers are more likely to be in higher phases of ABC execution and ABC adoptive parents Furthermore result indicated that extract ABC does non use a peculiar scheme.

Although, the consequence did support hypothesis related to concern scheme, it shows analyser scheme with sharing advantages of both prospector and guardian is the best type of scheme to follow ABC and to travel to higher ABC execution. It seems in unsure environment that Persian houses faced, analysers houses have more tolerance and they can foretell necessary elements to do ABC acceptance determination, and to travel to higher ABC execution phases. These important determination is consistent with a statistical survey conducted by Bhimani et Al. ( 2005 ) where they found that scheme influenced the determination to see ABCM, scheme influenced the success of ABCM execution They asserted that houses will put more accent on peculiar accounting techniques or information, depending on which scheme they adopt.

In contrast, the consequence indicated that for run intoing the last phase ( ABC extract phase ) houses no demand to use a peculiar scheme. This is what Moll ( 2005 ) found in her survey in that ABC user houses did non follow a peculiar scheme. As reference in old treatment, organisational factors are more of import than environmental or technological factors for making the extract phase. It seems achieve the concluding phase of ABC ( utilize extensively ) is an internal challenges which affected by organisational factors. Furthermore, possibly the comparatively little sample size for the extract analysis failed STRA playing important functions.

6.3. Organizational factors and ABC

1 ) Firm size ( SIZE ) : Size is measured as the degree of one-year gross revenues gross of the respondent ‘s houses. H ( 8 ) that proposed SIZE has a positive consequence on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract strongly supports. The consequences suggested the SIZE significantly affect execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC. As expected, the larger the company, the more likely it is to follow ABC, and wining to higher execution phases even last phase ( stage 7 extract phase ) . Larger companies may besides hold more resources to put for inventions like ABC. This determination is consistence with two statistical surveies by Krumwiede ( 1998b ) and Krumwiede and Suessmair, ( 2005 ) . Krumwiede ( 1998b ) found that SIZE was a important variable in the ABC acceptance analysis and Krumwiede and Suessmair ( 2005 ) found size positively affect extract and range to high degree of German cost accounting methods ( GPK ) . Bjornenak ( 1997 ) argued that big houses have the needed resources, such as clip, financess, and forces to finance the substructure and, hence, are more capable of following ABC. Additionally, big houses with economic sciences of graduated table are more likely to afford the execution of ABC. Further, harmonizing to Van Nguyen and Brooks ( 1997 ) larger houses are more likely to hold greater entree to the cognition of design and implement ABC.

2 ) Top direction support: ( TMSUP ) : Krumwiede ( 1996 ) asserted the top direction support have connexion with houses that have begun acceptance ABC, therefore it merely tested for extract analysis together with both other technological and environmental factors. H ( 9 ) that stated top direction support has a positive consequence on ABC extract is strongly supported. The literature has identified that if top direction support the ABC, the hazard of the undertaking is reduced, entree to resources is increased and cut downing project uncertainness and thereby doing acceptance is easier ( e.g. Shields, 1995 ; Cooper et al. , 1992 ; Krumwiede, 1998b ; Brown et al. , 2004 ; Krumwiede and Suessmair, 2005 ; Melah and Nasir Ibrahim, 2006 ) . These important determination is consistent with a statistical survey conducted by Dosch and Wilson ( 2007 ) where they found that the most of import factors to ABC success was top direction support. Shields ( 1995 ) argued that the function of top directors ‘ support for ABC execution success is of import because can deny resources for acceptance an invention if they do non back up. Furthermore they can supply the political aid needed to actuate or force aside persons and alliances who resist the invention if they support.

3 ) Degree of preparation ( TRAIN ) : Because the Level of developing have connexion with houses that have begun acceptance ABC, it is non considered for the early acceptance ABC, and they merely tested for extract analysis together with other factors. Hypothesis 10 that asserted preparation has a positive consequence on ABC extract is non supported. The deficiency of significance for consequence of preparation on ABC extract is besides surprising. The determination that quit similar to study consequence conducted by Maelah and Nasir Ibrahim ( 2006 ) who did non happen found important influence of preparation on AB. Furthermore, Krumwiede ( 1998b ) found a negative consequence of train on ABC extract

It seems the deficiency of significance for relationship between preparation and extract ABC is related to little sample size for the extract analysis ( n = 33 ) . Furthermore, from this little sample, more houses ( n = 20 ) houses are at the initial phase of ABC acceptance. Therefore, the preparation in relation to ABC was non looking as an of import factor among these organisations.

6.4 Changes the consequence of contextual factor

Hypothesis 7 ( H7 ) stated that the consequence of these contextual factors: degree of information engineering quality, degree of merchandise diverseness, degree of operating expense, perceived environmental uncertainness, degree of competition, concern scheme, and steadfast size alteration in ABC execution phases. Consequence shows ( see table5.31, p.210 ) from 7 variable merely 2 variable ( SIZE and STRA-A ) have same consequence on the ABC execution phases and the H ( 7 ) partly supported.

This determination besides is consistency with many ABC surveies ( e.g. , Anderson, 1995 ; Krumwiede, 1998b ; Gosselin, 1997 ) which found that the consequence of selected factors vary from phase to present. Although they use a different phase theoretical account and different factors, they found same consequence that different factors associated with the different phases. Furthermore, this determination is consistency with information systems ( IS ) invention theory ( Kwon and Zmud, 1987 ) which widely accepted by the most of ABC research workers. The theory suggested that alteration occur in phases and grade of importance for each contextual factor is differ in several ABC execution phases.

6.5 Organizational public presentation

Two types of public presentation steps are typically used to measure a house ‘s public presentation: fiscal and non fiscal steps. Hussain ( 2003 ) asserted multidimensional public presentation steps improve the public presentation measuring.

1 ) Financial public presentation ( PER-FIN ) : Hypothesis 11 that proposed houses who are ( a ) in higher ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC adoptive parents, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC infuser have greater degree of fiscal public presentation is to the full supported. The consequences show houses who are in higher ABC execution phases have greater degree of fiscal public presentation than houses who are in lower phases. ABC adoptive parents have greater degree of fiscal public presentation than non adoptive parents houses. Furthermore the consequence indicated ABC infuser has greater degree of fiscal public presentation than non infuser houses. This is what Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) found in their survey in that positive relationship between ABC acceptance and betterment their fiscal public presentation.

1 ) Non fiscal public presentation ( PER-NFIN ) : Hypothesis 12 that asserted houses who are ( a ) in higher ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC adoptive parents, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC infuser have greater degree of non fiscal public presentation is to the full supported. The consequences show houses who are in higher ABC execution phases have greater degree of non fiscal public presentation than houses who are in lower phases. ABC adoptive parents have greater degree of non fiscal public presentation than non adoptive parents houses. Furthermore the consequence indicated ABC infuser has greater degree of non fiscal public presentation than non infuser houses. This important determination is consistent with a statistical survey conducted by Kennedy and Affleck-Graves ( 2001 ) where they found that the ABC acceptance significantly improves organisational public presentation including fiscal and non fiscal public presentation.

Furthermore, Cooper et Al. ( 1992 ) argue that “ the end of ABC is to increase net incomes, non to obtain more accurate costs ” . Damanpour ( 1987 ) believed that directors are involved to the issue of bettering their organisational public presentation by following inventions. Cooper and Kaplan ( 1991 ) believed that ABC analysis enable directors to understand the beginnings of cost variableness and shows actions they can take to cut down demands on their organisational resources. Gering ( 1999 ) argued that activity-based costing by concentrating on which client or merchandise is profitable can better public presentation. Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) argued that steps of success of ABC related to better fiscal public presentation.

Some research workers named extract ABC as an ABC success while acceptance is means apply ABC and get down point for implementing ABC. Meanwhile, proving ABC extract shows the clear imagination of ABC acceptance success. Sing the benefits of ABC, nevertheless, are most of import groundss which indicated that ABC user increased net incomes and obtained more public presentation. Some benefits which ABC research workers found as follow: more able to mensurate cost accurately, better apprehension of merchandise costing, and develop public presentation measurings ( Kiani and Sangeladjiai, 2003 ; Khalid, 2005 ) , better understanding for cost decrease chances, and improves managerial determination and besides proviso of better cost control, higher degrees of satisfaction with their organisations bing system ( Moll, 2005 ; Brent 1992 ) , bettering the truth of cost measured for different merchandises and services by more accurately delegating direct cost, utility of cost information for determination ( Clausen, 2002 ; Cooper and Kaplan, 1992 ) , Supplying a dependable indicant of long-term variable merchandise cost which is peculiarly relevant to, managerial decision-making at a strategic degree ( Sohal and Chung, 1998 ) .

6.6. Deductions of the survey

The findings of this survey have both practical and theoretical deductions. Attewell ( 1992 ) observed that most statistical surveies on inventions have used two distinguishable positions for analysis: acceptance and extract. But this survey effort utilizing one more distinguishable position for analysis: execution phases.

6.6.1. Theoretical deductions

At the degree of theory, the primary relevancy lies in its scrutiny in three distinguishable positions: execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC. This survey attempts to lend to the theoretical organic structure of cognition in four Fieldss.

In the file of cost accountings invention, the determination can explicate utilizing ABC as an of import cost accounting invention. ABC introduced to get the better of failing of traditional cost accounting system. Although utilizing ABC demonstrates advantages and improves house ‘s public presentation ; degree of utilizing of this system is still lower than traditional 1. Besides the determination may explicate this paradox by demoing the negative consequence of some factors on ABC acceptance which are non under the directions control ( e.g. , environmental uncertainness ) or affect of some factors opposite what was antecedently expected ( e.g. , information engineering quality ) . The potency for direction accounting literature ( MAS ) to inform ABC execution research is highlighted by this survey. Mireover, this survey contributes to the accounting invention literature refering the combination consequence of certain contextual factors on execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC.

Further, the chief part is conceptualisation of sensed environmental uncertainness ( PEU ) and its investigated consequence that indicated influences of PEU on execution phases, acceptance, and extract of activity-based costing ( ABC ) . This survey identified the PEU as a most of import determiner for making the acceptance and extract of ABC.

In add-on, this survey contributes to the literature sing to applied multidimensional public presentation steps and trial difference of fiscal and non fiscal public presentation between adoptive parents / non adoptive parents, infusers / non infusers, and low execution phases / high phases groups.

Furthermore, the survey contributes to the strategic direction literature with supplying groundss refering the designation and measuring of Miles and Snow ‘s scheme typology. Furthermore the determination can explicate that houses use peculiar accounting system, is depending on which scheme they adopt.

6.6.2. Practical deductions

From the determination of this survey, there are deductions in four practical countries. First sing the ABC system designs, different contextual factors ( i.e. , technological, environmental, and organisational factors ) are tested to happen whether they affect acceptance, and extract ABC. The determination is shown technological factors ( e.g. , Information system quality, merchandises diverseness, and operating expense ) , environmental factors ( e.g. , Uncertainty, competition, and scheme ) and organisational factors ( e.g. , size ) consequence the acceptance ABC. Furthermore, the consequences indicate the positive function for these full variables except information engineering and uncertainness that affect ABC acceptance negatively. Furthermore, the consequence shows size, direction support, and uncertainty-financial positively affect extract ABC.

Focus on factors that influence ABC acceptance and extract will supply utile flashiness for houses who are interested for using ABC. Based on the determination of this survey, organisations in high rate of positive ABC adoptive parents features are the good campaigners for following ABC. It seems these consequences may be of import for non-ABC adoptive parents houses sing acceptance or ABC adoptive parents houses sing extract ABC. Organizations may desire to compare themselves on these factors to find how closely they make consecutive with following and infusing houses.

Second, with respect to the regard of concern scheme use, the determination provides groundss that concern scheme is a cardinal component in the implementing and following ABC system. The determination indicated adoptive parents houses are following peculiar scheme. From Miles and Snow ( 1978 ) scheme typology, analyser are more likely to be in higher ABC execution phase and besides ABC acceptance. Based on the determination of this survey, houses that choose analyzer scheme analyser are good campaigners for following ABC. Thus these companies may be refering for utilizing ABC to develop their cost accounting system. Organizations may desire to compare themselves on scheme to find how closely they make consecutive with adopting houses.

Third, the most of import determination of this survey is following and inculcating ABC system better both fiscal and non fiscal organisational public presentation. These consequences should be of import for non-ABC adoptive parents houses sing acceptance or ABC adoptive parents houses sing extract ABC. Firms may actuate to following ABC to better their organisational public presentation. Furthermore, houses who are adopted ABC may better their cost accounting methods by extract ABC and accomplishing concluding end.

6.7. Restriction

As with any research, this survey has many restrictions that must be cited. The undermentioned restrictions are the most relevant. First, the pick of trying frame is old restrictions. This survey covers merely fabricating sectors selected from Tehran Stock Exchange ( TSE ) and consequences of the survey besides need to be generalized with cautiousness. There are any generalisations of the consequences to other sector ( e.g. , distribution, retail, services, transit, and others ) should be with cautiousness. In this instance future research should see other sectors such as service and non-profit sectors, authorities organisation in order to acquire better apprehension of the ABC system and its application. Further, the existent population of fabrication houses in whole Iran was non considered. In this instance, future research should look into across geographical parts in Iran to get the better of the restriction of little sample size.

Second, the response rate was reasonably high at a degree of 44 % and t-test was performed to try forestalling this job. Gosselin ( 1995 ) believed that there is no manner to cognize for certain whether the non-respondents are different than the respondents. However, it can non reason that respondents are equal option for the whole population of fabrication listed on TSE. For future research suggested that uses both questionnaire study and instance survey methods to avoid this restriction.

Third, questionnaire were use to obtain informations and focused for mensurating the respondents ‘ perceptual experiences. Therefore, the variable steps are more subjective than other possible types of information. For illustration in this survey the operating expense cost assumes as an independent variable and its measuring was more subjective, future research should put a greater concern for measuring variables and should utilize secondary informations for mensurating some variable such as house size, diverseness, operating expense and fiscal public presentation to order garnering nonsubjective informations.

Next, the decision-making procedures are rather complex and likely related to extra factors which are non tested in this survey. Surveies are limited by a deficiency of other contextual factor. In this instance, future research should clear up the relationship between international PEU perceptual experience, entry manner scheme and ABC acceptance.

Finally, a study attack enhances the external cogency of the findings, but for farther improved it should be better to carry on follow-up interviews if it been possible.

6.8. Decision

Activity-based costing is the most of import accounting invention. It was developed for get the better ofing the merchandise cost deformation that caused by utilizing traditional costing system ( TCA ) , and research workers have agreed that ABC allocates overhead costs more accurately than TCA. In fact, the possible offered by the survey may good transcend the other accounting inventions.

ABC has gained increasing public presentation and consciousness throughout the fabrication houses. Sing the benefits of ABC, empirical groundss show that ABC user increased net incomes and enhance organisational public presentation. In the current survey Logit analysis was used to prove the effects of several contextual factors on execution, acceptance and extract of ABC. These contextual factors were classified as technological, environmental, and organisational factors. Overall findings show the consequence of the technological factors ( e.g. , Information system quality, merchandises diverseness, and operating expense ) , on execution, acceptance and extract is marginally supported. The overall consequence of environmental factors ( e.g. , Uncertainty, competition, and scheme ) on these three distinct positions of ABC is partly supported. Meanwhile, the overall consequence of organisational factors ( e.g. , size, direction support, and preparation ) is ABC is partly supported. Furthermore, three interesting consequence of this survey were: The negative consequence of IT on acceptance ABC, The negative consequence of operating expense on extract ABC, and the positive consequence of uncertainty-financial on extract ABC

Furthermore, this survey found the betterment of house ‘s public presentation in the acceptance and extract phase of ABC. The primary focal point of this work is non to develop new theatrical processs to follow ABC system and brow a 7 phases model from other research worker, but to research how this theoretical account would work when the environment and the factors combination are changed.

Three theoretical accounts were developed to capture the consequence of certain factors on different phases of ABC. Adoption theoretical account look into the influences of contextual factors when ABC is used on occasion, while in extract theoretical account, ABC is used extensively. Furthermore, ABC execution phases model effort to happen the different consequence of this contextual factors on different phases.

This survey follows the theory that used by most of ABC acceptance research, which is called information systems ( IS ) invention theory. ABC is defined as a direction accounting invention, and it is considered as an administrative invention ( versus technological invention ) .This survey is an invention research, tried to explicate execution procedure by utilizing a factor-based attack ( versus a eventuality attack ) .

This survey found grounds that perceived environment uncertainness ( PEU ) plays an of import function in execution, acceptance, and extract phase of ABC. It is besides of import to observe Iran face with in unpredictable environment. The findings suggest that under unsure conditions, director does non supply resources for implementing new invention system such as ABC. The consequences besides provide grounds on the function ABC as an invention accounting systems to better fiscal and non fiscal public presentation.

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