COMS 101 Exam 4-Ch. 7

Primary/Recency effect
This theory says that we tend to recall more vividly the beginning and ending, and less so the middle, of an event.
-interviewing for a job-first person and last person have more advantage of getting hired than others
-also holds true for speeches; audience will have greater advantage to recall how you began and how you ended your speech
Quintillian’s formula for speech effectiveness (4 things):
~Functions of Introductions
1) Focus attention on the topic and speaker
2) Provide a motive for your audience to care about your speech
3) Enhance your credibility as a speaker
4) Preview your message and organization
1) Focus attentions on Topic and Speaker
1) Offer a Personal Greeting-makes the audience feel welcome and set the stage for the introduction that follows
2) Capture and Focus Attention- first few minutes are critical to the success of the entire speech. Within these minutes that audience decides whether they care enough to continue listening
3) Set the Appropriate Tone and Mood-refers to the overall feeling you hope to engender in your audience.
-Tone is the emotional disposition of the speaker as the speech is being delivered. It is created verbally by the words and ideas you select and nonverbally the emotions you communicate.
-mood of funeral is sadness, but Angela’s voice was upbeat and happy.
2) Provide a Motive to Listen
into should seek to establish common ground with the audience.
-by focusing on something you and your audience can share and announcing it early, you will help people identify with your topic.
3) Enhance Credibility
credibility increases as you describe early on what qualifies you to speak about a topic
-perceived competence, concern for your audience, dynamism, and personal ethics
-if you know your subject, care about your audience, offer enthusiastic delivery, and communicate a sense of ethical integrity =increase credibility
4) Preview Your Message and Organization
use introduction to tell audience what your going to talk about during the rest of your speech.
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Ten Techniques of Introductions
1) Starting Facts/Intriguing Statements
2) Dramatic Story/Build Suspense
3) Quotation and/or Literature Reference
4) Humor (good for 2 reasons: story is genuinely funny *humor is tied directly to the subject of the speech)
5) Rhetorical Question (did you all have breakfast this morning? -don’t expect an answer
-best question are probing in a personal way)
6) Illustrations, Examples, and Anecdotes (comments about physical surrounding, or recent historical event)
7) Physically Involve the Audience
8) Relate Personal Experience
9) Use a Visual Media Aid
10) Refer to the Situation (positive comment related to occasion, person who spoke before them, the audience, the date, or even the physical location.)
Choosing the best Technique
1) consider the mood you are attempting to create
2) consider your audience’s expectations of you and the occasion
3) consider how much time and resources each approach will require
4) consider your strengths and weaknesses-may not be as strong at joke telling as recalling a powerful story
Five Guidelines and Suggestions for Introductions
1) Prepare Introduction After Body of Speech
2) Make it Easy to Follow and Be Creative
3) Practice and Communicate High Energy (enthusiasm ~least be able to speak to the audience for 15 seconds w/out looking at notes)
4) Engage Audience Nonverbally Before you start
5) Consider Time Constraints and Mood
Ten common Pitfalls of Introductions
1) Beginning with an apology
2) Being too brief or too long
3) Giving too much away
4) Reading
5) Relying on Shock Tactics
6) Promising too much
7) Using unnecessary prefatory remarks
8) Using long-winded poems, quotations, and prose
9) Becoming someone else
10) Overusing some techniques
-think of conclusions as the pinnacle of your speech; words you want your listeners to remember when they leave the room
-should no be viewed as an afterthought
-it is your last opportunity to have an impact
Functions of Conclusions
1) Summarize Important Information
2) Motivate Listeners
3) Create a sense of closure
1) Summarize Important Information
-transition from body to the conclusion is pivotal in signaling the impending end of your speech
-can use saying like..”In conclusion…” or “Now, to wrap this up today,…” ~want audience to be clear that your about to finish

John E. Baird (1974) -“Summaries may be effective when presented at the conclusion of a speech because they provide the audience with a general structure under which to subsume the more specific points of the speed.”

2) Motivating Listeners
1) Communicate a feeling-perhaps more importantly, the conclusion sets a psychological mood listeners carry with them from the hall

2) Broaden your message- conclusion can be used to connect your topic to a broader context.

3) Creating Closure
don’t end speech with “Well, thats it, I guess I can see if anyone has a question.”
-effective conclusion tells listeners your speech has ended
Concluding Techniques
1) Thanking as Transition
2) Call to Action (urge them to take specific action or to change their attitudes)
3) Use a Dramatic Illustration
4) Close with a Quotation
How to Conclude the same speech in different ways
1) Quotation that personalizes your message
2) A Dramatic story that also serves as a metaphor
3) Rhetorical Question
4) Conclude with a metaphor that broadens the meaning of your speech
5) Conclude with humor
6) Encourage thought with a rhetorical question (have power to sway an audience with their emotional impact)
7) Refer to your introduction
Ten Common Pitfalls of Conclusions
1) Don’t use your conclusion to introduce a new topic
2) Don’t apologize
3) Don’t end abruptly (one sentence conclusion is not sufficient closure)
4) Don’t change the mood or tone
5) Don’t use the phrases, “In summary” or “in conclusion” except when you are actually at the end of your speech
6) Don’t ask for questions
7) Don’t ignore applause
8) Don’t forget to thank your audience and host
9) Don’t run away
10) Don’t read it