Computer Vocab

The rate at which bits are transferred from place to another in a given amount of time. _______ is typically measured in bits per second (bps), kilobit per second (Kbps), and megabits per second (Mbps).
Bitrate
A _______ is a unit of data storage. One _____ is eight binary bits (a series of eight zeroes and ones), which in turn means that one _____ can equal 256 values (2^8). _____ are often used to store specific data within a file such as characters or pixels.
byte
Fraudulent text (SMS) messages similar to e-mail “phishing” hence SMS + phishing = _____.
smishing
Hard drive _____ are where the actual data is recorded. A ______ is a flat disk that spins very fast (anywhere from 4200 to 15,000 RPM) inside the hard drive’s metal housing. A hard drive may contain multiple ______ as needed to increase capacity.
platter
A _____ is basically the partition used to start an operating system, although modern OS’s such as Windows Vista and Windows 7 can be installed on any partition. The boot sector (the sector containing the boot flag) must be located on an active _______and only a _________ may be set as active.
primary partition
When taking pictures with a digital camera, some photographers have the option to shoot in ________, which means the image is not compressed or processed in any way.
RAW
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_______ is used to create images on TVs and computer displays.
RGB
Unlike a flat file database, a _____________ stores data in tables or relations, which are organized in rows (tuples) and columns (attributes).
relational database
A __________ is a subdivision of a track on a magnetic or optical disk.
disk sector
____________ is an I/O interface for connecting mass storage devices to a computer’s motherboard. _______ was created in 2003 and superseded PATA.
SATA
A computer expansion bus intended to replace PCI, PCI-X, and AGP. ______ implements a smaller I/O pin count, smaller physical size, higher data throughput, and more robust scaling, among many other notable improvements.
PCIe
______ are data storage devices which use flash-based RAM to store data persistently, meaning that unlike volatile memory, _______ retain their contents even when unpowered. _______ have no moving parts so they are less prone to shock and because they can recall data almost instantly, they are much faster than traditional HDDs.
SSDs
The ________________ is used for storing data on CDs. It is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) known as the ISO 9660 standard, which is readable on all popular platforms including Windows, Macintosh, and Linux.
Compact Disc File System
_____ is the generic name applied to processors based on Intel’s 8086 CPU. Subsequent processors iterations included the 286, 386, 486, and 586 (Pentium).
x86
_______ are used to measure a CPU’s floating point unit’s (FPU) computing performance. A _______ is equal to 1000 gigaflops, or one trillion FLOPS, which means 1 trillion Floating Point Operations Per Second.
Teraflops
A ____________ on a computer is a malicious attack (virus, worm, trojan horse, etc), which exploits a security hole before the vulnerability is addressed. In essence, the security issue is made public concurrently to the attack so the software developer has zero days to patch or fix the problem.
zero day exploit
File system _____________ occurs when a file system does not store data on a disk in a sequential or contiguous manner. This increases the rate and time at which a hard disk must seek data and thus decreases throughput (the average rate data can be delivered or transmitted).
fragmentation
FLOPS or __________ are units used to measure a computer’s processing performance. Unlike megahertz, which are often marketed as an indicator of processor speed, FLOPS are actually a true indication of a CPU’s raw processing power.
Floating Point Operations Per Second
A ___________ is a program used to convert source code into machine code that the computer can understand.
compiler
A __________ is a text file that contains a series of scripted commands that you would normally type manually at the command prompt.
batch file
____________, also known as muxing, is when multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium, to use the most out of that connection.
Multiplexing
________________ is a measure that compares the level of a signal to the level of background noise, to see how strong the signal actually is.
Signal-to-noise ratio
The _____________ is the number of times per second that display hardware re-draws the data on the screen, which is different from the number of unique frames, or images, that are displayed.
refresh rate
An ______________, usually abbreviated as AU, au, or ua, is a unit of length equal to the distance between the earth and the sun-that’s 149,597,870,700 meters or 92,955,807.273 miles.
astronomical unit
____________ are a section of memory storage used to temporarily hold data as it transmits from one point to another, to ensure the data can be used without “skipping” if there is a temporary hiccup in the transmission of the data.
Buffers
The ____________ is a measurement of length that equals the distance that light can travel in a vacuum over the course of one year-about 6 trillion miles or almost 10 trillion kilometers.
light year
____________ is an important measure of time delay in computer systems like networks and disk drives for how long the data takes to arrive.
Latency
The ____________ is a test of a computer’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior, usually in the form of a natural language conversation between a judge, another person, and a computer designed to mimic a human.
Turing test
_____________ is a form of logic processing that deals with values that aren’t exactly true or false, but might have values that range in degrees between the two.
Fuzzy logic
______________ is a field of computer science usually used by large companies to discover patterns in large sets of data. This allows companies like Walmart to figure out that people usually buy certain items together, and place them next to each other in the store. Perhaps the most controversial example is when Target used data mining on their customer’s purchases to determine when women were pregnant, and started sending books of coupons to their door.
Data mining
____________________ is a computer technology that takes scanned images of pages containing handwriting or printed text and converts them to text that can be read by a computer and manipulated by word processing programs.
Optical character recognition
_______________ is a data encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for sending data. It is often used for signing, encrypting and decrypting emails and files to increase the security of sending data over email.
Pretty Good Privacy
A ________________ is a number with a set number of digits where the decimal point can be placed anywhere, as 10.5, 3.14, or -623.1231.
floating point number
_______________ is the standard method of including metadata or other information about an image. _________________is supported by TIFF and JPEG but is most often seen in JPEG images as captured by digital cameras.
Exchangeable Image File Format
BASIC, which stands for “_______________________________”, is a programming language developed in the mid-1960s intended to provide computer students with a simple way to write programs. It eventually evolved into Microsoft’s Visual BASIC, an easy-to-use but fairly slow development environment that made creating new functionality easy for junior developers, though not performant. These days, Visual Basic .NET compiles into standard .NET Framework executables that are interchangeable with other languages.
Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Your _______________ is the hard drive partition which contains the boot flag. The role of the _________________ and by extension the boot flag, is to tell your computer which partition to boot.
active partition
______________ is a high-speed I/O technology developed by Intel and introduced by Apple Computer to enable high-speed data transfer between your computer and hard drives, monitors, and other accessories.
Thunderbolt
OpenGL or the _____________________ is a 3D graphics language developers can use to create graphics and special effects that will appear uniform across any operating system using any hardware, which supports OpenGL.
Open Graphics Library
_________ are annoying programs apart from malicious software such as viruses, Trojan horses. ___________ may include spyware, adware, dialers, joke programs, remote access tools, and other types of programs that don’t really damage your computer but slow things down, irritate you, and even worse: possibly steal your personal information.
Grayware
A _______________ is a file that contains a range of functions and other shared code that can be accessed by a Windows executable.
Dynamic Link Library
In older CRT monitors and TVs, magnetic charges would build up inside them causing a loss of color accuracy. To fix this problem, displays were equipped with a ____________ function which, when used, would discharge this magnetism.
degauss
___ was a high-speed bus intended for connecting graphics cards to a computer’s motherboard. _____ was created in 1996 and was highly popular until 2004 when it was superseded by PCI Express.
AGP
_____________ is a data encryption feature included in the enterprise and Ultimate versions of Windows Vista and Windows 7 as well as the soon to be released Windows 8.
Bitlocker
________________ is a type of CPU socket that permits easy replacement or upgrade of a processor. ZIF socket processors can be removed by pulling a small lever and lifting the chip out.
Zero Insertion Force
Windows ____________ are typically used on large networks — corporate networks, school networks, and government networks. They aren’t something you’ll encounter at home unless you have a laptop provided by your employer or school.
domain
the \servershare format is called a UNC (_____________________) path, and it works just about anywhere in Windows. You can utilize it in the explorer address bar, file open and save dialog boxes, or anywhere that you’d normally use a file path.
Universal Naming Convention
Any time you have a problem with an application, or something keeps freezing on your computer, or maybe you are trying to figure out what a particular DLL file is used for, _____________ is the tool for the job.
Process Explorer
There are definitely a lot of colors in a typical _________________, which can be a little confusing for the beginner geek. It’s really important to learn what all these colors mean, because they aren’t there just for show — they each mean something important.
Process Explorer list
_______________ has long been used as a powerful replacement for the previously anemic Task Manager application in every version of Windows prior to Windows 8, and assuming you want some real power in your hands, it works really well as a replacement in that version too.
Process Explorer
Process Explorer has long been used as a powerful replacement for the previously anemic ______________ application in every version of Windows prior to Windows 8, and assuming you want some real power in your hands, it works really well as a replacement in that version too.
Task Manager
One of the best features of ________________ is the ability to minimize it into the system tray, but instead of just a single icon, it can minimize into a full set of icons that can monitor CPU, I/O, Disk, Network, GPU, and RAM, or any combination of them. You can configure them to display separately, or not at all, if you prefer.
Process Explorer
One of the best features of Process Explorer is the ability to minimize it into the ______________, but instead of just a single icon, it can minimize into a full set of icons that can monitor CPU, I/O, Disk, Network, GPU, and RAM, or any combination of them. You can configure them to display separately, or not at all, if you prefer.
system tray
If you are working on a problem PC and want to figure out if a process is a virus, you can save yourself some time by using _______________________ or above, because they’ve added VirusTotal integration directly into the application. Just right-click on anything in the list to see the option.
Process Explorer version 16
If you are working on a problem PC and want to figure out if a process is a virus, you can save yourself some time by using Process Explorer version 16 or above, because they’ve added ____________________ directly into the application. Just right-click on anything in the list to see the option.
VirusTotal integration
So naturally, we wanted to do a bit of investigation into how some of these work, and there’s no better place to start than the _______________ malware that has claimed hundreds of millions of computers worldwide. This nefarious awfulness hijacks your search engine in your browser, changes your home page, and most annoyingly, it takes over your New Tab page no matter what your browser is set to.
Conduit Search
The ______________________ hijacker is one of the most persistent, awful, and terrible things that nearly every one of your relatives probably has on their computer. They bundle their software in shady ways with any freeware they can, and in many instances, even if you select to opt-out, the hijacker will still be installed.
Conduit search
Conduit installs what they call “_______________”, which they claim prevents malware from making changes to your browser. What they don’t mention is that it also prevents you from making any changes to their browser unless you use their Search Protect panel to make those changes, which most people won’t know about since it’s buried in the system tray.
Search Protect
_____________installs what they call “Search Protect”, which they claim prevents malware from making changes to your browser. What they don’t mention is that it also prevents you from making any changes to their browser unless you use their Search Protect panel to make those changes, which most people won’t know about since it’s buried in the system tray.
Conduit
Unlike the Process Explorer utility that we’ve spent a few days covering, ___________________ is meant to be a passive look at everything that happens on your computer, not an active tool for killing processes or closing handles.
Process Monitor
The ________________ utility was created by combining two different old-school utilities together, Filemon and Regmon, which were used to monitor files and registry activity as their names imply.
Process Monitor
The Process Monitor utility was created by combining two different old-school utilities together, __________________, which were used to monitor files and registry activity as their names imply.
Filemon and Regmon
It’s also worth noting that ________________ always requires administrator mode because it loads a kernel driver under the hood to capture all of those events.
Process Monitor
So ________________ can capture any type of I/O operation, whether that happens through the registry, file system, or even the network — although the actual data being written isn’t captured.
Process Monitor
?????So Process Monitor can capture any type of _______________, whether that happens through the registry, file system, or even the network — although the actual data being written isn’t captured.
I/O operation
_____________ is a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing protocol designed to reduce bandwith overhead and decentralize the distribution of files.
BitTorrent
________ cards are a form of non-volatile memory used for storage in portable devices such as digital cameras, mobile phones, MP3 players, and other mobile electronics.
Secure Digital
__________ is a digital audio storage format currently the de facto standard for both portable consumer audio devices and internet streaming audio.
MPEG Audio Layer III
_________________________ is a digital cabling standard for audio/video transmission that replaced previously used analog cabling standards such as Component video cables.
High-Definition Multimedia Interface
_________________ is an encryption technology most commonly used by web browsers to ensure that the information transmitted between the browser and the web server is private and unaltered.
Secure Sockets Layer
________ is the common term used to denote the radio-frequency standards outlined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) 802.11 protocol for wireless local area networks (WLAN).
Wi-Fi
In computing terms, _______________ is the time it takes for a data packet to be received by the remote computer. Most computer users, and especially gamers, refer to this communication latency simply as lag.
Communication Latency
__________________ are a sub-genre of role-playing video games focused on player interaction in a virtual world.
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games
___________, when used in the computational terms, is the amount of data that can be transferred over a given connection in a set period of time.
Bandwidth
_____________ is a scientific discipline concerned with studying the interaction of human beings with their environment.
Ergonomics
Every time you interact with your computer, smart phone, or game console using a system of on-screen buttons, icons, and other interface elements to do so, you’re experiencing one of the miracles of modern computing: the __________________.
Graphic User Interface
A _______ is the smallest addressable element in a display device.
pixel
__________________ is a cabling standard developed in the mid-1990s in order to decrease the number of peripheral interfaces on the market and create a streamlined standard for future peripherals and interfaces.
Universal Serial Bus
___________ is when hackers or scammers attempt to steal personal information like usernames, passwords, or credit cards by pretending to be somebody else, usually through email or other electronic communications.
Phishing
The _________________ is a hierarchical naming system for computers and web sites connected to the internet, which associates easy-to-remember names with the IP Address of the actual resource on the network or internet-for instance, the _____entry for www.howtogeek.com maps to the IP address 208.43.115.82. Imagine having to type in the IP address every time you wanted to browse our site!
Domain Name System
____________ is a network protocol and a command-line application for virtually every operating system out there.
Telnet
_______ is a collection of application program interfaces (API) created by Microsoft that contain a set of commands and functions that allow programmers to much more easily deal with multimedia and video games.
DirectX
The ____________ is a type of denial-of-service attack that floods a network using spoofed broadcast ping messages. The attacker sends a large amount of ping requests to a router or server, but spoofs (fakes) the sending IP address, so the servers start sending messages back and forth, flooding the network with requests. They multiply the damage by using a broadcast ping, which requires sending a reply back to every server on the network-and when there are many servers sending messages to every server, the network quickly overloads.
Smurf attack
__________ is a scripting language used to power web sites like How-To Geek, and is extremely popular because it is very easy to get a new site up and running compared to many other languages, and the system requirements are very low, so many web sites can be run on a single server.
PHP
In computing terms, a ______ is a unit of data storage equal to half a byte-since a byte is 8 binary bits, a _____ is 4 bits. One ______ can be also represented with one hexadecimal character.
nibble
___________________ is the protocol users must use before they can post a message and interact with a usenet newsgroup-created in 1986, the _____protocol is a lot like the SMTP protocol for email, but was tailored for exchanging newsgroup articles for groups instead of users. NNTP queries, distribute, posts, and retrieves articles to and from a newsgroup server.
Network News Transfer Protocol
The _______ is a control character that that resets the position to the beginning of the line. In the old days, typewriters had a lever that would return to the beginning of the line once you were done typing the line, and then would usually also move down to the next line. In computer terms, the ___________ is usually used with a line feed (LF) that moves down to the next line-the combination is usually CRLF.
carriage return
The _____________________ is used for sending email messages-desktop clients only use _____for sending messages-mail servers, on the other hand, use _____for both sending and receiving email from one server to another.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
___________ is a term usually used for the RAM in your computer, and it refers to the amount of times the memory can be accessed while synchronized to the clock-double, in the case of regular DDR.
Double Data Rate
A browser _______ is a small piece of data produced by a web site that you have visited, stored in your browser, and then sent back to the web site the next time you visit.
cookie
________________ is a standard network protocol that enables file transfer between two TCP/IP-based computers.
File Transfer Protocol
_________________ is a Unix-based file sharing protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1980s.
Network File System
__________________ is a network protocol most commonly used by Windows machines to share access to files, printers, and other peripherals.
Server Message Block
A ______________ is a copy of an existing disk that encompasses everything from the files to the file system.
Disk Image
___________________ is the process of updating files in two different locations via a set of rules.
File synchronization
__________ are small computer programs that extend the functionality of web browsers.
Browser Extensions
A ________________ is a software-based tool that helps users manage passwords, pin codes, and other authentication methods.
password manager
_________________ is a type of access control technique used by copyright holders, publishers, and hardware manufacturers to limit the use, manipulation, and distribution of digital content after the initial sale of that content.
Digital Rights Management
_______________, a sub-set of cryptography, is the process of encoding data so that it is accessible only to authorized parties.
Encryption
A ____________ is a collection of computers (or devices like smartphones) connected to the internet that are controlled by a third party for malicious purposes.
botnet
_____________ significantly increases the difficulty of imitating a user or otherwise gaining unauthorized access to the user’s account by requiring a second unique identifier before allowing access.
Two-factor authentication
_______ is unsolicited commercial communication, most commonly in the form of email contact with the recipient.
Spam
A ___________, more commonly referred to as simply a “_________”, is a non-replicating malware application that masquerades as a useful application but instead allows unauthorized access to a user’s system.
Trojan Horse
_________ is a Unix networking tool (since ported to every major operating system) that is commonly referred to as a “Swiss Army Knife for TCP/IP”. It was designed to be a reliable back-end tool that can be either directly accessed by the user or called by other applications.
Netcat
___________________ is the text language that defines all of the content on every web page that you visit, and is even used in most email clients to display the text you’re reading right now.
HyperText Markup Language
The __________________ is one of the core networking protocols used to run the Internet. It differs from other transport protocols such as UDP and TCP in that it is not usually used to exchange data between systems but instead used as a diagnostic mechanism.
Internet Control Message Protocol
____________ are a vital component of home and business network connectivity. While a simple hub or a network switch can do the job of linking your computers together into a local network (to share files, play LAN-enabled games, or share a printer), you need a ____________ for the critical task of linking two networks together.
Routers
If you need to connect multiple wired devices to your network-such as a laser printer, computer, DVR, and so on-you need a _______. A network _______ is a telecommunication device that relays messages from devices connected to it and then transmits them only to the specified receiving device on the network.
switch
____________________, is a form of storage technology that combines multiple disk drives into one logical storage unit.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks
A ___________ is a network security tool designed to monitor network traffic and allow or block network activity based on a set of predetermined rules. It acts as a bridge between an internal network and an external network.
firewall
The _________________ is one of the most critical components of a computer system. It is responsible for converting the mains AC into low-voltage and properly regulated DC power for the hardware components of the computer can safely utilize.
Power Supply Unit
In computing, ______________ refers to the specifications of the motherboard and encompasses the physical size, mounting hole pattern, power supply type, the back-panel ports, and other design parameters.
form factor
The _________________, is the proverbial brain of the computer. Modern ______________s are made from silicon and have a very high density of integrated circuits etched into silicon wafers.
Central Processing Unit
______________ is a widely adopted wireless standard designed to replace cables for low-power data transmission over short spaces. The standard was developed by Swedish technology and telecommunications giant Ericsson in the early 1990s.
Bluetooth
___________________ is a set of standards for close-proximity communication between smartphones and similar mobile electronics. It is built upon existing Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) standards but expands functionality by enabling two-way communication and encryption.
Near Field Communication
A ______________ is an element included in a computer or cryptographic system intended to allow the user to bypass normal authentication methods built into that system.
backdoor
_________________ is the machine recognition of printed characters. The software takes a scanned document, photograph, or other digital source that includes printed text, and uses sophisticated algorithms to search out letter patterns in the text, converting it from a non-machine-readable image to a machine-readable (and human-editable) ASCII text.
Optical Character Recognition
______________________, is a term used to encompass technological tools used to differentiate humans from computers during online interactions-usually with a focus on preventing automated computer systems from abusing email services, repeatedly trying to enter passwords, or otherwise creating undue strain or security problems for networked services.
Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart
__________________ is data which describes other data, usually to provide additional information about the content of the original data. Digital cameras, for example, routinely include a wide range of metadata with each photograph they take. The photograph itself is the primary data, the metadata is data attached to that photograph such as the date of capture, the settings the camera used (EXIF data that includes such information as the shutter speed or aperture settings), and the file size.
Metadata
_______________ is a portmanteau of the words Internet and etiquette. _____________ is broad term encompassing appropriate behavior on computer networks and the greater internet. Much like real-world etiquette governs things like appropriate dress, topics of discussion, methods of communication (such as wedding invitations and RSVP standards), and so on, ___________ seeks to provide similar structure to online interactions.
Netiquette
___________________, is the convention by which domain names are combined with file path syntax to create human readable addresses for internet stored materials. This convention was proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the World Wide Web, in 1994 as a method of making web-based resources more accessible.
Universal Resource Locator
Historically, a ____________ referred to the blending of musical genres. While the term still retains that meaning in the music world, in computer lingo ____________ has come to refer to the blending of multiple web applications (and their data) into a single interface or application.
mashup
__________________is a wireless non-contact data transfer system used for identification and tracking. The chip is a small electronic module roughly the size of a grain of rice that contains a unique serial number and other information about the object to which it is attached.
Radio Frequency Identification
A ________________ is a computer network that connects computers and devices in a limited physical area such as a home, school, or commercial building.
Local Area Network
An _______________, is the unique numeric identifier attached to all devices on an IP-based network. Every client, server, and network device is assigned a unique ______________ to ensure that it can send and receive data on the network without interfering or colliding with another networked device.
Internet Protocol address
______________, also known as progressive scanning, is a way of displaying video wherein each line of the video display is drawn in sequence. This is a direct contrast to interlaced video wherein the odd and then even lines are refreshed.
Progressive video
_________________ is a technique used to double the perceived frame rate of a video source without consuming extra bandwidth.
Interlaced video
_______________ are designed to transmit data across geographic regions, countries, and even between continents. Large corporations routinely deploy _________ to connect geographically diverse employee populations, enabling them to connect easily to shared resources and conduct business as if they were sharing a massive company LAN.
Wide area network
Network ___________ are simple pieces of network hardware that connect multiple Ethernet devices together so that they share a single physical Ethernet connection and function as a single network segment.
hubs
___________________ is a popular image format developed by CompuServe in the late 1980s. Originally created to replace a previous CompuServe created format RLE (which could only display black and white), the original version of the _____________ was essentially just another image format in a sea of file formats.
Graphics Interchange Format
_____________ is an internet communication protocol designed for real-time text messaging. The protocol was created in 1988 as a replacement for a BBS-based chat program called MultiUser Talk.
Internet Relay Chat
_______________ is a set of operating instructions embedded in a computer system on a non-volatile memory chip. Common electronics like GPS units, network routers, and gaming consoles routinely have their operating instructions fully or partially stored as _______________.
Firmware
_________________ is the process of bringing your monitor into alignment, or calibration, with a known state. Simply adjusting your monitor so that it displays contrast and color in a fashion pleasing to you is not true calibration, as calibration involves linking the output of your display with the output of a device.
Monitor calibration
A ________________ is a passive heat exchanger added to computers and other heat-producing electronics to assist in cooling components. _____________ range from small and simple finned metal cubes attached to low-temperature components (such as embedded processors) to large tower-like structures with integrated fans attached to high-temperature components (multi-core CPUs and GPU chips).
heat sink
A ____________ is a set of inputs mapped to a key, shortcut, or string of text so that the user is able to summon a large set of inputs with a minimal amount of input. Computer users create and deploy _____________ for everything from speeding up programming tasks to semi-automating repetitive and routine word processing entries.
macro
The word ____________ is a portmanteau of “coder-decoder” and denotes the role of codecs in encoding/decoding digital data. Specifically, ______________ refer to the hardware and/or software that encode and decode digital audio and video streams, such as those used for watching local digital video, streaming video over the Internet, video conferencing, and other multimedia applications.
codec
__________________ are a type of metadata appended to the end of computer file names to indicate to the operating system what format the file is in. It is by this mechanism that Windows knows to open File.txt with Notepad, File.doc with Microsoft Word, and to attempt to lauch File.exe as an application.
File extensions
FAQ is an acronym for __________________.
Frequently Asked Questions
In computing and gaming an ________________ is a piece of hardware or software designed to duplicate the behavior of another set of hardware/software.
emulator
A ________________, more typically referred to simply as a driver, is a program routine that allows communication between the hardware components of a computer (including both internal and peripheral components) and the operating system.
device driver
?????____________ is one of the most impressive tools that you can have in your toolkit, as there is almost no other way to see what an application is actually doing under the hood.
Process Monitor
_________________ allows you to see nearly every single thing that is loaded automatically on your computer, and disable it as easy as clicking a checkbox. It’s incredibly easy to use, and nearly self-explanatory, except for some of the really complicated things you need to know to understand what some of the tabs actually mean. That’s what this lesson is going to teach.
Autoruns
The _______________displays information on the desktop, and it works in a server environment as well — in fact, that’s probably where it is the most useful, but it also works on anybody’s computer, so you can test things out on your local machine before running the configuration on the server.
BGInfo utility
If you’ve ever wanted to connect to another computer and run a command, quickly get information about processes running and optionally kill them, or even stop a service on another PC, you can use the ________________ to do all of these things and even more.
PsTools utilities
The most important file-related tools in the kit to get to know are probably the __________________, but it would be wise to read through them all carefully.
Sigcheck and Streams utilities
Shows information on the system CPU and all of the features. Ever wondered if your CPU is 64-bit or if it supports hardware-based virtualization? You can see all that and much, much more with the _______________. This can be really useful if you want to see whether an older computer can run the 64-bit version of Windows or not.
coreinfo utility
This command line utility opens up the Registry Editor and navigates down to the key that you specify as an argument on the command line. No more manually clicking through the tree… assuming you use it. The syntax:
regjump
____________________ is a security feature that helps prevent unauthorized system changes to your Windows computer or device.
User Account Control
If you use Windows Vista or Windows 7, then ________________ is a security tool that protects your computer from spyware.
Windows Defender
__________________ is an important security application that’s built into Windows. One of its roles is to block unauthorized access to your computer. The second role is to permit authorized data communications to and from your computer.
Windows Firewall
Put simply, ___________________________ is a management snap-in for the Windows Firewall from which you can control in a very detailed way, all the rules and exceptions that govern how the Windows Firewall works.
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security
The __________________ analyzes all the web pages that you are visiting and the files that you are trying to download or run. If it finds them as being suspicious, you are informed about the possible risks you are exposing yourself to.
SmartScreen Filter
The ________________ is a feature of Windows that continuously monitors the state of your system.
Action Center
One of the most important steps in keeping your system secure is to leave ___________ turned on and working on a regular basis.
Windows Update
?????________________ is one of the most popular free antivirus products. You can use it for free for 30 days, but if you want to use it longer you have to register an account with ___________!
avast! Free Antivirus
A ______________ is a software or hardware tool that captures every key pressed on a computer’s keyboard.
keystroke logger
When the operating system of your computer or mobile device displays a small notification on your screen, you’re experiencing a __________________.
“toast” notification
An ________________is a decentralized wireless network.
ad hoc network
An ____________ is a piece of hardware that bridges communication between wireless devices and a physical network. The Wi-Fi nodes found in coffee shops and other public spaces as well as the Wi-Fi enabled router found in many homes are examples of ____________.
access point
_____ is shorthand for fourth generation cellular technology.
4G
_____ is shorthand for the third generation of cellular technology.
3G
______ is shorthand for the second generation of cellular technology.
2G
__________________ is a derivative of Short Messaging Service (SMS), designed to break through the text-only/160 character limitation of SMS-powered text messages.
Multimedia Messaging Service
_______________, or as most of us call it, texting, is the text messaging component of cellular communication networks. It’s the most widely used communication protocol in the world, with billions of people the world over collectively sending six trillion text messages annually.
Short Message Service
Jabber, later renamed the __________________, is an open standard for instant messaging. It was developed in the late 1990s and released for public use in 1999. Since then it has become the most popular instant messaging framework around, with everyone from small companies and universities deploying private Jabber servers to adoption by Google as the driving protocol for their enormous Google Talk system.
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
A __________ computer is a computer that has been taken over by some mechanism (Trojan virus, backdoor exploit, etc.) so that a remote party has access to the machine and is able to call upon the machine to perform some task.
zombie
Historically, the term “________” was used to denote a part or piece of machine that was unidentified (or did not, for the purposes, need to be identified). In modern computer-slanted usage, a ________ is a small interface display designed to clearly convey information to the user.
widget
Internet Service Providers, web sites that offer various services (especially communication related), and temporary providers of internet access (such as University and Public library computer labs) will generally have you sign off on an ______________ before allowing you to use their service.
Acceptable Use Policy
The ______________ are the legal terms by which the user must agree with in order to use the service in question.
Terms of Service
__________________, is an internet standard that extends the functionality of email to include non-text attachments, multi-part message bodies, and text in character sets other than ASCII.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
A ___________ is a passive heat exchanger designed to disperse heat from electronic devices and help maintain stable operating temperatures. ___________ are designed to have a large surface area (usually achieved via fins, much like a radiator) to maximize the volume of cooling material (typically air) that comes in contact with the surface of the ___________.
heat sink
The ______________ is a software tool included with an operating system to give users the ability to feed commands to the operating system for immediate execution.
command line
The ____________ layout was created in the 1930s by Dr. August Dvorak and his brother in-law Dr. William Dealey. The two created the layout in order to alleviate problems with the popular QWERTY keyboard configuration (the very configuration still in use today by hundreds of millions of typists worldwide).
Dvorak Keyboard
The _______________, called such because the first five keys in the top letter row form the word, is the standard English keyboard used by hundreds of millions of computer users world wide.
QWERTY keyboard
_______________ are a recent innovation in computing. Historically, computers had a single core, or processing unit. All computations performed by the computer were directed through the single core in a linear fashion. The only way to increase the speed of the computer was to increase the power of the single processor-and this was precisely how desktop and server computing grew throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
Multi-core processors
_______ is a phrase used to encapsulate the design choices of web sites from the early 2000s moving forward. Unlike earlier web design choices that presented users with static web pages and no chance for interaction or alteration, __________ sites are designed for a richer user experience.
Web 2.0
In the early years of the web, sites were designed around what are now referred to as __________ elements. These elements included static pages (as oppose to user-generated content), segregated and inaccessible user data, use of frames and tables to position content on the page, prolific GIF buttons (also supported via tables), and email forms.
Web 1.0
A _____________ occurs when a computer application acquires computer memory but fails to release it back to the operating system when the memory is no longer needed. Memory leaks diminish system performance by reducing the available pool of memory accessible to the operating system and other applications.
memory leak
_____________ is the process of increasing the speed of a CPU or other computer component beyond the clock frequency specified by the manufacturer. This is achieved by increasing the clock rate, changing the chip multipliers, or manipulating timing cycles.
Overclocking
?????This tool is used internally by Windows to run many tasks that only need to be run occasionally rather than always running.
Task Scheduler
You might be thinking that the _________ is just a way to schedule an application to run at a certain time, but it is so much more than that, and has become an integral part of Windows.
Task Scheduler
The biggest problem with __________ is that it can be really confusing – there are a lot of warnings, errors, and informational messages, and without knowing what it all means, you can assume (incorrectly) that your computer is broken or infected when there’s nothing really wrong.
Event Viewer
The _______________ seems fairly simple at first glance. There’s a list of your hard drives combined with a graphical representation of the partitions on each one. You can create and edit partitions… but there is a lot more to do. You can create Spanned, Striped, or Mirrored volumes across multiple disks, or you can create and attach virtual hard drives.
Disk Management utility
The ____________ is a hierarchical database that contains all of the configurations and settings used by components, services, applications, and pretty much everything in Windows.
Windows Registry
Everybody knows how to use __________, including people that know almost nothing about Windows. They hit CTRL + ALT + DEL and then select ___________ from the list, because they don’t know that you should use CTRL + SHIFT + ESC instead to launch it instantly. And then they close whatever process Windows says is hanging.
task manager
This panel contains the settings for some important features in Windows, including virtual memory page file, system protection, data execution protection, processor scheduling, environment variables, and startup options for dual-boot configurations.
System Properties
____________ are a special type of application that is configured to launch and run in the background, in some cases before the user has even logged in.
Windows services
?????____________ are a really powerful way to setup a corporate network with each of the computers locked down so users can’t mess them up with unwanted changes, and stop them from running unapproved software, among many other uses.
Group Policies
_____________ is a phrase coined by blogger and productivity writer Merlin Mann in 2006 to refer to email management techniques and strategies designed to keep the user’s email inbox as empty as possible.
Inbox Zero
_______________ is a term used to describe a scorched earth approach to getting an overwhelming backlog of emails under control.
Email bankruptcy
The _________________ is a unique hardware identification number assigned to network interfaces.
Media Access Control address
_____________ are applications which run on modern multitasking computer operating systems as background processes rather than as foreground processes (visible to the user). These background processes sit idle waiting for input and then spring to life, performing their intended function.
Daemons
_______________ is a Windows-based security infrastructure introduced with the release of Windows Vista/Windows Server 2008. The development of _______ was a move by Microsoft intended to introduce the concept of regular user/superuser security structures, common in Unix-like operating systems, to Windows.
User Account Control
_________ is a program for Unix-like systems that allows users to run programs with the security privileges of another user-typically a user with a higher level of access such as the superuser/root account.
Sudo
A ____________ is an organization or individual that profits from the manipulation of and speculation in the Domain Name market.
Domainer
__________ is an ideological and language offshoot of the idea of Spam.
Bacn
_______________ are companies that accept new (and maintain old) domain name records. Whether you’re a major corporation or just an individual who wants to hold www.yourname.com for vanity purposes, you need to deal with a __________________ like Network Solutions or Dreamhost.
Domain Name Registrars
In computer networking, a _______________ is a collection of computers on a local area network that share resources (such as shared folders and printer access). _________________ are best suited for small networks of 50 devices or less, such as a home or small office network. Beyond that number of devices, administration and management become unwieldy and setting up a domain system is advised.
Workgroup
__________________ was founded in 1998 to ensure there was a non-profit, international, and impartial organization to coordinate all of the Internet’s addressing and protocol systems, develop naming conventions, and accredit Domain Name Registrars to handle the commercial side of domain sales and distribution.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
____________ is the standard networking convention for the local computer. Any time a computer needs to refer to itself for testing purposes or to direct TCP/IP-based commands back to itself, it can use “_______________” or the loopback address “127.0.0.1″-an IP reserved specifically for the _______________.
Localhost
A _____________ is a communications network in which each node shares at least two pathways with two other nodes (and thus has redundant access to the communication network). Mesh networks are extremely stable as they are resistant to decay if multiple nodes are damaged or removed from service.
mesh network
______________ is the process of converting audio or video from its native format to another format for the purposes of reducing the file size and/or re-encoding it to play on a wider variety of devices.
Ripping
In photography, the _____________ refers to the portion of a photograph that is in focus-specifically the distance between the nearest and farthest objects or surfaces in the photograph that appear acceptably sharp and in focus to the viewer.
Depth of Field
At its most basic, an _____________ is simply a hole through which light travels-although the use of aperture to refer to any old portal through which light passes has certainly fallen out of a fashion. The term is most widely used in terms of optical systems such as cameras and telescopes.
aperture
_____________ is a feature available on almost every digital camera-most point-and-shoot models and every DSLR-that allows the camera to properly register the color white within the lighting conditions under which the photo is taken.
White balance
An ______________ is a program or script run on a mail server that automatically replies to emails.
autoresponder
Many anti-virus and malware scanners have a ________________. This mode allows users to take a file that has been flagged as a potential threat and effectively lock it away temporarily while they investigate and determine if the file is a legitimate threat or if there was a false alert and the file needs to be restored to its previous location.
quarantine mode
________________ is like putting your computer in a state of suspended animation. Unlike sleep mode, where the core system remains powered up (but the peripherals and hard disks are powered down), ________________ effectively powers down the system while preserving the work state over time.
Hibernation mode
_____________ is power-saving state employed by both computers and mobile devices. While in _______________, a device will partially power down components and peripherals to save power, but will leave the core systems operational so that the user may get back to work as quickly as possible.
Sleep mode
A ____________ is a symbol used to indicate any value is acceptable in that location when performing a task or search query.
wild card
___________________ is a commonly used acronym within the tech support community to indicate that the reported problem with the system is not a failure of any software or hardware component, but is instead a wetware failure-the user of the computer is the source of the problem.
Problem Exists Between Chair And Keyboard
?????A ______________ is a collection of settings and information that tells Windows which files and folders you can access, what you can do on your computer, what are your preferences, and what network resources you can access when connected to a network.
user account
The ____________ is a collection of computers that are part of the same network. All the computers are peers and do not have control over another computer. The ____________ facilitates the detection of the computers that are part of it and the sharing of resources like folders or printers.
workgroup
The _____________ is a folder that’s found on all Windows computers by going to “C:UsersPublic”.
Public folder
The Public folder is a folder that’s found on all Windows computers by going to “___________________”.
C:UsersPublic
A _______________’s purpose is to easily facilitate the sharing of files and printers with other people on a home network. This feature doesn’t work on public or business networks because it is designed specifically for home users.
Homegroup
?????_______________ is one way of sharing resources in Windows. It allows for detailed customization of the way you are sharing and it has the following characteristics:
• You can use it to share folders, external hard drives and internal drives (your partitions, Blu-Ray or DVD drives).
• You can use it to deny access to a specific resource for a specific user account or user group.
• You can use it to limit the number of simultaneous users accessing a shared resource.
• You can use it to share resources with one or more share names.
• You cannot use “________________” for sharing libraries or printers.
Advanced Sharing
DPI is a common term used primarily in regard to printers and their output. It stands for ______________ and represents the resolution number of __________ in digital printing. The actual print resolution can be calculated by squaring the DPI number. Thus a printer with 100 DPI rating is capable of printing 10,000 dots per square inch, and a printer with a 1200 DPI rating is capable of printing 1,440,00 dots per square inch.
dots per inch
___________ designs have been pivotal in the development of powerful but energy efficient mobile electronics. Compared to a traditional computing system where functions are performed by discrete components (the CPU, GPU, sound processor, etc.), the __________ design packs everything onto a single chip. It is this miniaturization that allows a single chip in a modern smartphone to handle the core processing needs of the device as well as decode video, audio, and manage the extras on the device like motion sensors and cameras.
System-on-Chip
A ___________ is special type of web browser bookmark that extends the functionality of the bookmark system. While a traditional bookmark is a static entry that contains the title and URL of the bookmarked page, ______________ instead contain snippets of JavaScript that acts upon the current web page in some manner.
Bookmarklet
A _________ is a digitally stored location intended to facilitate the user’s quick return to a previous location (just like a physical ___________ helps the user return to their last location in a book).
bookmark
______________ are electronic devices that still draw power even when the device appears to be off. In some cases the the draw is quite small as is the case with an electronic transformer which carries a steady 1 watt load when the device attached to it is turned off. In other cases the draw can be surprisingly high, as is the case with many cable boxes and other media peripherals that consume a significant amount of power when they are powered off (as they do a variety of tasks behind the scenes such as updating programming schedules, recording and downloading content, etc.)
Vampire devices
Compared to a traditional blog-wherein posts are usually developed like essays-______ quite tiny, focused on short snippets of content and typically only include very short commentary and/or photo, video, or other multimedia elements.
microblogs
A _________ (a portmanteau of “web” and “log”) is a website that contains stories and updates in reverse chronological order-the most recent entries appear at the top of the front page, and you browse backwards to move through the past articles.
Blog
____________ are high-end subnotebooks. Although the term has become synonymous with very lightweight yet full size laptop computers, it’s actually a trademark of computer company Intel and has specific criterion. The specifications cover battery life (5 hours or better), height (21 mm or thinner), time from hibernation resume (7 seconds or better) and, as you would expect, and Intel processor.
Ultrabooks
____________ are a class of portable computers designed to be smaller and lighter than a typical laptop computer, yet still run a full fledged operating system (such as Windows 8) and not a lightweight mobile-device operating system (such as Windows CE).
Subnotebooks
____________ systems rely on direct system-to-system connections without a central infrastructure or server system facilitating the transmission of data or resources. __________ systems are utilized in situations where it is ideal to distribute loads across many users. In the case of BitTorrent (a type of distributed file sharing system), files are not stored on a central server, but instead are shared piece-by-piece in a distributed network composed of many users. This makes it easy to get popular files quickly and it protects the network from being shut down by outside authorities.
Peer-to-Peer
___________ are a special type on-screen button found within application user interfaces. A ________________ functions such that if you select one of the available options (say, printing in color instead of black and white), any other entry you made will be automatically deselected.
Radio buttons
_____________ is an abstract mathematical system used to describe colors using numerical values
Color space
_____________, are programs that search for information on the World Wide Web. ______________ are most widely employed by search engine companies and are used to create ever-growing indexes of web pages and their content. At its most elementary, a ____________ visits a known web page and then explores all the links on that web page (discovering new web pages in the process and repeating the sequence on them). Content that is not accessible to ___________ is known as the Deep Web.
Web Crawlers
The _____________ is web-based content that is not found in search engine results. Unlike Darknets, wherein the content is explicitly encrypted and kept from public view, most of the _____________ content is invisible to search engines and their users simply because there are no links pointing the content.
Deep Web
A ____________ is a network within a network operated expressly to facilitate the distribution of files, information, and communications while concealing the identity of participants.
Darknet
______________ is the world’s largest implementation of onion routing communication techniques. The TOR system is composed of thousands of volunteers around the world who run TOR proxy servers. When someone connects to the TOR proxy network, their communications are encrypted and passed through a series of TOR proxies. Any TCP-based application that supports standard SOCKS proxy protocols can be connected to the TOR network.
The Onion Router
______________ is a method used for anonymous communication over wide area networks.
Onion Routing
A common feature of email discussion lists and newsgroup discussions, a _________ is a daily or weekly summary distributed to the users. _____________ make it easy to read over all the new developments of that day (or week) at once instead of slogging through multiple individual emails or postings.
digest
______________ is the process by which displays are lit via light shined through them towards the user. Smartphone screens, computer monitors, television sets, and other common display interfaces are lit by LED or fluorescent lights in this fashion.
Backlighting
______________ is an optical interface that links audio-capable devices using the S/PDIF standard over fiber optic cables. __________ is capable of transfer rates of up to 1.2 Gbps. __________ ports are found on a wide variety of consumer electronics including DVD players, cable boxes, amplifiers, and other home audio/video equipment.
Toshiba Link
______________ is a serial interface for transferring digital audio from DVD, CD, and other disc-based players to stereo amplifiers, television sets, and other equipment.
Sony/Philips Digital InterFace
_______________ is the piece of hardware that provides a connection between the computer and a computer network. Historically, a ___________ was a discrete expansion card added into a computer to provide access to a hard wired network such as an Ethernet or Token Ring LAN.
Network Interface Card
?????”______________” has been around in one form or another since Windows 9x because it’s one of the easiest and fastest ways to clean up your hard disks without installing third-party software.
Disk Cleanup
When it comes to keeping your system running well, hard drive optimization is important. Windows includes a great tool to keep your drives in tip-top condition.
Drive Optimizer
The “___________” has always been the geek’s go-to tool for diagnosing and alleviating system slowdowns. Windows 8.x continues this tradition with an attractive “_______________” makeover and improved diagnostic tools.
Task Manager
We hear this so often that it seems to have lost most of its meaning. Luckily, Windows 8.x includes simple tools such as “__________” and “___________” so you can protect yourself from catastrophic data loss!
File History, System Image
The cleanup tools that come with Windows work well, don’t get us wrong, but if you’re really pressed for space, then sometimes you need to dig a little deeper. __________ is a free program that you can download and install, which will root out all those space hogs and safely delete them.
CCleaner
One of the best ways to unburden your computer and quickly free up resources, is to disable items that automatically launch when Windows boots. These startup items not only suck up system resources like little vampires, they also often cause your computer to boot longer.
The old school way to deal with startup items is to use the “System Configuration” utility on Windows 7. Launch a “Run” window by typing “WIN + R” and then “__________.”
msconfig
One of the best ways to unburden your computer and quickly free up resources, is to disable items that automatically launch when Windows boots. These startup items not only suck up system resources like little vampires, they also often cause your computer to boot longer.
The old school way to deal with startup items is to use the “__________” utility on Windows 7. Launch a “Run” window by typing “WIN + R” and then “msconfig.”
System Configuration
_____________ is a free program from Piriform software that takes the work out of cleaning up your computer. Make sure that you download the “Slim” installer version that doesn’t contain any toolbars or other crapware.
CCleaner
When it comes to recommending any one AV scanner, we still say do some reading and try a few things out. But, if you’re simply looking for something to install right now and forget about, then you will be well protected with “______________.”
Avast! Free Antivirus
?????Windows provides a utility, aptly named, “_____________,” that allows you to keep your system patched and secure (to an extent) from any malicious attempts to gain access and seize control of your computer.
Windows Update
________, a portmanteau of advertisement and software, is a term used to denote a hybrid between freeware and shareware applications.
Adware
____________, a portmanteau of share and software, is a popular term which denotes that a given application is intended to be freely shared and distributed but that some form of monetary compensation is due the author.
Shareware
_________, a portmanteau of free and software, is a popular term which denotes that a given application is available for use either without monetary compensation to the author or owner of the application, or with a suggested donation (a sub-classification of freeware referred to as donationware).
Freeware
__________ are text masks which help users manage their email as well as reduce spam.
Email filters
A ________ is a small utility that loads before a computer loads its primary (or secondary) operating systems that allows you to select which (of multiple) operating systems you wish to load at the given moment.
boot manager
The ___________ is the software component within a given web browser that renders the HTML code of fetched web pages into a human-readable interface.
browser engine
__________ is the space that borders the main view portal of a web browser-including the menus, navigation bar, frame, scroll bars, and address bar.
Browser chrome
____________ is a feature of modern web browsers wherein additional viewing portals may be opened within the same primary window.
Tabbed browsing
_________ is the foundation of the World Wide Web and the browsing experience.
Hypertext
The _________ is a mechanism for the temporary storage of web documents intended to reduce bandwidth usage, server load, and the user’s perception of browser latency.
web cache
____________ is a feature available on most modern web browsers wherein the user can access the web browser’s cache and browse the pages there as if they were actively connected to the original web server.
Offline browsing
Just like your spinal cord connects the tens of thousands of peripheral nerves in your body, massive high speed fiber optic lines connect major cities and regions. These “_______________” link the smaller networks built by individual Internet Service Providers, which in turn connect to the end user.
internet backbones
An _________ is the company that provides internet access between the greater internet infrastructure and the end consumer.
Internet Service Provider
The rise in popularity of Wi-Fi enabled devices has fueled an interest in _________-small devices that act as a hybrid cellular modem and Wi-Fi router.
mobile hotspots
A ___________ is an add-on device for a mobile computer that plugs into a USB port or ExpressCard slot to provide cellular data service to the mobile computer.
cellular modem
______is the process by which a computer is connected to a cellphone in order to provide internet access to the computer. _________was originally a wired process, wherein a cellphone would be connected to the computer via specialized cable (and later via standardized USB cable) in order to share its data connection with the secondary machine.
Tethering
__________is the process of customizing software and accompanying documentation for a specific region, country, or social group. The process includes text translation, adaptation of user menus, and inclusion of specialty characters.
Localization
A ___________ is a computer utility which allows the user to view the status of all running applications and background services. Typical features include the ability to monitor CPU and memory usage globally as well as on an app-by-app basis. In addition, users can request more information about individual applications and terminate applications which are not responding or otherwise non-functional.
task manager
__________ is a conductive substance used to form a seal between two objects to ensure a consistent and thorough transfer of heat. .
Thermal paste
The ____________, typically labeled F1 through F12, are hardware keys on a computer keyboard reserved by the operating system or the current application to perform a given function.
function keys
An __________ is when a very large volume of email messages are sent within a very short span of time. This has the potential to temporarily cripple both the sending and receiving mail servers.
email storm
___________is a designation of the number of discrete elements an electronic or printed image is comprised of.
Resolution
___________ are an artifact left over from earlier versions of Windows. Prior to Windows 95, Windows stored critical system variables in INI files (which were essentially just text documents with variable lists in them). Starting with Windows 95, all these settings were found in the Windows Registry system and Microsoft encouraged software developers to do the same.
Initialization files
A _________ is an indoor cellular access point that uses internet access at its location of installation to route cellular calls over the internet. __________ are powerful enough to cover the area of a large home or small business (roughly 4-5,000 square feet) and benefit both the user and the cellular provider in that they provide a better signal for the end user and decrease the load on the cell provider’s tower system.
femtocell
_____________ is a method of displaying text and graphics on computer in the same fashion they will either be rendered for the viewer on another computer or by a printer.
What You See Is What You Get
__________ is a technique used by to smooth the appearance of jagged lines in graphical images.
Anti-aliasing
A _________ is a pixel that, unlike a dead pixel, is not inactive but instead stuck on a single color and unresponsive to the attached computer’s commands.
hot pixel
A ________ is a pixel in a liquid crystal or other non-CRT display that no longer responds to input from the controlling computer and is incapable of displaying any colors.
dead pixel
___________ are a fusion of traditional hard drive technology (magnetic platters) and newer solid state drive technology (flash memory).
Hybrid drives
A ____________ is an electronic storage medium that uses flash memory instead of magnetic platters to store data.
solid state drive
__________ is one speed measurement used to assess the performance of platter-based hard drives. The faster a drive platter spins, the faster the read/write assembly of the hard drive can access the data.
Revolutions Per Minute
The __________ is the primary storage medium on most computers.
hard drive
Like the Electronic Serial Number (ESN) and later Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) identify CDMA-band phones, the _______________ identifies GSM-band phones.
International Mobile Station Equipment Identity
____________is the application of gaming principles to non-game environments, usually with the intention of increasing user engagement. Exercise programs that create game-like environments and achievement systems based on the amount and frequency of exercise, for example, have applied gaming principles to what would otherwise be regarded by most people as a mundane and unpleasant task.
Gamification
The power transformers/adapters that many electronics require are, non-affectionately, referred to as ____________. The unpleasant sounding term pokes fun at the adapters which are generally ugly, bulky, and quite frequently block nearby electrical sockets.
wall warts
A __________ is a means of attaching an easily understood and search-friendly identifier to instant messages, chats, tweets, and other searchable media. ___________are most commonly prefixed by the number sign and followed by a single entry (which may be a single word or multiple words condensed into one). For example, people discussing the Olympics on Twitter might tag their posts with #2014Olympics.
hashtag
A _____________ is an account on a computer system that has the lowest level of access privileges.
guest account
Although ____________ and user profiles seem interchangeable (and in many systems they are directly linked), the ___________ is distinct from the user profile in that the ____________ is primarily used to manage security permissions, while the user profile is used to manage superficial elements like the user interface.
user accounts
___________ are sets of data stored on computers and gaming devices so that each individual user of the machine can have a unique experience.
User profiles
_____________ is a specific peripheral class designed to input data to a computer.
Human Interface Device
A ___________ is an application intended to conceal non-work activities in the workplace.
boss screen
__________ are a physical screen panel or film mounted on to desktop monitor or laptop screen. These add-on panels feature special microscopic louvers within the material so that the angle of viewing available while using the monitor becomes extremely restricted for the purposes of keeping others from looking at the screen.
Privacy screens
An __________is a set of ordered steps used to solve a problem. In the realm of computers and their associated functions, ________ are used to manage all manner of tasks including encoding and decoding video and other multimedia content, encrypting and decrypting secure transmissions, and otherwise automating the complex mathematics that underpin the modern computing experience.
algorithm
___________ are a type of information appliance that is designed so that the user can quickly decode information without the necessity of reading any sort of digital or physical printout.
Ambient Information Devices
A ____________ is a computer that runs Apple’s Mac OS X operating system but is not (as is traditionally the case) an Apple-built computer.
Hackintosh
__________ is a term applied to the stream of waste generated by discarded electronics such as monitors, cellphones, and other electronic devices large and small.
Electronic Waste
________ is utility found on DOS, OS/2, and Windows-based machines. It is used to check file system integrity on hard disks and removable media and, in its modern form in Windows, can also check for physical errors and bad sectors.
CHKDSK
_______ is a network data retrieval tool used to look up information about a given host.
Whois
___________ is a computer network diagnostic tool that, as the name implies, traces the route packets of data take from the machine the command is executed on to the remote host.
Traceroute
__________, also frequently called Name, is a simple network protocol used for the exchange of user status and contact information. Introduced in the 1970s, it was used to locate other users on a given computer network and see if they were logged in and/or available. While historically significant, its use declined steadily into the 1990s, as security concerns, other venues of contact information sharing, and incompatibility with NAT-based routing (such as commonly found in home and corporate routers) quickly made _______an unattractive communication tool.
Finger
_________ is a common computer network administration tool used to test whether or not a host is reachable on an Internet Protocol (IP) based network and to measure the amount of time it took to reach that host and receive a reply.
Ping
A ___________, or non-variable width font, is a font wherein each character in the font set is given equal spacing regardless of the size and shape of the letter.
monospaced font
______________ are typeface fonts that employ a dynamic spacing system wherein the shape of the letters and other characters are considered when spacing the letters on the line. By this mechanism, a “B” takes up more room than an “I” and the letter “a” in the word “Tan” is nested slightly under the “T”.
Variable width fonts
Traditionally, a ______was a specific size, weight, and style of a given physical typeface (style of letters).
font
One particular type of cookie is rather dangerous, however, and is outright banned by any properly coded web browser: the ____________. Wherein a normal cookie is assigned to a specific domain, such as a cookie that retains your display preferences on www.somemadeupwallpapersite.com, a _______________is a cookie that has been assigned to a top-level domain such as .gov or .com.
super cookie
______________ is an umbrella term that refers to several modern telecommunication systems that encode and transmit traditional voice communications via the TCP/IP networking protocol-in essence, __________ is telephone over the Internet.
Voice over IP
_____________ is a legacy file system that still remains in wide use today
the naming of the system is a reference to the prominent role of the file index table which is created when the ____________ disk is formatted.
File Allocation Table
In computer science, a ____________ is a data storage schema used to store, retrieve, and update files.
File System
A _______________, is relative of the traditional computing Application Programming Interface (API). Just like an API helps different elements on a traditional computer talk to each other using common routines and tools, a _____________ allows clear communication between a web-based service (and its data set) and a third party tool (like a desktop widget).
Web Application Programming Interface
______________ are sets of functions or routines that specify how software components should interact with each other. The ______ are, to the end user, entirely invisible and function behind the scenes, handling such tasks as process thread management, error handling, rendering output for graphic user interfaces (GUIs) and other core functions that are part of the computing experience.
Application Programming Interfaces
____________search is used in applications and search engines that use ____________operators (AND, OR, and NOT) to restrict or expand search queries. For example, if you wanted to search for web pages that contained the phrases “writing tips” and “starting a blog” but not “essay topics”, you could search with the following query: “writing tips” AND “starting a blog” NOT “essay topics” .
Boolean
_________________ files are an ubiquitous way to package and share documents. The format was introduced in 1993 by Adobe Systems and remained a closed proprietary format (but free to use) until released as an open standard in 2008.
Portable Document Format
___________electronics are capable of accepting additional or replacement hardware components to extend their functionality and lifespan.
Upgradable
One of the first tasks given to a student studying a new programming language is to copy a simple program that outputs the phrase ____________ on the screen. This classic exercise helps familiarize the students with the basic structure of the new language they are studying.
“Hello, World”
_______________ are a form of sandboxing wherein a computer and it’s operating system are simulated, via software, within the operating system of another computer. This concept is distinct from multi-boot systems wherein the user can boot the machine entirely into different operating systems using a boot manager.
Virtual machines
An ______________, or signature block, is a block of text appended to the end of an email communication which usually contains the sender’s contact information (such as address, phone number, and social media contacts) as well as other information such as quotations, legal disclaimers, and other material.
email signature
In contrast with the Random Access Memory (RAM) modules found in most computers and other devices, _______________ has a unique property-it retains the data contained within it even when the power is turned off.
Non-volatile memory
____________________ is a family of video compression standards that encompasses everything from DVD encoding to satellite video transmission.
Moving Pictures Expert Group
____________ is a popular video compression standard based on MPEG-4. It is widely used for both HD video sources like Blu-Ray discs and for streaming video from sites like YouTube using minimal bandwidth while maintaining quality video.
H.264
The ____________ spectrum covers 30Mhz to 300Mhz and is used for a wide variety of communications including television broadcasting, FM radio, as well as traffic control and marine communications.
Very High Frequency
The _____________ spectrum, or 700Mhz communication spectrum (technically 698-806Mhz), was historically used for television broadcasting. Starting in 2008, the FCC began auctioning off sections of the spectrum in anticipation of the 2009 switch from analog to digital TV broadcasts. Thanks to the suitability of 700Mhz spectrum broadcasts for long distance wireless communication, a significant portion of the available blocks were purchased by large telecommunication companies like Verizon Wireless and AT&T.
Ultra High Frequency
A ___________ is a lightweight machine that offloads its processing and data handling tasks to a central machine.
Thin Client
_____________ are computer games wherein humans (and computer opponents) complete their actions on set turns. The popular game franchise Civilization is an example of such a game style
players are allowed a period of analysis and decision making before committing to actions.
Turn-based strategy games
_____________ are video games wherein the action occurs in real time and all players must react on the fly to changes in the game with no downtime for game analysis and decision making.
Real-Time Strategy Games
A ____________, in computing terms, is a secure space where programs can be tested and code can be contained. In gaming, however, a ___________refers to a game designed to be open and non-linear in nature so that the player may roam freely and interact with the environment more liberally than in a linear game where the action progresses from one level to the next.
sandbox
_______________ means that a given medium is incapable of transmitting and receiving over the same channel simultaneously. Walkie-talkies and push-to-talk cellular services are examples of half-duplex communication in action
one party can transmit communication to the other party but the receiving party must wait for the transmission to end before replying.
Half-duplex
_____________ means that a given medium is capable of transmitting and receiving over the same channel simultaneously. A telephone call is an example of a simple ____________ communication: both parties can talk simultaneously as telephony technology is configured such that the line can transmit the audio in both directions at the same time.
Full-duplex
_______________, also known as Volume Snapshot Service, is a data backup technology included in Microsoft Windows that allows the operating system to take snapshots of the system which include files which are locked or otherwise inaccessible to the user. The service can only be used on NTFS-based disks and interacts with the data at the block level.
Shadow Copy
_______________ is a utility included in Windows since the release of Windows Me. The ____________ utility takes snapshots of the system including the state of the Windows registry, installed applications, system files, and system settings.
System Restore
Historically, computer manufacturers shipped optical media (such as CD/DVDs) with each computer that contained recovery software the purchaser could use to restore the computer back to factory settings in the event of data corruption or other problems. As a cost cutting measure, most manufacturers have moved away from optical media and now simply partition off a portion of the machine’s primary hard drive to serve as a _________________
this partition is not directly accessible by the end user and houses recovery software as well as an image of the computer’s hard drive as it was when it left the factory.
recovery partition
A _______________ is a bootable optical disc (or discs) that typically contains the base operating system and applications that came pre-installed on a commercially produced computer. In the event of severe operating system failure, failed hard drive, or other problem, the end user can boot from the discs to perform a reinstallation of the operating system and the original applications, effectively returning the computer to the state it was in when it shipped from the factory.
recovery disc
__________ is a feature in modern operating systems that allows you to enter a troubleshooting mode wherein only essential components (such as the OS kernel and basic drivers for the display and input devices) are active. While in _____________, problems with updated drivers, corrupt data, or other issues can be resolved.
Safe mode
_____________, also referred to as cloning, is the process of duplicating the entire hard drive of a machine onto another machine. Although of limited utility to a home user, _____________is widely used in corporate and government settings as it is much faster to copy an operating system/software configuration across duplicate machines than it is to independently install and configure the software on each individual machine.
Ghosting
__________________ are a trademarked (but widely used) type of matrix barcode. Instead of encoding the data in a series of vertical stripes (as the data is encoded in a traditional UPC barcode) the QR code data is encoded in a grid that looks like a plot of pixels.
Quick Response Codes
____________ is a type of temporary email service, typically web-based, wherein a user can create an email address quickly with the intention of using it a handful of times (or even once). Many web sites require valid emails for simple tasks (e.g. downloading an application or a one-time registration) and people avoid the potential of future spam and unwanted email by providing a disposable address they can use, check to get the confirmation link, and then dispose of. One of the most popular _______________address services is Mailinator.com.
Disposable email
________________ is an orientation wherein the display is positioned so that it is wider than it is tall. This is the orientation of movie screens, modern widescreen HDTV sets, and widescreen monitors.
Landscape Mode
_____________ is the orientation of a display screen so that it is taller than it is wide. The default position of most smartphones is “______________” as the phone design is such that it is most frequently held in the hand via the long edge. _______________ orientation is not typically found on television screens or computer monitors outside of specialized applications.
Portrait mode
The _________ is an electronic chip included with televisions (with 13″+ screens) and cable boxes manufactured after January 1 2000. The chip allows parents, via in-device menu, to set a lock on the type of broadcast/cable media displayed based on content ratings. The provisions regulating the inclusion of the __________ were part of President Clinton’s Telecommunications Act of 1996.
V-chip
___________________ is the protocol that automatically assigns IP addresses to each device on a network without interaction from a system administrator or user.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
________is a term used in cryptography and computer security to refer to text which has been run through an encryption algorithm.
Ciphertext
_________is a term used in cryptography and computer security to refer to text which is transferred without encryption.
Plaintext
The ____________ is set of rules an individual or organization must abide by in order to use a service.
Terms of Service
In computer science, a ______is a hardware component that stores frequently used pieces of data for more rapid access.
Cache
Within the context of video gaming, __________ refers to the speed at which the screen image is refreshed.
frames per second
In computing, a _________is a portion of physical memory storage set aside to temporarily store data while it is being moved and/or processed in some fashion.
Buffer
An ______________is a program designed to make it difficult to understand or reverse engineer source code.
obfuscator
_______________is the process of shifting the encoding method of a given media file.
Transcoding
Just as a compiler turns high-level programming languages into low-level programming languages in order to run them on the computer, a __________reverses the process and takes low-level programming language (like machine code) and translates it into higher-level programming languages (like C++).
Decompiler
A __________is a computer program (or set of programs) that converts source code from the original programming language into another computer language. Typically, this process is used to convert a high-level programming language (such as C++) into a lower level language (such as machine code) so that the program can be run as an executable.
Compiler
______________ are computer programming languages with a strong abstraction that provides a high degree of human readability.
High-Level Programming Language
A ________________ is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction or divergence from the actual instructions the architecture of the computer uses to execute commands. Machine code is an example of _________________ and is the only programming language that allows for direct and untranslated interaction with a computer processor (despite being very difficult to work with and requiring an extreme attention to detail, it is still used when considerable speed and lightweight programming is required).
Low-Level Programming Language
In computing, a ____________ is a software initiated reset of the hardware and software states. It is started by the operating system (either automatically or at the request of the user) and a set process is followed to shutdown applications, close out system files, and otherwise gracefully bring the system to a halt before starting it up again. _______ are preferred to hard resets (which halt all processes on the hardware level and can cause file corruption and system instability).
Soft Reset
In computing, a ____________ is a hardware operation that restarts the system hardware and, in the process, ends all current software activity.
Hard Reset
ANSI stands for the ___________________. The Institute is nearly a century old and responsible for maintaining a wide variety of standards across many industries including nuclear energy, chemical production, and health care information technology, but in computer lingo ANSI is used to refer to ANSI code standard.
American National Standards Institute
ASCII, the_____________________, is a character encoding scheme based on the English alphabet that encodes 128 characters (numbers, upper and lower case letters, as well symbols and control codes), into 7-bit machine readable binary integers.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
An ______________is a string of ASCII text intended to represent a face or emotional state using common keyboard symbols. The most widely recognized emoticon is colon and curved bracket combined to form a smile shape, like so 🙂
emoticon
A _________ is a piece of telecommunication hardware that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher power. _________ are used in a wide variety of applications including radio transmission and Wi-FI network deployment.
Repeater
_____________ is an internet utility that performs a function exactly like its name implies: it traces the route data takes from the local computer back to the remote host. The utility is useful for a variety of diagnostic tasks such as establishing where in a route the connection is lost and how long the route is.
Traceroute
A __________, alternatively spelled is a neophyte in a given pursuit. The term refers to the lack of skills, experience, and understanding of conventions the individual has in the area in question. Thus one can be a “__________” to the world of competitive real-time strategies or tennis without being considered generally unskilled or incompetent.
Newbie
_____________ are add-on circuit boards that expand the functionality of a computer.
Expansion Card
In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between other components. _____ systems can be so small and buried in the hardware as to be invisible to the end-user (such as the address bus found within the CPU’s architecture) or can have obvious manifestations that the end user can interact with such as USB (Universal Serial Bus), the ubiquitous computer input connection.
Bus
In computer security, a ___________________ is a type of attack that relies on the attacker’s ability to temporarily control or divert electronic communications so that they could observe and/or alter the communications.
Man-in-the-Middle Attack
In computer security, ______________, like their real-world counterparts employed by law enforcement agencies, are traps set to detect or counteract authorized access to computer networks. ________________ can take the form of individual computers, data sets, or network sites that appear to be valuable or worth investigating to the intruding party but which are actually designed to entrap and/or monitor the attacker.
Honeypots
_________________ is a form of data backup focused on ensuring continued future access to the digital information preserved by the backup process. Whereas a typical backup system is designed to simply duplicate the data so that it may be restored in the event the original data set or host computer is damaged, groups concerned with __________________ are not just concerned with creating redundant copies of data but ensuring that future generations will be able to access that data.
Digital Preservation
A __________________ system backs up the changes made to a system between the initial backup and the current backup. Unlike an incremental backup system, wherein only the newest changes from the previous increment are recorded, the differential system backs up everything that has changed from the initial backup on each subsequent backup.
Differential Backup
_______________s make it feasible to store a higher number of backups in a limited amount of space by building on an initial complete backup.
Incremental Backup
A __________________, or system image, is a backup of a computer system that includes not only user data stored on the machine (such as documents and photographs), but the entire operating system and installed applications. A __________________allows for a complete restoration of the system in the event of catastrophic failure.
Full Backup
_____________ is a backup that is not accessible to the computer that initiated the backup process after the process is completed. If, for example, you backed up your data to an external hard drive but then removed the external hard drive and stored it, then the backup would be considered offline, as a catastrophe that could destroy the original data set (such as a power surge or malicious software) would not be able to touch the offline backup.
Offline Backup
An ________________ is a backup that is still accessible to the computer which initiated the backup process. For example, if you back up all your data from your personal computer to an external hard drive that remains attached to your personal computer at all times, it is, in the sense that it exists on two physical mediums, backed up.
Online Backup
A _____________ is a duplicate copy of a data set or entire hard drive that is stored on a separate storage medium from the source file (or disk). If the original data (say, family photos) is stored on the primary drive of a computer and those photos are copied onto a secondary drive, the data set on the secondary drive is the __________.
Backup
__________________ is a process by which text and graphics are applied to a medium, typically paper, via a controlled and cold application of ink through micro-nozzles.
Inkjet Printing
___________________ is the process by which laser printers apply images to paper. Inside the laser printer, a laser beam passes over an electrostatically charged drum
this laser beam changes the static charge on the drum to represent a portion of the image (be it text or graphics) sent to the printer. The drum then collects toner from the toner cartridge and the toner clings to the charged portion of the paper. The final step fuses the toner to the paper (if you’ve ever cleared a jam out of a laser printer and the toner dust wiped right off the page, the paper jammed before the fusing process).
Electrostatic Digital Printing
A ________________ is a printer that uses heat to transfer ink onto the print medium as opposed to inkjet printing which sprays micro droplets of ink onto the surface of the medium. The name is derived from the process itself, during the heating and application process the dye sublimates from a solid material to a gas without transitioning through a solid state.
dye-sublimation printer
__________________ are a hybridization of traditional mechanical hard drive technology and more modern solid-state drive technology. The drives combine the large storage capacity of a traditional magnetic hard drive with the speed of a solid-state drive. The drives typically contain a 4-24GB solid-state storage area mated with a 500-1000GB magnetic storage area.
Hybrid Drives
____________ is a monitoring system built into modern hard drives designed to detect and report a set of indicators which allows the end user to assess the stability of the drive.
S.M.A.R.T.
_________________ is the measurement that encompasses both the internal transfer speed of a hard drive (movement of data from the disk surface to the disk controller in the drive) and external transfer speed (data movement between the disk controller and the host operating system).
Data Transfer Rate
_____________ refers to the amount of time it takes a hard drive to respond to a request for a particular piece of data. In traditional magnetic hard drives, the _____________includes both the electronic communication between the operating system, motherboard, and hard drive itself, as well as the physical movement of the components within the hard drive (such as the actuator arm that moves the read/write head). Typical ________________s for mechanical hard drives range from 4ms (for high speed server drives) to 15ms (for slower mobile or low-end consumer drives).
Seek Time
The ________________ is a section of a hard disk that has been specially formatted and flagged so that it does not appear to the host operating system. This portion of the hard disk can be used for a variety of purposes including storing hidden data, security software to track stolen laptops, and vendor-specific utilities, but it is most typically used to house recovery software. Many desktop and laptop computers no longer ship with operating system reinstallation/recovery discs, for example, but instead include a large __________________ that houses a recovery program that is accessible from the computer’s BIOS menu.
Host Protected Area
The last step in preparing a hard disk for use, _________________ is the process of setting up an empty file system in a new partition for use by an operating system. For example, when you install a new hard disk into your desktop computer, the final step after creating the partition is to instruct your formatting tool to create a file system (such as NTFS) in the given hard disk so that your operating system can access the drive and use it for storage.
High-level Formatting
________________ is the process of dividing a hard drive into a single logical storage unit or a series thereof. Partitioning allows a single physical disk to be divided into multiple logical disks for various purposes, including the separation of the operating system disk from the data storage disk, the installation of multiple operating systems, or other applications dependent on the division of data.
Disk Partitioning
______________ is a hardware level process that marks the surface of the disk with a marker indicating the start of a recording block. This block is typically referred to as a sector marker and is referenced by the disk controller in order to read and write data to the disk.
Low-level Formatting
____________ is the process of preparing a disk or other storage medium for use by a particular operating system. The formatting process is typically divided into three distinct operations. First, a low-level format prepares the media for use. Second the media is partitioned with one or more partitions. Third, a high-level format applies a file system (such as FAT32 or NTFS) to the newly created partition(s).
Disk Formatting
_________________ is the process of overwriting data with a series of zeros. You partially or completely zero-fill a given storage container to either overwrite the space where a recently deleted file was on the hard disk or to completely wipe the hard disk and all the files, folders, and other data structures contained therein.
Zero-filling
The _________________ is a an algorithm for securely erasing the contents of a computer hard drive.
Gutmann Method
DBAN is an acronym for ______________, an open source project. DBAN is a designed to facilitate simple and secure erase of hard drives so that data is no longer recoverable. It uses random number overwrites and includes scripts for the Gutmann Method, Quick Erase, and Department of Defense approved overwrites (3 and 7 pass).
Darik’s Boot and Nuke
In cryptography, both analog and digital, a ________ is an algorithm for transforming plaintext to _____text (unencrypted to encrypted) and reversing the process. A _____ could be as easy as shifting the vowels of the alphabet forward one (a shift-______) so that A becomes B and B becomes C, all the way around until Z because A. Modern encryption relies on radically more sophisticated ________s that use advanced computations, split keys, and other cryptographic tricks only feasible with the aid of computers.
Cipher
In a __________________, there are two distinct keys used to encrypt and decrypt data. The public key is used to encrypt data for the recipient and then the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. Thus if someone wanted to send a secure email message to Bill Gates via the widely used Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) email encryption program, they could look up Mr. Gates’ public key on a public key server, use that key to encrypt his message, and then only he could turn around and use his private key to decrypt it.
public-key cryptographic scheme
Introduced in 2003, __________ is the successor of the widely adopted PC Card peripheral form factor and interface standard. Like the interface that preceded it, ____________ allows you to expand or upgrade notebook functionality by adding networking interface cards, sound cards, graphics cards, and other mobile upgrades.
ExpressCard
____________ is a form factor standard peripheral interface standard for notebook computers introduced in 1990. Originally intended to provide expanded storage space for mobile computers, the interface was quickly adapted for network cards and other upgrades. Although it underwent numerous revisions (designated by roman numerals I-III), it was eventually superseded by the Express Card standard in 2003. Several companies with high volume sales to government agencies and institutions still offer ______________ slots for backwards compatibility with older equipment.
PC Card
The ___________________ is an international standards body that defines, promotes, and oversees standards for notebook computer expansion devices such as models, external hard drives, and other peripherals. Over time the acronym _______________ has been applied not only to the organization itself but to the the form-factor of the physical PC cards used in notebook computers.
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
___________________ is a form of parallel computing. Unlike supercomputer setups that feature custom built hardware, _________________ uses off-the-shelf hardware and computers to minimize costs. Companies use __________________because the cost of entry is low, parts are easy to replace, software and drivers are readily available, and the computers share a base architecture (such as Intel x86 or x64).
Commodity Computing
__________________ is a form of computation in which a large number of calculations are carried out simultaneously on hardware run in parallel. Parallel computation allows for some calculations and processes to be performed faster than serial computations (wherein each command must finish before the next is executed).
Parallel Computing
In modern email clients, both browser-based and stand-alone, you’ll find the digital answer to analog address books: ___________. The most basic __________s simply contain the name of the contact and their email address, but more robust contact lasts (such as those found in Outlook and Gmail) hold significantly more information like your contact’s physical mailing address, phone numbers, and other relevant information, including notes.
Contact List
In computing, a __________ is a list of items that a security algorithm or filter will always block. If you set up a filter in your email client to explicitly block the address of someone spamming you, for example, you’ve created a simple ____________.
Black List
In computing, a ___________ is a list of items that a security algorithm or filter will always allow to pass through.
White List
A _______________ is a software function that produces multiple documents (which could be printed form letters, emailed letters, printed labels, or other outputs) from a single template form using a structured data set as input.
Mail Merge
__________________ is an advanced form of spam prevention deployed at the server/provider level. The algorithms work in two primary ways: email body __________________ and email attachment _________________.
Fingerprinting
_____________ was one of the earliest and most influential electronic mailing list applications. Released in 1986, the application is still going strong and in wide use around the world. _____________ introduced a wide variety of email list management features we take for granted today, such as automated subscribing and unsubscribing without the intervention of a human list curator, message templates, and spam filtering.
Listserv
An ___________________ is a method of using email that allows for easy and widespread distribution of information to members of the list. There are two common forms of ________________: distribution lists and announcement lists.
Electronic Mailing List
The __________________ is a folder found in the inboxes of most modern email services where emails that have not been outright rejected by the email provider’s global spam filters, but which appear suspicious (because they, for example, contain marketing terms and the sender is not in the recipients address book or address whitelist), are dumped for further review. This is why companies will frequently request you check your _____________for emails that you have reported as unreceived, as legitimate commercial communications can often end up accidentally caught in the spam-hunting algorithms.
Junk Folder
A ______________ is a form of auto-response sent to the sender of an email when the email cannot be delivered to the intended recipient.
Bounce Message
_________________are computer programs that automatically answer email.
Email Autoresponders
A _____________is a web page or set of pages that traps any web crawler/search bot that comes across it. While some _____________s are unintentionally created (e.g. there is an element on the page such as a dynamic calendar with, essentially, infinite forward links for the crawler to follow), many __________________s are created with the intent of trapping spam crawlers looking for email addresses and other personal information. The heart of the trap, whether intentionally or unintentionally created, is series of links or a dynamic link system that a crawler gets stuck following (like a maze with no exit).
Spider Trap
______________ is the process of amassing lists of email addresses, almost always to spam them, using disreputable practices such as purchasing email lists in bulk from resellers, using giveaway/contest websites to harvest emails, or using harvesting bots to crawl web pages, forum and usenet posts, and other publicly accessible locations, looking for email addresses to add to the list.
Email Harvesting
An ______________ is a file sent along with the email message.
Email Attachment
In email composition, the “BCC:” section, short for _______________ is a method of sending an email to additional addressees without alerting the primary addressees (and the potential secondary addresses in the “CC:” section) that the email has been shared beyond those listed on the email.
Blind Carbon Copy
In email composition, the “CC:” section, short for ________________, is a method of sending an email to additional addressees without inserting them into the primary “To:” section.
Carbon Copy
________________ is an attempt to make an email address difficult for spam bots to harvest and begin spamming.
Email Obfuscation
____________ refers to the technology (both hardware and software) used to identify individuals based on their physical characteristics. Fingerprint scanners, facial recognition, and voice analysis are all methods of turning the user’s physical characteristics into security checks.
Biometrics
In computer security slang, a “_______________” is a malicious computer hacker. Unlike their counterpart, the “white hat” hacker, ______________s are those who would exploit security flaws for personal gain (or for the benefit of the corporation, organization, or nation state they work for).
Black Hat
In computer security slang, a “______________” is an ethical hacker. The term ______________ is applied to individuals that seek out security flaws and then notify organizations so the security flaws can be remedied as well as hired security specialists who look over an organization’s infrastructure to find the security flaws before malicious users do.
White Hat
________________ is a branch of marketing research that focuses on helping websites to appear as high as possible in a search engine’s rankings. The goal, if all goes as planned, is to help a website appear within the first or second page of results provided by a search engine, thus greatly increasing the traffic to, and popularity of, the website in question.
Search Engine Optimization
The term _________ refers to the portion of HTML coding in a web page that provides a basic description about, or identifies the type of content a particular website contains. Two of the most important types of ____________s are ‘keywords’ and ‘description’ tags.
Meta Tag
__________________refers to measuring the number of ‘visitors’ who browse away from, or leave, a web site after having viewed only one page. The lower the _______________ is, the more ‘visitors’ are interacting with a web site once they reach it.
Bounce Rate
__________________ is a type of malware that will lock a computer user out of their computer, encrypt all their files and/or hard-drive, or severely restrict access to the infected system until the user pays the malware author a ‘fee’ to regain access to their files and/or system.
Ransomware
__________________ refers to software that is used to take advantage of unsuspecting or naive computer users for profit or malicious purposes. The authors of ______________ seek to create a sense of panic, shock, or anxiety about a supposed problem or threat to the user’s computer system, when in fact, there is no problem at all.
Scareware
_________________ is software that anyone is free to redistribute for use by others. __________________ generally falls into two categories: free software that may be legally changed or modified as desired by a user, and proprietary software that may not be legally changed or modified by a user (i.e. freeware, shareware, demo/trial versions).
Redistributable Software
________________ refers to a business model where software or online services are offered for free with a limited set of features or capabilities available for use, but can be upgraded to a paid version for access to the full set of features and functionality of the product.
Freemium
______________ is the most frequently seen server-side error code in the HTTP status code canon. 503 stands for “Service Unavailable” and is the code returned when a user requests a web page from a server that is overloaded or down for maintenance. When visiting a link from a popular and heavily trafficked link aggregation site like Reddit or Stumble Upon, it’s not uncommon to find that the deluge of traffic from the larger site had temporarily knocked the smaller web server offline.
HTTP 503 Error
_______________ is perhaps the best known of all HTTP error codes. The code indicates that your browser client successfully communicated with the server, but that the content you were looking for is not where the browser request indicated it should be (e.g. the article is actually at /pages/1.html/ and you requested it at /page/1.html instead).
HTTP 404 Error
______________ are two closely related HTTP status codes related to the server’s inability to give you the data you are requesting. When the web site you are visiting gives you a 401 error, it means that you have no properly authenticated yourself with the server’s security system in order to gain authorized access to the web page or data you wish to view. A 403 Forbidden error, by contrast, indicates that (authorized or not) you still do not have the proper access level for the material you wish to view.
401 Unauthorized and 403 Forbidden
_______________ are a tool used by web servers to return information about the state of a server and/or the information it is serving up to the browser. The codes are divided into 5 general classes, each of which is signified by the first of the three digits. 1xx codes are informational and indicate a response from the server, 2xx codes indicate successful communication with the server, 3xx codes correspond to redirection requests, 4xx codes indicate a client error, and 5xx codes indicate a server error.
HTTP Status Codes
______________ is a frustrating phenomenon on the world wide web wherein old or changed URLs no longer point to the resources they previously pointed to.
Link Rot
The ________________ is a technical term for the portion of the browser window which actually displays the content of the web site you are browsing.
Browser Viewport
A ___________ is a line of information, typically displayed at the bottom of a window in a graphical user interface. Although _________s have been around for decades, the most common place a typical computer user encounters a _________ is within a web browser. When hovering over a link, for example, such as this link to the front page of How-To Geek, most web browsers will display the actual address, http://www.howtogeek.com, in the _________ at the bottom of the window.
Status Bar
_____________s, typically referred to simply as links, are a core component of the web browsing experience. ______________s take the form of text and images that, when activated by the user (or automatically by a script or web browser component), take the user to the document or file indicated by the link. Without the extensive use of _______________s, the smooth experience of jumping from one document to another on the web (such as jumping from the front page of How-To Geek to an article in the sidebar that interests you) would be greatly disrupted.
Hyperlink
________________ is a feature included in modern web browsers that allows you to browse the web in a special window wherein no data will be stored locally. There will be no links in the browser history, no cookie data, and no stored images or page content.
Private Browsing
A _________________ is the list of web sites you have visited using your web browser.
Browser History
The _________________ is the GUI element of a web browser where the user inputs the web address (also known as a URL). In addition to web addresses, most web browsers also support additional protocols (such as ftp:// for FTP sites) and internal addressing (such as about:somefunction or chrome://) to access the internal workings of the web browser.
Address Bar
In software engineering, _________________is a system design principle focused on allowing an application to grow and provide additional features in the future. Web browsers are the most widespread example of system ______________and even include bundles of additional features released as extensions, a direct nod to the design principle they are modeled after.
Extensibility
_____________, like backwards compatibility, is a compatibility concept used in system and product design.
Forward Compatibility
In computing, _________________is the ability of a device to accept input from a previous generation of the product or technology. _______________ is very important to consumers in a variety of industries as it allows them to use previously purchased content with newer technology and products.
Backwards Compatibility
A ______________ is any expansion board that is attached to the motherboard. This includes any expansion board like a networking interface card, a soundcard, a RAID controller, or other hardware expansion which is added to a computer via motherboard expansion slot. ____________s are typically only found on desktop and server machines, as mobile computers such as notebook computers and smartphones are either only expandable via USB or not at all.
Daughterboard
A ______________ is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable electronic systems. The term _______________specifically refers to printed boards with the potential for future expansion (as the ________________serves as the “mother” which hosts and supports the expansion cards). While the term ______________ has been adopted to refer to just about any main board, for applications where there is no expansion (such as the main circuit board in a washing machine), it would be more accurate to refer to the board as the system board or mainboard.
Motherboard
______________ are plastic boards that mechanically support and electrically connect the electronic components mounted on the board. The printed circuit board is the ubquitious but often unseen foundation of the entire modern electronics and computing revolution. From the guts of a tiny USB flash drive to the much larger motherboard inside your desktop computer, _________________are everywhere.
Printed circuit boards
__________________ refers to the unauthorized download of data and files from a computer using an iPod, other brand of mp3 player, flash drives, etc. The small size of these devices and ease of connection makes this method of data theft a quick and stealthy endeavor.
Pod Slurping
POTS is an acronym that many of us may not be familiar with or have heard before, but it does stand for something we all know only too well: __________________.
Plain Old Telephone System
_________________ refers to software that a company has bought, but has never used on their computers, thus leaving it to ‘collect dust on a shelf’. __________________ can also refer to unsold software remaining on a retailer’s or dealer’s shelves.
Shelfware
_________________ refers to the continued addition of new functions and features to a software or information system project during the development phase. The requests for new functions and/or features can come from the client’s desire for a ‘bigger and better’ product, or from the developers’ own desires to improve the product.
Feature Creep
A ____________is the graphic image, text, and/or navigation links at the top of a web page. A ____________’identifies’ the website, and at times may also ‘identify’ a specific sub-section or subject area (category) of the website in question.
Masthead
_______________ refers to the inability to remember where a particular item of information was seen or heard. The temporarily forgotten information can come from a variety of sources such as: mail, e-mail, newspapers, magazines, websites, radio, and/or TV.
Infonesia
_____________ is software that is set up to filter out and/or block access to websites containing: undesirable web content, age-inappropriate content, sexually explicit content, illegal download websites, social websites in work environments, etc. Parental controls and software that limit the websites children have access to also fall into this category of software.
Censorware
__________________ refers to the use of a computer isolated from the main network with one or more anti-virus/anti-malware programs installed to check removable media for viruses or malware. The flash drives, portable hard discs, memory cards, CDs, etc. must clear this ‘hurdle’ before being allowed near the other computers or into a high security computing environment.
Sheep Dipping
________________ refers to large scale industrial computer systems (hardware and software) that control and monitor industrial processes like the examples listed below:

•Industrial Processes such as manufacturing, fabrication, or refining.
•Infrastructure Equipment for water treatment, electrical power transmission/distribution, telecommunications, etc.
•Conditions in facilities like heating, ventilation, energy consumption, or security.

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
________________ refers to optical fiber and supporting infrastructure that is installed or laid in the ground, but is not currently in use. The ____________ may have been set up in anticipation of customer growth and demand in a given area, or for future ‘internal’ use by the company who installed it to connect their own offices.
Dark Fiber
‘________________’ refers to the portion or sections of a web page that are visible to a visitor without scrolling. The portion or sections visible will vary in size due to different screen resolutions, choice of browser (combined with possible toolbars, etc.), zoom level and text size settings for the browser being used, and may even be ‘affected’ by the operating system installed on the computer.
Above the Fold
A ________________ is a small website that may: contain just a few web pages, focus on a very specific singular topic or subject, serve a very special purpose, or be created for a short term purpose (such as a convention, event, or marketing campaign). The ______________ will have its own unique address that visitors or users will be encouraged to link to directly.
Microsite
______________ is a ‘general purpose’ abbreviation that refers to the terms “Anything as a Service” and “Everything as a Service”.
XaaS
________________ refers to a type of computer program structure where the program code is written (set up) as independent modules (subsystems) that call on one another as needed.
Ravioli Code
______________ is very similar to Hoteling, except focused on desks, cubicles, or work stations. These desks, cubicles, and work stations can be shared by multiple employees across different shifts, employees who are in the office at different times of the day, or simply be available to use as needed on a first come, first served basis without reservations ahead of time.
Hot Desking
______________ refers to the use of unassigned seating and/or office space as needed by telecommuters or mobile office workers. Use of the unassigned seating and office space is set up ahead of time via a reservation-based system.
Hoteling
_________________ refers to the use of technology by parents to track and monitor their children. At times this can, and does, include monitoring the people who help take care of children such as babysitters, nannies, school officials, etc.
Big Mother
__________________ refers to the process of detecting incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate, misspelled, improperly formatted, duplicate, and/or irrelevant data in a database. Once the erroneous data has been found, it is modified, replaced, updated, and/or deleted as necessary in order to make the database as accurate and consistent as possible.
Data Cleansing
________________ is software provided to users free of charge, but is licensed to benefit, or encourages the user to donate money to a particular charity of the software creator’s or user’s choice.

Commercial grade _______________ includes a ‘fee’ collected for charity added to the price of the software.

Careware
_________________ refers to the condition of data in a database or the processes conducted to ensure the accuracy (cleanliness) of data in a database.

Clean data will be completely error free or contain very few errors. Dirty data however, will contain errors such as: duplication of information, incorrect spelling or punctuation (names and addresses), incomplete or outdated information, erroneous data (incorrect amounts or names), etc.

Data Hygiene
_________________ is a slang term for an individual who is frequently away from their office traveling or on business, and engages in heavy use of their laptop and/or mobile phone while ‘out and about’.
Road Warrior
__________________ refers to the use of older computer hardware and software. For most individuals, _________________ is a recreational hobby, but for others the focus is on collecting rare or valuable hardware and software (sometimes for sentimental reasons).
Retrocomputing
____________refers to the fear or anxiety an individual may feel when unable to obtain a signal from a mobile phone tower, forgetting to bring their mobile phone along, or having the battery run out of power, thus leaving them totally ‘disconnected’. ______________is an abbreviation for “no-mobile-phone phobia”.
Nomophobia
_____________ is a slang term that refers to a website that has not been updated for a very long period of time.
Cobweb Site
__________________ refers to the series of navigational steps taken to reach the desired location (information) in a website’s content. _______________ are also found in file management software such as Windows Explorer, Mac OS Finder, Nautilus, Dolphin, etc.
Breadcrumbs
A _______________ is a computer facility that remains in a ‘lights out’ condition the majority of the time, with all monitoring and administration of the facility being done remotely. The only time a _________________ has people active in it is to conduct maintenance or repair work.
Dark Data Center
A ______________ is a web page that a user is presented with, and must interact with, before being allowed access to a particular network.

______________s can be as simple as: only requiring a set of log in credentials, present the user with a ‘terms of use’ policy that they must agree to in addition to entering log in credentials, and at times may even contain ads for the sponsors of a free network.

_______________s are common for free Wi-Fi hot spots and can even be used as community bulletin boards.

Captive Portal
______________ refers to the practice of minimizing the amount of information that a user is burdened with at any one time when interacting with technology.

Most of the interaction between the user and the information occurs in a monitoring periphery state, allowing the user to focus on parts of the information flow as desired or needed, and make it the center of attention without being overwhelmed by the rest.

Calm Technology
A _______________is a common word such as “a, of, on, the” that is not indexed and/or is ignored by search engines during a search query. The reason these words are not included is due to their frequent use in the language(s) individuals are using with a search engine. Excluding ______________s also helps save time when a search engine is returning results for a search query.
Stop Word
__________________ refers to the practice of directly translating a printed brochure into a web page without utilising any of the capabilities a web page format offers.

All that a visitor to the page will see is static text and images

there will be no clickable links, image zoom, ability to leave feedback or see other visitors’ opinions, video, etc. Literally, the only way to ‘interact’ with the page in any form is to print it out.
Brochureware
_____________ refers to the practice of browsing the internet with an inverted color palette (i.e. white text on a black background). It was a highly favored practice to save energy when people used CRT monitors in the past. With the advent of LCD monitors however, there is no need for the practice since it makes little difference in the amount of energy used.
Black Surfing
A ______________ (a.k.a. an Authentication Token) is a small hardware security device in the form of a swipeable card, key fob, or USB type of device.

Once the _______________ has been activated in a manner appropriate to its physical form, the user will need to enter a personal identification number (PIN) or password, and may be required to enter an additional numerical code generated by the device.

You can learn more about Two-Factor Authentication here.

Security Token
An ________________ is the web-based equivalent of a bibliography. Taking things one step further, an annotated _________________is the web-based version of an annotated bibliography.

Andrew J. Butrica of NASA was the person responsible for coining the term during his work on the history of NASA’s X-33 project.

Arachniography
________________ refers to hiding encrypted data or information inside of a common or completely innocent looking file such as an image, audio, or video file.

For all intents and purposes, most people will never be aware that the file is more than it appears to be, thus providing a nice hiding place in plain sight.

If someone does become aware of the ‘extra data’ in a file, it can be identified as encrypted data or information, but will be undecipherable without the decryption key.

Steganography
__________________ refers to the ability of a website to encourage visitors to stay longer and/or return more often. The more interesting, useful, or fun the content of a website is, the more __________________ it has.

The website in question may be a tech blog with daily content, a portal site like the Yahoo homepage, an information website like Wikipedia, a flash games website, etc.

Stickiness
A ____________ is a waterproof wearable computer built specifically to withstand high underwater pressure. It allows divers to gather and enter data when conducting underwater studies, then transfer the data to a desktop computer via a serial cable after returning to the surface.
WetPC
A ________________ is a program used to dial phone numbers and test them for a connection to a computer modem. The program then adds the numbers with a successful modem connection to a database.

Depending on the complexity of the __________________program, the operating system of connected computers may be identified, and could be followed by automated penetration testing to break into the computers or network found.

War Dialer
_______ is the term for spam that is delivered via instant messenger or chat services. While the volume of _____________ is not as bad as the volume of spam can be in our inboxes, it is more annoying in the sense that it displays directly when received, rather than being relegated to a junk or spam folder like it would in our inboxes.
Spim
__________________ refers to the transfer of electronic information, data, images, etc. by physically carrying it via a flash drive or other storage medium between different computers or networks
Sneakernet
________________ (UGC for short) refers to content such as information, data, news, reviews, blog posts, photos, videos, comments, etc. that an unpaid contributor has uploaded or provided to a website. Occasionally, the website in question will republish, promote, and/or possibly make a profit from ______________
User-Generated Content
_________________ refers to the practice of registering slightly misspelled variants of popular ‘brand name’ URLs as domains. The hope is to catch people who mistype the URL of the official ‘brand name’ website, which then leads them to the ‘false’ one instead.
Typosquatting
A __________________ is a temporary cookie that only exists as long as the browser is open. Once the browser has been closed, the ______________ is immediately erased and ceases to exist, unlike normal cookies that have a set ‘expiration date’ and remain on a computer after the browser is closed.
Session Cookie
____________ is a slang term for the well-known Ctrl-Alt-Delete function that many of us might have used more times than we wanted to over the years.
Three Finger Salute
A ________________ is a very basic level test of a program or new/repaired hardware that serves as an indicator of whether the rudimentary or most crucial functions are working.

This could be as simple as seeing whether a new or freshly repaired computer will turn on at all without incident (i.e. smoke coming out of it literally), or seeing if a newly written program will at least run in some manner (even though it may not do much else at the moment).

Smoke Test
__________ is an umbrella term that refers to any compact and/or very lightweight distribution of Linux such as Damn Small Linux and Puppy Linux for example. These versions of Linux are ideal for older hardware, hardware with limited resources, low-cost devices, etc.
Skinny Linux
_____________________ refers to a work environment that focuses on the actual work done rather than the ‘when and where’ it is done.
Results Only Work Environment
________________refers to malware that allows an attacker to have remote administrator level control of an infected operating system. Once the malware has compromised a system, the attacker is free to do whatever they please such as: stealing personal/financial information, taking screenshots, stealing/deleting/altering files, accessing the system’s webcam if it has one, installing keyloggers, using the compromised system to infect other computers, etc.
Remote Access Trojan
_________________ refers to the use of natural language (instead of programming language) to create a detailed outline of what a particular program or algorithm is supposed to do, just like creating a detailed outline for a major paper or report.
Pseudocode
PUP (short for _______________) refers to an unwanted program or piece of software that may be installed along with the program or software that a user actually wants on their system.
Potentially Unwanted Program
A _________________ refers to the blank areas (margins) on each side of bar codes. The _________________ ‘tells’ barcode readers where a barcode starts and stops, thus preventing the readers from ‘seeing’ other information that is not part of the bar codes, thus avoiding an inaccurate or unreadable scan.
Quiet Zone
A __________________ is software that copies data and/or defeats copy protection schemes by copying/reading a file or disk one bit at a time.
Bit Nibbler
An AIO (short for _______________) is a hardware device that combines many components, features, and/or abilities all into the same device housing.

Two prominent examples are: AIO PCs, which have all the system components (except the keyboard and mouse) built into the monitor, and AIO Printers that combine printing, scanning, copying, and faxing all into the same device.

All-In-One
_________________ is a GPS system that uses network resources and city-based cell towers in addition to regular satellite signals to provide the quickest, most efficient, and stable positioning data possible. The network resources and city-based cell towers are called upon whenever satellite signal conditions are poor, thus providing continuous positioning data without interruption.
Assisted-GPS
A _____________ is an individual who loves testing and using beta-release versions of software. ____________s may be focused more on the testing (and breaking) side of things, or may be eager to try out new features that other users do not have access to yet.
Betaphile
_______________ is a procedure to analyze network transmission efficiency and determine the error rate (bits received in error) of transmissions.
Bit Error Rate Test
An _________________ is a website that ‘observes’ and adjusts to the interactions with, and habits of, its visitors. Once an ________________ has been able to establish patterns for its visitors, it will adjust the structure, content, and/or presentation of information in order to optimize the user experience for future interactions with those visitors.
Adaptive Website
An _____________ is an area where a collection of cellular, microwave, radio, satellite, and/or TV transmitting/receiving antenna equipment is located together in a group. Grouping all the antenna equipment together like this makes it easier to perform maintenance and protect the equipment from theft.
Antenna Farm
________________ refers to the theoretical concept of placing servers in the basements of residential homes, apartments, and offices as a source of heat for those buildings. Since servers generate large amounts of heat, it was theorized that a _______________ could be a cheaper source of heat for people while helping large companies save money in comparison to running full-blown data centers.
Data Furnace
________ is the term used to ‘describe’ when a website receives a warning letter about copyright violations and/or is forced to remove copyrighted material from the website in question.
Foxed
_______________ is a marketing strategy used to create a sense of insecurity in users and customers about a competitor’s product. If effective, users and customers will be discouraged or hesitant about buying the competing product and stay with their current product supplier instead.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt
_________________is a network that has been specifically designed to withstand anomalies, disturbances, limitations, temporary (or intermittent) communications problems, and outages with as little impact as possible on regular network operations.
Disruption Tolerant Network
A _________________is an individual or organization that searches for and registers well-known or popular website domains whose registration has lapsed by accident or forgetfulness. The _______________ will then offer to sell the domain back to the original registrants for a ‘price’.
Domain Sniper
An ___________________ is a private network or website that is not available to the general public, but is specifically set up for customers, partners, suppliers, vendors, etc. Access to an ________________ will require the appropriate login and password credentials, and can either be free or require a subscription.
Extranet
An ________________ is a program that works its way through a network searching for software that needs to be updated and/or patches that need to be applied for known vulnerabilities. Like the malicious version, an ________________ will most likely operate on and update the computers in a network without users being aware of its presence.
Ethical Worm
A ______________is a librarian who does most of their research and information retrieval via the internet, or an individual who specializes in using the internet as an information gathering and resource tool.
Cybrarian
_____________refers to the practice of internally using a product or service a company has developed before offering or releasing it to the public.
Dogfooding
A ________________ is a form of brute force attack used to discover passwords for user accounts, computers, and servers via the systematic entry of the words found in a dictionary.
Dictionary Attack
_________________ refers to the elemental functions or processes that are conducted with a set of data or a persistent database.
Create – Retrieve (or Read) – Update – Delete
_____________ refers to the density or number of typographic characters that will fit into an inch of printed line for a given font.
Characters Per Inch
A ______________ is a method used by spammers in order to build a database of valid (working) e-mail addresses. This is done by generating lists of random or common names and sending them out to valid domains like Yahoo, Gmail, etc.
Directory Harvest Attack
____________ is a nickname for an individual who enjoys spending time with people who are technical and/or more computer literate than they are.
Droupie
________________ refers to raw data that has been analyzed, extracted, manipulated, organised, presented, and/or processed for further use.
Cooked Data
____________ is a subset of standard HTML that was specifically adapted for use with small, ‘limited ability’ electronic devices such as mobile phones (older/earlier versions) and PDAs.
C-HTML
________________ refers to data that is archived or kept for reference, and is rarely (or never) changed or updated. _________________ may be stored in encrypted form on a variety of sources such as: servers, backup storage, external backup mediums, an employee’s hard drive, etc.
Data At Rest
_________________ refers to the practice of using a search engine to see how many times and/or places your name is mentioned or cited on the internet.
Ego-Surfing
______________ refers to ceasing all contact and interaction with the internet whether it be via computers, mobile phones, tablets, etc. so that an individual can de-stress and/or focus on actual physical contact or social interaction with people.
Digital Detox
A __________, also referred to as an integrated circuit, is an unpackaged bare chip (a small block of semiconducting material on which a functional circuit has been fabricated).
Die
_________________ refers to the “questionable” practice of adding the term “cloud” to the name of a hardware or software product in order to make it sound fresh, up to date, or as an attempt to re-brand it simply because of the cloud’s popularity.
Cloud Washing
________________ refers to the use of two or more cloud environments (public and/or private) for an application that requires a large amount of computing resources.
Cloud Spanning
_____________refers to the act of removing an item or data from a Queue (temporary holding place for data). The opposite action (Enqueue) refers to the act of adding an item or data to a Queue.
Dequeue
The original (and main) usage of the term ________________refers to the act of throwing someone or something out of a window. But when it comes to computers, the term ______________is humorously used to refer to the act of removing Microsoft Windows from a computer.
Defenestration
_______________ refers to the sudden loss of an audio or video digital transmission signal. Unlike analog transmission signals which can fade in and out, digital transmission signals are an all-or-nothing deal…either there is enough signal strength to maintain the minimum signal threshold or there is not.
Cliff Effect
_________________ refers to the percentage of customers who discontinue or cancel their mobile phone, online, subscription, or telephone service within a given period of time. The _________________is calculated by dividing the number of customers who discontinue or cancel their service by the average total number of customers for that time period.
Churn Rate
A _____________ is a link to any web page of a given website that is not its home page (i.e. a link to a specific blog post rather than the blog’s home page).
Deep Link
_____________ refers to the ‘moment of emergence’ when an individual who has only observed a chat room, forum, etc. finally chooses to start actively participating and interacting with others.
De-lurk
_______________ refers to decorative pieces of jewelry, personal adornments, household decorations, etc. that have been made out of outdated and/or scrapped electronic components.
Chip Jewelry
A _________________ is a computer keyboard with flat, square keys with rounded corners that are reminiscent of Chiclets gum.
Chiclet Keyboard
A ____________ is a specific or special subset/repository of data in a Data Warehouse that is for use by a specific department within a company, or for a particular function/need in a company’s operations.
Data Mart
________________ is a feature in most web browsers that lets an individual navigate a web page, select text, etc. with a “|” text cursor via their keyboard.

The feature is also present in text editors, word processing programs, and desktop publishing programs.

Caret Navigation
____________ refers to the practice of spelling out the names of hardware and/or software products using multiple capital letters such as BlackBerry, TiddlyWiki, etc.

The use of _____________ can also be applied to long names or words where no spaces are allowed between the words entered/used on a computer system, thus making the words easier to read and understand versus an ‘all capitals’ or ‘all lower-case’ entry (i.e. JaneSmith versus JANESMITH versus janesmith).

CamelCase
A _________________ can be either:

A collection of blog posts that have been compiled, edited, and published as a printed book.

Blook
_____________ refers to compulsive, excessive, and/or meaningless ranting/raving by an individual on a blog.
Blogorrhea
______________ refers to the ability to use (operate) a computer mouse equally well with either one’s left or right hand.
Ambimoustrous
______________refers to the use of location services in smart phones by installed social media apps to constantly (and automatically) ‘broadcast’ your location to others in a given range.

This is done with the intent of helping people find their friends so that they can do things together, or to meet new people in a given area who share similar interests.

The constant ‘broadcasting’ of a person’s location to friends and strangers alike does raise concerns about privacy, and in some cases, personal safety.

Ambient Social Networking
_______________ refers to the practice of bribing and/or offering of desirable ‘products’ to bloggers in exchange for favorable write-ups, reviews, promoting, and/or mentions of a specific product or service on their blogs.
Blogola
A _____________ is a list of recommended links to other blogs that are related to the blog in question, may be of interest to readers, or included as a show of support for the blog owner’s personal interests or affiliations (i.e. political, etc.).
Blogroll
______________ is a quotation from Roy Amara (1925 – 2007), a researcher, scientist, and past president of the ‘Institute for the Future’ regarding how we perceive the effects of technology. It goes:

“We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.”

Amara’s Law
__________________is a law enforcement technology that optically scans license plates on vehicles. The cameras come in two forms: fixed position cameras and mobile versions installed in vehicles.
Automated License Plate Recognition
An ________________ is a somewhat sarcastic reference to a common computer error or problem caused by a user who had no idea what they were doing, and will most likely not admit to being the cause of.
ID10T Error
_________________ refers to the recognition and translation of hand-printed, manually entered, or machine printed text characters into machine readable characters.
Intelligent Character Recognition and Image Character Recognition
A ______________ refers to a serious hard-drive malfunction or the physical destruction of a hard-drive. This is due to problems such as contamination with dust particles, excessive ‘jostling’, faulty parts, high temperatures, misalignment, etc. that have caused the head to come into contact with the disk and either scratch or burn the disk, therefore destroying the data on it.
Head Crash
A ______________ is a program that helps spammers to defeat spam filters. The __________________generates and inserts a unique string of text into each spam mail (i.e. the subject line, ‘from’ line, or message body). The random strings of text cause the spam mail to appear as negative results when converted to hash form and compared to the hashes of known spam samples.
Hash Buster
________________ refers to being able to exit from the crashing of, or encountering of a major problem with, an application or program without having to restart the computer.
Graceful Exit
________________ refers to the printing speed (measurement) of a printer when printing pages filled with or containing graphics.
Graphics Pages Per Minute
______________ refers to the practice of bombarding a software program, operating system, or network with large amounts of random data to see if it will fail, reveal coding errors, and/or reveal security loopholes.

If a problem is detected during the bombardment (test), then a program known as a fuzz tester may help to indicate or flag the cause(s).

_________________is not the same as using carefully created data for formal testing (which comes later).

Fuzz Testing
_________________ refers to a computer that is temporarily out of commission or malfunctioning due to hardware problems of some sort. A _________________ computer does not require new parts in order to be restored to working condition again, but simply tinkered with and/or repaired to resolve the problem(s).
Frotzed
__________________ refers to software that has achieved a ‘final, ready to go’ status and is ready for release/sale to the public.
Gold Code
_______________ refers to the full-out specialization and targeting of a product, service, and/or website to the language and culture of a particular country.
Glocalization
A _______________ is a co-worker or work colleague that an individual has friended on a social network and/or become friends with outside of work.
Frolleague
A __________________ is JavaScript code used in websites or web applications to prevent the content (web pages) from being displayed in HTML frames on other third party websites.
Framekiller
A _____________ is a website that is no longer updated or maintained, but continues to remain online and viewable.
Ghost Site
_______________ are Earth coordinates that are defined by their latitude, longitude, and elevation.
Geodetic Coordinates
_____________________ refers to the updating of firmware, software, configuration settings, etc. on mobile phones, tablets, and other wireless hand-held devices via over-the-air code transfers.
Firmware Over The Air
________________ refers to the practice of cleaning, deleting, moving, rearranging, and defragmentation of the various files on a computer in order to ‘optimize’ the file system on it.
File Grooming
_____________ refers to the addition of geographical information such as latitude, longitude, altitude, bearing, and sometimes other types of information to images taken with a digital camera or mobile phone.
Geotagging
__________________ refers to ready made software that is shrink-wrapped, produced in bulk, and can be purchased off the shelf in a variety of stores (offline and online). Examples of Generic Software are: various anti-virus suites, photo programs, typing programs, etc.
Generic Software
Fiber Exhaust refers to a complete saturation of an optical fiber network
in other words, that particular optical fiber network has no spare transmission capacity left for new or additional traffic. The effect of Fiber Exhaust can range from a single optical fiber all the way up to an internet level problem (as more devices and higher speed access becomes available to more people).
Fiber Exhaust
______________ are search results that match (contain) the keyword(s) you were searching for, but have zero relevance to the information you were actually looking for.

A simple example: Suppose you entered “angel” as your search term with the purpose of finding information about the ‘Buffy spin-off’ TV series, but in addition to the information you were actually looking for, you also got results for music videos for songs named Angel, Angel Stadium in Los Angeles, etc.

False Drops
________________ is any software or program that has an expiration date or usage system ‘built in’. The software or program will cease functioning or become unusable based on a specific date, number of days used, or number of times used by an individual.
Expireware
_______________ is a computerized set of medical records that are shared by multiple healthcare agencies, facilities, and/or organizations.
Electronic Health Record
_______________ refers to automatically falling back on (calling) a secondary system to take over when the primary one experiences a failure of some kind, or is ‘down’ for scheduled maintenance. The secondary system will have an up-to-date copy of all needed data and software ready to go for an immediate switch-over with as little interruption as possible to regular operations or work flow.
Failover
__________________ refers to the ability of a system or hardware component (a hard-drive for example) to fail or stop working with a minimum of damage or destruction to the data or hardware component.
Fail Soft
An _______________is a pseudo HTML tag that is used in place of emoticons or to convey feelings and actions in instant messengers, e-mail, comments, etc.
Emotag
A ___________________ is a banner ad that is displayed on the results page when a search is done. The ‘subject’ material of the banner ad will be specifically related to the term(s) or information entered into the search engine in question.
Meta Ad
________________refers to the sale of custom made and/or personalized products to customers by retailers with the majority of the transactions done via online interactions.
Me-tailing
________________ refers to the use of advertisements to infect computers with malware. Such advertisements can be found on less than reputable sites and on trusted websites where malware authors have managed to sneak their specially crafted ads past the site’s, or advertising network’s, filters.
Malvertising
A __________________is a group of websites created for the purpose of increasing search page rankings by cross-linking to each other. The incoming links shared between all the websites in the _________________work to create an ‘appearance’ of popularity for each other.
Link Farm
______________ refers to software that engages in destructive, performance degrading, and/or spyware activities on a computer. The term _______________is a reference to the horror movie character Freddy Krueger from the “Nightmare on Elm Street” series.
Kruegerware
A ________________ is a website that is set up so that the pages are linked one after another in a very specific order. This is done when the purpose is to teach a subject or to ensure that something is viewed in the order it is meant to be seen.
Linear Website
____________ is a slang term for an individual who uses P2P (torrent) software and downloads files with little or nothing offered back in the way of uploads for other individuals to access.
Leech
____________ is a term for an awkward, clumsy, crude, and/or inelegant solution to a hardware component, implementation, or program problem. Most of the time, a ____________ is a temporary or makeshift solution that will ‘hold things together’ until a better or more solid solution can be implemented.
Kludge
_________________ refers to one thousand lines of program source code. KLOC can serve as a measure of the size of a program and programmer productivity, and defects per KLOC can be used to measure/evaluate code quality.
Kilo Lines Of Code
_____________ refers to the process of ‘transforming’ technical subjects, jargon, and high-level communications into simpler, easier to understand terms and/or language for everyday people.
Laymanize
__________________ refers to the use of location services (i.e. GPS) for the localization of products and services, or for business purposes in a mobile context.
L-Commerce
_____________ refers to the practice of duplicating and/or inserting a large number of keywords into the meta tags and main content of web pages in order to increase page rankings in search results.
Keyword Stuffing
___________________ refers to the process of setting up a specific key or key combination as a custom keyboard shortcut to suit a user’s needs.
Key Binding
______________ is another name for the internet and is based on the name of famous German highway ‘The Autobahn’.
Infobahn
_______________ are plain text Windows files that contains information used for installing ‘items’ such as: drivers for hardware, programs/software, and even Windows itself.
INFormation Files
________refers to a jittery, shaking, or wobbly effect in video footage. A very common cause of ________is when ’24 frames-per-second’ video footage is converted to a ’30 or 60 frames-per-second’ format. The uneven division of 24 into a ’30 or 60 frames-per-second’ format means that some video frames have to be repeated an additional extra time to fill in the missing frames, therefore causing the ___________effect.
Judder
A _________________ is an account where the user name (login name) and password are exactly identical. For example: User Name = foxygeek and Password = foxygeek.
Joe Account
An ______________is a link found on a third-party website that leads people back to your website or a specific area/post on your website.
Inbound Link
____________ refers to any data that is stored and/or transmitted without encryption. Such data can include: ATM/credit card information, audio files, documents, messages (i.e. chat or e-mail), sensor data, video files, etc.
In The Clear
A _________________ is one which is able to function as a regular laptop, or when needed, can have the keyboard detached so that the device can be used as a tablet.
Hybrid Laptop
A _______________ is a program that automatically surfs the internet while imitating the regular (or common) actions of a human user. It does this in order to detect exploits in websites, identify malicious activity, or look for unusual activities that may indicate a security problem.
Honey Monkey
_______________ refers to the proper arrangement of pages on a printed sheet of paper so that all pages are in the correct order when cut and folded for the final product.
Imposition
An ____________is graphic element such as an emoticon, icon, number, symbol (i.e. @), etc. that expresses, represents, or symbolizes, an idea.
Ideogram
The ____________ are the keys in the middle (central) row of keys on a standard QWERTY keyboard.
Home Row Keys
________________ is one of seven pre-defined root keys in Windows. It stores settings that are specific to the user who is currently logged in.
HKey Current User
________________refers to the condition that arises when multiple devices, parts of a system, and/or users attempt to use or access a single/limited resource at the same time.
Contention
A _____________ is an internet company that has gone out of business or is failing. The term originated during the stock market crash at the turn of the century that brought the dot-com bubble to an end.
Dot Bomb
_____________ is a slang term for getting fired from a job for making less than flattering comments about the company one works for, the work environment, and/or about co-workers on a personal blog.
Dooced
A ________________is a website that publishes a large volume of news and/or information that is specifically geared toward helping the website in question rank highly in search engine results. This is done for the sole purpose of generating revenue from the ads displayed on the website.
Content Farm
A ___________________ is one that contains a combination of data elements such as text, photos, graphics, spreadsheets, sound clips, video clips, and/or other multi-media elements.

Two examples of _________________ types are text/word documents (i.e. Microsoft Word for example) and html files.

Compound Document
_______________ is the practice of purchasing multiple domain names (especially ones that are misspelled versions of popular domains), setting up home pages with ads, then tracking the new home pages (domains) to see which ones are profitable and which ones are not.
Domain Tasting
________________refers to the practice of repeatedly registering and cancelling the same domain name over and over again. This allows a _______________ individual to exploit the five day grace period without charge or penalty, yet “own” the domain name for free.
Domain Kiting
A ______________is a device that can compare two currents, two quantities, two streams of data, two voltages, the physical properties of two objects, or an object with a standard to determine their equality.
Comparator
_______________ refers to the practice of disabling lines or sections of program code by surrounding them with the appropriate comment start/stop syntax. This could be done in order to find the source of an error in a batch of code or to totally ‘exclude’ that part of the code from functioning/working in the final product.
Comment Out
____________refers to the descriptive word or phrase in a text document or item of information that identifies the content, provides a basic ‘concept’, or represents the general content of the document or information.
Docuterm
A ________________ is a computer workstation that does not have a hard-disk. The operating system, programs, and data are all retrieved and loaded from a network server.
Diskless Workstation
A _________________ is a reserved section of computer memory that has not been used, accessed, or received any data for a long period of time.
Cold Buffer
________________ refers to programs that clean up the appearance of code (or text) by making corrections to color, contrast, line indentations, positioning, removal of blank lines and/or spaces, size, spacing, etc., therefore making the code and/or text easier to read for humans.
Code Beautifier
______________ generally refers to the one hour period of each day when telephone and/or internet traffic is the heaviest. But depending on the location and circumstances, there may be more than one ______________ per 24 hour period, meaning that the current communication ‘infrastructure’ has reached a point of saturation each of those times.
Busy Hour
__________refers to data transmissions or transfers that occur in abrupt and/or short, uneven bursts.
Bursty
____________refers to the automatic flowing of text around an embedded image in a document or from one page to the next.
Autoflow
__________________ is a loss or reduction in the strength of signal power in a transmission. __________________ can occur for any type of signal whether it is digital or analog in form.
Attenuation
_________________ refers to businesses that are set up with physical store locations, websites, and catalogs that provide customers a variety of convenient ways to purchase products.
Bricks, Clicks, And Flips
A ________________ is a special key on computer keyboards that will temporarily interrupt a computer’s communications line (i.e. modem connection) or stop the execution of the program currently in use. Some keyboards may not have a ______________, and some programs may not respond to the use of the ________________.
Break Key
__________________ refers to a computer or machine intelligence that is superior to humans in one or more areas of knowledge combined with an implicit will to use that intelligence.
Artilect
An __________________ is a computer virus that has been engineered with large amounts of misleading logic, complicated and/or confusing code, and methods to hide its real location. While this makes an ________________ very large in size compared to its ‘brethren’, it is done with the intent of making it very difficult to analyze and/or reverse engineer it.
Armored Virus
A _______________ is a software program that is essential to a particular business for it to be able to operate. Examples of ___________________s include: resource management software, sales software, warehousing software, etc.
Bread-And-Butter Application
______________ refers to the degradation of a server’s or network’s performance when too many end users boot up their virtual desktops or start up their systems to log into the network at the same time. A ______________ is most likely to occur at the start of the work day or when a shift changes.
Boot Storm
______________ refers to applications, programs, or other services that can be rented or are available for sale online for businesses and/or consumers. The businesses that provide ______________ are known as application service providers.
Apps On Tap
An __________________ is a mobile device app that allows you to interact with physical devices such as a home environment control system, home theater, television, toys, etc.
Appcessory
A _____________ is a newly invented word or term
it may also refer to a new meaning for a pre-existing word or term. Rapid changes and progress in technology create a perfect environment for the invention of ___________.
Neologism
________________ refers to the transmission of programs (video and/or audio) to a select group of individuals.
Narrowcasting
_________________is the combination of mechanical and electronic systems that utilize microprocessors and software in robotics, industrial control systems, and human interfaces.
Mechatronics
______________ is a slang term for the physical world and/or real life.
Meatspace
An __________________ is a safety device that is capable of preventing an action from taking place and/or prevents activation during unsafe conditions.
Interlock
An _______________ is a data form or application that has interactive elements, help screens, visual cues, and may even include a low level of artificial intelligence. These elements are meant to help a user fill out the form or work with the application as accurately and easily as possible.
Intelligent Form
_______________ refers to the alignment of text between the left and right margins of a document.

The alignment can be set along the left margin (flush left), the right margin (flush right), be justified (a.k.a. fully justified, where the text is evenly spaced across a line so that it is flush with the left and right margins), or centered.

Justification
A _____________ (a.k.a Splash Page) is a temporary or permanent web page that serves as a ‘jumping off’ point that directs visitors to other web pages or websites.

The _____________ may be nothing more than an index/list of links, serve to redirect visitors to a website’s new URL, be set up for a promotion of some sort, or even exist as the starting point for a survey.

Jump Page
______________ refers to operations, product development, and/or process development that occurs on-site using existing facilities, personnel, and supplies.
In House
___________ sounds are sound waves with frequencies that fall below the audible hearing range of humans.
Infrasonic
In desktop publishing and typography, a _________________ is the space between columns in a multiple column document.
Gutter
___________ is shareware that attempts to elicit a purchase of the software in question via guilt tactics such as: collecting for a charity, reminding users of how hard the developers worked on the product, etc.
Guiltware
_______________ is a combination of information and entertainment presented together in a program on radio and television, or via a delivery format such as websites on the internet, etc.
Infotainment
__________________ is the mathematical and behavioral study of encoding, retrieving, storing, and transmitting data.
Information Theory
A ___________ is an encryption (cryptographic) key that is used by everyone on a particular network or shared by a group of users.
Group Key
______________ refers to unauthorized network-based applications that are downloaded and installed on a corporate network without permission from a company’s IT department. Such applications include: instant messengers, peer-to-peer file sharing programs, streaming media players, RSS readers, and video call/conferencing programs.
Greynet
_______________ refers to the period of time between information being gathered and when it becomes available to employees or the public.
Information Float
An ________________ is an individual who is in business to gather and sell electronic information.
Infopreneur
The term ______________ refers to the installation of new network equipment (hardware) and/or software with a focus on integrating with or taking into account existing hardware or software.

Contrast with Greenfield.

Brownfield
The term ________________ refers to an installation of new network equipment (hardware) and/or software without the need to integrate or take into account existing hardware or software.

Contrast with Brownfield.

Greenfield
A _____________is a series of typographical or special characters like #@%$! that are used to represent/replace profane words or phrases. American cartoonist Mort Walker (‘Beetle Bailey’ and ‘Hi and Lois’) is credited with the creation of the term.
Grawlix
A _____________ is one where matches or items loosely related to the topic an end user is looking for are found even if users misspell words or enter partial words, etc. when looking for information.
Fuzzy Search
______________ refers to the (directional) downloading of web pages, files, data, etc. from an online internet source to the end user.
Downstream
A __________________ is a transmission from a satellite to an Earth-based station or a transmission from a cell tower to a mobile phone or device.
Downlink
A _______________ is a computer file or other data that is not broken apart (fragmented) across a hard-disk. This makes it faster to read and write the file when working with it.
Contiguous File
__________ refers to the practice of including too many hyperlinks in the text of a web page.
Overlinking
_______________ refers to telecommunications operations that are almost synchronous.

For example, if you have a transmission exchanged between two devices with different clock settings, the transmission may not arrive in the same time slot it was sent, but if it arrives within a set/defined time range it would be considered ______________.

Plesiochronous
______________ refers to the barest minimum or simplest version of functions, etc. that are available in an application or system.
Plain Vanilla
An _______________ is a graphical chart that shows the layers of a complete system, organization, or process in a set of concentric circles. Each circle in the chart shows its dependency on the part shown inside of that circle with the innermost circle being the core of the whole system.
Onion Diagram
__________________ refers to a form of screen distortion where the sides of the on-screen visual display bow outward in a barrel-like shape.

Contrast with Pincushioning.

Barrel Distortion
________________ refers to a form of screen distortion where the sides of the on-screen visual display bow inward.

Contrast with Barrel Distortion.

Pincushioning
__________________ refers to telephone calls that a user is not aware of. __________________can occur when a preset number is accidentally pressed on a mobile phone or a computer application dials up via an Internet connection to send data out to a website.
Phantom Dialing
_____________ refers to the process of removing an existing user from a company’s identity and access management system or downgrading an existing user’s privileges in the company’s system.

Contrast with Onboarding.

Offboarding
______________ refers to the process of adding a new user to a company’s identity and access management system or upgrading an existing user’s privileges in the company’s system.

Contrast with Offboarding.

Onboarding
A ______________ is a random snippet or chunk of irrelevant text (data) that is pasted into an online conversation in order confuse, disrupt, or irritate recipients on the other end.
Paste Bomb
____________ refers to the retraction and locking of the read/write head of a hard disk to its home location in order to prevent damage prior to physically moving it. Modern disk drives support automatic __________ing, doing so whenever the hard disk is powered down.
Park
________________ refers to the property of being oil resistant. _______________ coatings are helpful in repelling natural body oils that transfer to touch screens when touched with fingers during use.
Oleophobic
An _______________ is the very short moment of time it takes you to realize that you just messed up in a big way while working on your computer.

Some examples of ____________s are: accidentally clicking the No Button when you meant to save a document and end up losing all your work, clicking Send for an e-mail message before adding an important attachment, triggering a system shut down or restart while in the middle of something important, etc.

Ohnosecond
__________________refers to data that may have been input erroneously, corrupted during processing, or unstructured text/data that can not be interpreted by machines.
Noisy Data
A ________________occurs when a network is barely able to function or completely grinds to a halt due to excessive traffic. ______________s can be caused by an overload of legitimate traffic, erroneous conditions, malicious activity, or a lack of infrastructure able to accommodate such a high volume of traffic.
Network Meltdown
______________refers to software that operates as a communication, conversion, and/or translation layer between two separate programs. Programs that need _______________may be running on different platforms, come from different software vendors, or both.
Middleware
_______________refers to online transactions involving the exchange of very small amounts of money. An example of __________________ is a pay-per-view service that allows viewing of single articles or researching singular instances of information from an online encyclopedia.
Microcommerce
A __________________ is an individual who displays deviant behavior on the Internet or uses the Internet to engage in psychologically dangerous behavior.
Netopath
A ______________ is a user of the Internet or, if you prefer, a member of the community of Internet users.
Netizen
A _________________is a web browser specifically designed for the display screens on mobile phones or similar small hand-held wireless devices.
Microbrowser
A Mickey is the unit of measure for the smallest detectable movement of a mouse in any direction. The length of a Mickey will vary depending on the particular equipment, but generally falls between 0.0039 and 0.005 inches (0.09906 and 0.127 millimeters).
Mickey
A __________________is an obsessive Internet user or individual who has a great passion for the Internet.

_______________ can also refer to an individual who is involved with supporting the Internet, its flexibility and technical underpinnings, and/or is involved with data networks and packet switching.

Nethead
____________ refers to the programming practice of embedding a loop, block of code, etc. in another object of the same type.

__________ can also refer to the practice of adding sub-folders within a main folder to create a folder hierarchy.

Nesting
MEO (short for ________________) is a term for communication satellites that orbit our planet in a range between 1,243 and 22,236 miles (2,000 and 35,786 km) above the surface with orbital periods between 2 and 24 hours. The most common uses for MEOs are navigation, communication, and geodetic/space environment science.
Medium-Earth Orbit
______________ is software that allows an enterprise environment computer with Windows 7 to host one or more virtual operating systems, such as Windows XP, for use with legacy applications a company may have.
Microsoft Enterprise Desktop-Virtualization
__________________refers to the practice of visiting a physical location (bricks and mortar store) to view and examine products in person, but with no intention of making a purchase at the store. If the _________________ individual likes the item, then they will shop for the same item online while attempting to find it for a lower price.
Showrooming
________________ refers to the extra programs that come pre-installed on computers and offer little to no value to consumers, but may appear attractive to first-time buyers who ‘feel’ they are getting more with their purchase.

A popular synonym for _____________ is Crapware.

Shovelware
_______________ refers to the use of both thumbs to type or enter data on very small keyboards on hand-held devices.
Thumbing
A ________________is an animated graphic that serves as an indicator that an operation is taking place. Some examples of these operations are an application loading, an individual’s device is in the process of communicating with another device, a web page is loading, etc.
Throbber
________________ refers to the practice of looking over another individual’s shoulder in order to learn their passwords, PINs, security codes, or other private/personal information.
Shoulder Surfing
________________ occurs when the number of servers in a data center continues to grow without an organized plan to make the most efficient use of them. Many of these servers take up space and consume resources without a beneficial return, otherwise, they are under-utilized and wasteful.
Server Sprawl
_____________is a measurement of the number of telephones versus the number of individuals in a region.
Teledensity
______________refers to a love of computers, electronics, high-tech gadgets, and new technologies.
Technophilia
________________ is simply another way to refer to a Right-Click on a computer mouse (or a Left-Click on computer mice set up for left-handed individuals).
Secondary Click
_____________ refers to the gathering of web data such as favorite songs or topics from a website’s users, then using the data to help users find other individuals with similar interests and/or to help the website make recommendations to users.
Scrobble
A ___________________ is detachable ‘pop-up’ program menu that can be moved from its starting (primary) position to another location on a user’s screen as needed or desired.
Tear-Off Menu
________________ refers to the ability of an RFID Reader to identify, encode, or read a specific/singular RFID Tag from among many that are grouped together (with no interference with or from the others in the group).
Tag Singulation
A ___________________is a display of all relevant caller and account information that appears on-screen for an agent to view when an individual contacts a company’s call center. Database information can be matched to the caller via methods such as Caller ID, voice response, or an automatic call distributor (ACD).
Screen Pop
In the context of electronic data, _________ refers to process of removing sensitive or personal information from a database, information system, or file before allowing others to have access to it.
Sanitize
In the context of word processing, _______________refers to the process of making changes in the appearance, page layout, and/or line breaks of text in a document. This can occur when working text around objects in an original document or creating a revised version of an original.
Reflow
_____________ is the process of editing/preparing sensitive documents for publishing or release to the public.
Redaction
________________ refers to a display standard with a resolution of 2,048 by 1,526 pixels (four times the number of pixels in the XGA standard of 1,024 by 768 pixels).
Quantum Extended Graphics Array
______________ refers to slowing down (reducing) a computer, program, resource, or thread to an inactive state to conserve power but yet have the ______________ ‘item’ available and ready to go if need be.
Quiesce
A _____________ is an electrical circuit or device used to convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC).
Rectifier
_________________ is the process of making electronic components, products, and systems used in space, satellites, nuclear plants, and military applications resistant to damage or malfunctions from ionizing or high-energy electromagnetic radiation.
Radiation Hardening
A __________________ is the limit for accurately measuring transmitted or sensed wavelengths in an optical system, such as lasers, optical receivers, and the human eye.
Quantum Limit
A _________ is a tree structure (method) used to search and/or place files (records or keys) in a database. The starting branch point (node) in a ____________ will always have four branches and will continue to divide by four until the appropriate file is found or placed.
Quad Tree
A ______________is an individual who is quite knowledgeable about a particular subject, thus leading them to have above normal knowledge about products related to that subject.
Prosumer
A ______________ is an independent window that will appear beneath/behind the current browser window. Most of the time these ______________s are ads, but on occasion they do contain other content.
Pop-Under
_______________ refers to excessive sharing of children’s pictures, videos, and information on social media websites by parents.
Oversharenting
______________ refers to any data that is not contained in a database. The Unstructured Data can be in the form of documents, PDF files, e-mail messages, web pages, etc.
Unstructured Data
______________ are single-byte control codes that do not represent written symbols. Instead, they are used for controlling printers and serial communications.
Unprintable Characters
In the context of tech support and customer service, ______________ is a condition affecting individuals who end up answering the same questions over and over again on a daily basis.
Repetitive Brain Injury
A _____________ is a return transmission of data received to the originating source so that it may be verified and checked for errors.
Remote Echo
In the context of word processing, ____________refers to deselecting a block of text, removing highlighting from text, or the removal of other special markings in a document.
Unmark
______________ refers to the counting of separate (unique) individuals who visit a website within a given period of time. The time period may be as short as a day, week, month, etc. If a counted individual visits the website in question multiple times during the chosen time period, then those visits are counted as user sessions.
Unique Visitors
___________refers to the process of taking the original version of an audio or video recording and enhancing the quality, adding effects, adding extra content, etc. to create an improved or expanded version.
Remaster
A ____________ is a website that operates as an identity provider and allows users to log into multiple sites with a single set of credentials. Use of a Relying Party can save other websites from the hassle and headache of developing and maintaining their own login mechanisms.

A good example of a Relying Party is OpenID.

Relying Party
_____________refers to communication with others or the transfer/transmission of data in a single direction.
Unidirectional
A ___________is communication or transmission of data between a single sender and a single receiver.
Unicast
A __________ is a website that serves as an online resource of news, articles, and services focused on a specific industry such as IT, retail, etc. versus general purpose websites that focus on multiple industries or topics.
Vortal
___________ refers to a messaging system where recorded video messages are sent as e-mail (rather than text-based messages).
V-mail
___________refers to the inability of a computer to keep up with the read/write buffer’s data requirements during the CD/DVD recording process. Causes for Underrunning may be a slow CD/DVD drive, limited memory, out-of-date drivers, etc.
Underrun
___________ is a term used to refer to people who do not have bank accounts and/or are not served by banks in any manner. These individuals cash checks via non-bank sources, use money orders and/or money transfer services, and may even depend on pay day lending services.
Unbanked
____________ is the process of recording an audio or video broadcast so that it may be listened to or watched at a later time.
Time Shifting
___________ refers to a computer environment where multiple users are able to access and use a centralized computer, server, or cluster of servers via remote terminals.
Time-Sharing
_____________ refers to the practice of visiting a physical location (bricks and mortar store) to view and examine products in person, but with no intention of making a purchase at the store. If the ____________individual likes the item, then they will shop for the same item online while attempting to find it for a lower price.
Showrooming
_________refers to a mathematical sum known as a Sextillion (10 to the 21st power).
Zetta
__________ refers to the removal of redundant zeroes from a number so that its legibility is greatly improved or to deal with storage, page, or display space constraints.

Two examples of Zero Suppression are:

00093752 becomes 93752
54.194400000 becomes 54.1944

Zero Suppression
_________ refers to a mathematical sum known as a Septillionth (10 to the -24th power).

Contrast with Yotta.

Yocto
__________refers to a mathematical sum known as a Septillion (10 to the 24th power).

Contrast with Yocto.

Yotta
___________ is a security exploit that allows an attacker to cause a web browser to execute a malicious script via a legitimate appearing link. Once these types of links are clicked on, the code is executed and the attacker can gain access to the user’s computer.
XSS
A _____________ is a service or network that controls or restricts a user’s access to applications, channels, programs, services, web content, etc.
Walled Garden
___________ refers to the period of time a program or processor waits for the completion of an event or operation to occur before resuming normal activity.
Wait State
___________ refers to people who use Twitter whether they are tweet writers and/or just tweet followers.
Tweeple
A ________________ is a computer generated document (with OCR fonts used during the creation process) that can have extra information added to it physically by an individual, then be scanned back into the system to update an account, generate bills, etc.
Turnaround Document
_____________ refers to a group of people who are working on a ‘public or secret’ project outside the normal rules in order to achieve unique and/or unusual results.
Skunkworks
A _____________ is a design feature that is copied or carried over from an older or original design/version of a product.

A perfect example is the ‘click sound’ that a digital camera makes. It is unnecessary to the function of the camera, but it is a holdover from older cameras with shutters that actually made the sound.

Skeuomorph
____________ refers to the transmission of data structured in one protocol within a differently structured protocol (embedding). This could be done to carry the data over an incompatible delivery network or to provide a secure path via an untrusted network.
Tunneling
__________ is a compact Linux operating system commonly used as an emergency system for computers and/or to monitor or analyze networks and network problems.
Trinux
A ____________is an individual who embraces the idea of an inevitable technology singularity (the ability of new technology to speed up the development rate of newer technology).
Singularitarian
The term ‘_____________’ refers to the potential risk of relying on a singular communications line, component, configuration, design, device, or implementation to keep an entire system running.

One instance of a flaw appearing or complete failure of that singular ‘piece’ will bring the whole system down. Continuous operation of the entire system is ensured by having a backup in place and ready to go if a problem occurs.

Single Point Of Failure
___________ refers to using a combination of non-digital (traditional) and computer-based methods to produce art, printed materials, and animations.
Tradigital
TPI (short for __________) is a measurement of disk capacity or the density of the storage channels on a disk or tape.
TPI
_________refers to a one way (unidirectional) transmission where the transmitter and receiver operate on the same frequency.
Simplex
A __________ occurs when a program (or malware) runs an unattended installation process and does not display dialogue or message windows of any type during the procedure.
Silent Installation
A ________ is heavily protected underground server (root site) that serves as the starting point (top of the distribution chain) for sharing and distributing copyrighted/pirated files such as movies, music, software, and games.
Topsite
A __________ is a fixed amount of time chosen to complete each stage or aspect of an overall project. The Timebox for one stage of a project may be 60 days in length while a later stage would have a Timebox of only 30 days.
Timebox
A ___________ is a text-based signature or file with relevant information such as a name, address, logo, quote, etc. that is attached to the end of e-mail or Usenet messages sent by an individual.
Signature File
__________ refers to the process of installing an application on a mobile device from an online marketplace or repository that is not a part of the device manufacturer’s official application distribution channel.
Sideloading
A ____________ is a word or command (noun or verb) that is part of a programming language and can not be used to describe user data such as: the name of a variable, constant, function, or procedure.
Reserved Word
________ refers to the process of duplicating, reprinting, or reproducing printed materials and/or graphics using electromechanical methods, photographic methods, or printing presses.
Reprography
A _____________ is touch-screen tablet computer designed for light-duty Internet activities such as visiting websites and interacting with web applications.
Web Pad
A ____________ is a group of topic-specific websites that are interlinked together in a circular-style manner. This allows easy navigation through the group of websites, and if you click through enough, you will end up back at the first website you started from.
Web Ring
A _______________ is an electronic device capable of processing and/or storing data and designed in a form where it may be worn on a person’s body or be incorporated into their clothing.

Some well-known Wearable Computer ‘forms’ are: Smart watches, Google Glass, POV cameras, MP3 players, etc.

Wearable Computer
_____________ refers to the process of reloading a computer’s operating system via the restart function on its main menu or through the use of a special keyboard shortcut combination.
Warm Boot
_____________ is the practice of publicly identifying open and/or unsecured Wi-Fi networks via special symbols ‘written’ on buildings or sidewalks using chalk.
War Chalking
___________ refers to a mathematical sum known as a Sextillionth (10 to the -21st power).

Contrast with Zetta.

Zepto