Complete College Algebra Vocabulary Set

numerical expression
consists of numbers and operations
evaluate
to find the value of an expression
order of operations
the order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponets 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction
variable
a letter used to represent one or more numbers
variable expression
consists of numbers, variables, and operations
power
is a number made of repeated factors
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exponent
a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself
base
is the number that is repeatedly multiplied in a power
equation
a mathematical sentence with an equal sign that shows that two expressions are equivalent
solving an equation
finding all the solutions of an equation
formula
An equation that shows a relationship among two or more quantities
perimeter
The sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon
area
the number of square units needed to cover a flat surface
integers
Positive and Negative Whole Numbers and 0. Examples: …. -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3…..(Does not include fractions or decimals)
absolute value
the distance a number is from 0 on the number line, value of n is written l n l
additive identity property
The sum of a number and zero is always that number.
additive inverse property
The sum of a number and its opposite is zero.
multiplication identity property
The product of any number and one is that number.
mean
the sum of the values in a data set divided by the number of values in the set
commutative property of addition
In a sum, you can add terms in any order, a + b = b + a
commutative property of multiplication
the order of the factors does not change the product a x b = b x a
associative property of addition
changing the grouping of terms will not change the sum, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
associative property of multiplication
changing the grouping of factors will not change the product, (ab)c = a(bc)
distributive property
a(b + c) = ab + ac
an + ac = a(b+ c)
terms
in an expression are separated by addition and subtraction signs
like terms
terms that have identical variable parts raised to the same power
coefficient
number in front of a variable
constant
a term that has no variable and does not change
coordinate plane
A plane that is divided into four regions by a horizontal line called the x-axis and a vertical line called the y-axis.
aka “the Cartesian plane” after René Descartes
ordered pair
A pair of numbers, (x, y), that indicate the position of a point on a coordinate plane.
quadrant
one of four sections into which the coordinate plane is divided
Inverse Operation
operations that undo each other, such as addition and subtraction
Isolate the variable
To get a variable alone on one side of an equation or inequality in order to solve the equation or inequality
Equivalent Equations
equations that have the same solution
base
the bottom of a triangle
height
the perpendicular (90 degrees) distance from the base of a triangle to the opposite vertex
Inequality
A statement that compares two quantities using <, >, ≤,≥, or ≠
Equivalent Inequalities
inequalities that have the same solution
prime number
A whole number that has exactly two factors, 1 and itself.
composite
a number that has more than two factors
monomial
a single term made up of numbers and variables
prime factorization
a number written as the product of its prime factors
greatest common factor
The largest factor that two or more numbers have in common.
simplest form
when the GCF of the numerator and denominator is 1
equivalent fractions
fractions that have the same value and the same simplest form
multiple
skip-counting by any given number Ex: 4, 8, 12, 16…
least common multiple
the smallest multiple that two or more numbers have in common
least common denominator
The least common multiple of the denominators of two or more fractions.
scientific notation
a method of writing very large or very small numbers by using powers of 10
reciprocal
one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2
rational number
A number that can be written as a/b where a and b are integers, but b is not equal to 0.
repeating decimal
a decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely
median
is the middle value in a data set where the numbers are ordered least to greatest
mode
is the value in a data set that occurs most often. If all values occur the same amount of times there is no mode for that set.
range
is the difference of the greatest value and the least value in a set of data.
circle
is the set of all points that are an equal distance from a point called the center
center
the point in the exact middle of a circle
radius
a line segment from the center of a circle to any point on the circle (is also half the diameter)
diameter
the distance across a circle through its center (is also twice the radius)
circumference
The distance around a circle.
ratio
a comparison of two numbers by division
rate
a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units
unit rate
a rate that has a denominator of 1
equivalent ratios
Ratios that have the same value.
proportion
an equation that states that two ratios are equal
Ex: 1/2 = x/10
scale model
a model of an object in which the dimensions are in proportion to the actual dimensions of the object.
percent
a ratio whose denominator is 100
interest
is the amount paid for borrowing or lending money
principal
the original amount of money loaned or borrowed
annual interest rate
apr, the percent of the principal you pay or earn a year
probability of an event
number of favorable outcomes divided by total number of possible outcomes
theoretical probability
what should occur in a probability experiment…an experiment is not actually done
experimental probability
probability based on what happens when an experiment is actually done
opposite
the number that is on the other side of 0 and is exactly the same distance away from 0
radical expression
an expression that contains a square root
perfect square
a number that has a whole number for a square root ex: 9, 16, 121
irrational number
a number that can not be written a/b
Pythagorean Theorem
a² + b² = c²
Pythagorean triple
a set of three positive integers that work in the pythagorean theorem
Pi
3.1415…. is an irrational number resulting from the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter
cube
special polyhedron with faces that are all squares
surface area
The total area of the 2-dimensional surfaces that make up a 3-dimensional object.
volume
the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object
input
the x-value in a function
output
the y-value in a function
function
a relation that assigns exactly one output value for each input value
domain
the set of all the input (x-values) for a function
range
the set of all the output (y-values) for a function
linear equation
an equation whose answers are ordered pairs (x,y) and whose answers graph a straight line
x-intercept
the point where a graph crosses the x-axis
y-intercept
the point where a graph crosses the y-axis
slope
the steepness of a line on a graph, rise over run
slope intercept form
y = mx + b
tree diagram (probability)
a diagram used to show the total number of possible outcomes in an experiment
odds
the ratio of the number of ways the event can occur to the number of ways the event cannot occur. Favorable over Unfavorable.
independent event (probability)
an event that is not affected by another event.
dependent event (probability)
an event who’s outcome does depend on the outcome of a previous event
fundamental counting principle
combinations
permutations