COMM Chapter 11

Selecting and Narrowing a Topic
(Audience-centered model) Think about who the audience is, what the occasion is, what are my interests and experiences
Identifying Purpose
(Audience-centered model) Helps to select main ideas, an organizational strategy, supporting material, influence how to deliver the speech; should determine both general and specific motives
Developing a Central Idea
(Audience-centered model) It focuses on the content of the speech; relates heavily to specific purpose
Generating Main Ideas
(Audience-centered model) Support and subdivide the central idea and provide more detailed points of focus for developing the speech
Gathering Supporting Material
(Audience-centered model) Assembling verbal or visual material that clarifies, amplifies, and provides evidence to support the main ideas of a presentation
Organizing Your Speech
(Audience-centered model) Logically construct all points of speech
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Rehearsing Your Speech
(Audience-centered model) Practice delivery of speech
Delivering Your Speech
(Audience-centered model) Telling the audience of the speech you have prepared
Significance of Audience Centered Public Speaker
Speaker adapts to the audience at every stage of the presentational speaking process; include everyone using “we” rather than “I”
Knowing How to Develop a Presentation
(Manage speaker anxiety) Public speaking anxiety decreases when there is instruction in public speaking
Being Prepared
(Manage speaker anxiety) Along with developing an appropriate speech, rehearsing it is very important
Focusing on Your Audience
(Manage speaker anxiety) Consider the needs, goals, and interests of the audience; make it relevant to them
Focusing on Your Message
(Manage speaker anxiety) Think about what you’re going to say, mentally review your main ideas, silently practice opening lines and conclusion
Giving Yourself a Mental Pep Talk
(Manage speaker anxiety) Think positive; tell yourself confident thoughts
Using Deep Breathing Techniques
(Manage speaker anxiety) Take a few deep breaths before speaking and try to relax your body while inhaling and exhaling
Seeking Opportunities to Speak
(Manage speaker anxiety) More chances to practice and gain the experience; sharpens confidence and speaking skills
Seeking Professional Help
(Manage speaker anxiety) Getting help from people who are experts in communication; i.e. communication labs
Considering the Audience
(Selecting and Narrowing speech topic example) Know the audience and what their interests and goals are
Occasion
(Selecting and Narrowing speech topic example) Depending on when and what the place of presentation is about, it will determine the topic of the speech
Personal Interests and Experiences
(Selecting and Narrowing speech topic example) Applying what you already know and like to your speech can narrow down the topic
General Purpose
The broad reason for giving a speech: to inform, to persuade, or to entertain an audience
Specific Purpose
A concise statement of what listeners should be able to do by the time the speaker finishes the speech
Central Idea
A definitive point about a topic
Accountability
(Evaluating internet sites) How reliable and accurate a source is; professionals, scholars, etc.
Accuracy
(Evaluating internet sites) How correct a source is on the topic, such as facts
Objectivity
(Evaluating internet sites) If the evidence provided supports their goal or intended message properly
Date
(Evaluating internet sites) The time the source posted their story determines how relevant it is to now
Usability
(Evaluating internet sites) Whether the information provided is appropriate to include as supporting evidence or not
Sensitivity to Diversity
(Evaluating internet sites) The information is relevant to all kinds of people, no matter their race/ethnicity
Periodicals
(Library Source) A magazine or newspaper that is published regularly
Newspapers
(Library Source) A regularly printed publication that includes news, feature articles, advertisements, and correspondence
Reference Resources
(Library Source) Material housed in the reference section of a library, such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, almanacs, and books of quotations
Illustrations
(Supporting material) A story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem the speaker is discussing
Descriptions
(Supporting material) A word picture
Explanation
(Supporting material) A statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present or past form
Definitions
(Supporting material)A statement of what something means
Analogies
(Supporting material)A comparison between two ideas, things, or situations that demonstrates how something unfamiliar is similar to something the audience already understands
Statistics
(Supporting material) Numerical data that summarize examples
Opinions
(Supporting material) A view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge