2. they inform
3. they entertain
4. When they report on scientific, technological, and medical issues, they present specialized knowledge to the public.
5. They shape cultural trends through reviews of films, concerts, and plays
6. Opinion pages trigger public debates and offer differing points of view.
7.Columnists do everything from provide parenting advice to the US role as a military superpower.
1. The earliest news was passed along family to family, tribe to tribe, by community leaders and oral historians.
2. The earliest known written news account, or news sheet Acta Diurna (Latin for daily events) was developed by Julius Ceasar and posted on public spaces.
3. The development of the printing press in the 15th century greatly accelerated a society’s ability to send and receive information.
4. Today newspapers continue to document daily life and bear witness to both ordinary and extraordinary events.
1. Trace the history of newspapers through a number of influential periods and styles.
2. Explore the early political-commerical press, the penny press, and yellow journalism
3. Examine the modern era through the influence of the New York Times and journalisms embrace of objectivity.
4. Look at interpretive journalism in the 1920s and 1930s and the revival of literary journalism in the 1960’s.
5. Review issues of newspaper ownership, new technologies, citizen journalism, declining revenue, and the crucial role newspapers play in our democracy.
The Boston-Newsletter, published by John Campbell.
European news took weeks to travel by ship, so these early papers were not timely.
However, they did report local illnesses, public floggings, and even suicides.
The Courant established a tradition of running stories that interested ordinary readers rather than printing articles that appealed primarily to business and colonial leaders.
Started in 1721 by James Franklin, Benjamin Franklin’s brother, in Boston.
By contrast to the partisan press, served business leaders, who were interested in economic issues.
Today the legacy of the commercial press is the business section.
political papers, generally pushed the plan of the particular political group that subsidized the paper.
Today the legacy of the partisan press is the editorial papers.
John Zenger was the printer. The paper was backed by the Popular party (a group that opposed British rule) and ran articles that criticized the governor of NY.
A popular Party judge was dismissed from office and the Journal attacked the governor in the paper.
He protected the writers of the critical articles, not sharing their identities, and was arrested in 1734 for seditious libel.
Printer of the New York Weekly Journal that protected the authors of critical articles and then was arrested for Seditious libel. Andrew Hamilton was his lawyer and a sympathetic jury in revolt against the colonial government, deeded that newspapers had the right to criticize government leaders as long as the reports were true.
After this the British never prosecuted another colonial printer.
1. Development was shaped in large part by social, cultural, and political responses to British rule and it’s eventual overthrow.
2. The gradual rise of political parities and the spread of commercial papers carried both party news and business news, which both had different agendas.
2. Anna Maul Zenger ran the New-York Weekly Journal throughout her husbands trial and after his death.
2. Bennett and the New York Morning Herald
During the colonial period, NY printer John Peter Zenger was arrested for seditious libel. He eventually won his case, which established the president that today allows US journalists and citizens to criticize public officials. In this 1734 issue, Zenger’s New York Weekly Journal reported his own arrest and the burning of the paper by the city’s “common hangman”.
In addition, Bennett’s paper sponsored ballon races, financed safaris, and overplayed crime stories. Charles Dickens, after returning to Britain from his first visit to America in the early 1840’s, used the Herald as a model for the sleazy Rowdy Journal, the fictional newspaper in his novel Martin Chuzzlewit. By 1860, the Herald reached nearly 80,000 readers, making it the world’s largest daily paper at the time.
2. They were neutral towards advertisers and printed virtually any ad.
1. papers began sending reporters to cover DC in the early 1860s
2. More than 100 reporters from northern papers went south to cover the Civil War, relaying their reports back to their home papers via telegraph and wire services. The news wire companies enabled news to travel rapidly from coast to coast and set the stage for modern journalism.
2. By adapting news content, penny papers captured the middle- and working-class readers who could now afford the paper and also had more leisure time to read it. As newspapers sought to sustain their mass appeal, news and “factual” reports about crimes and other items of human interest eventually superseded the importance of partisan articles about politics and commerce.
1. the emphasis on overly dramatic-or sensational-stories about crimes, celebrities, disasters, scandals, and intrigue.
2. sometimes forgotten, early in-depth “detective stories” the legacy for twentieth century investigative journalism.
a Jewish-Hungarian immigrant, began his career in newspaper publishing in the early 1870s as part owner of the St. Louis Post. He then bought the bankrupt St. Louis Dispatch and merged it with the Post.
In 1883, Pulitzer bought the New York World and encouraged plain writing and the inclusion of maps and illustrations to help immigrant and working-class readers understand the written text.
Pulitzer instituted advice columns and women’s pages.
Like Bennett, Pulitzer treated advertising as a kind of news that displayed consumer products for readers. In fact, department stores became a major advertiser during this period. This development contributed directly to the expansion of consumer culture and indirectly to the acknowledgement of women as newspaper readers.
Created a lasting legacy by leaving $2 million to start the graduate school of journalism at Columbia University. Part of Pulitzer’s Columbia endowment established the Pulitzer Prizes, the prestigious awards given each year for achievements in journalism, literature, drama, and music.
reflected the contradictory spirit of the yellow press. It crusaded for improved urban housing, better conditions for women, and equitable labor laws. It campaigned against monody practices by AT&T, Standard Oil, and Equitable Insurance. These crusades helped lay the groundwork for tightening federal antitrust laws in the early 1910s.
Pulitzer’s paper also manufactured news events and staged stunts, such as sending star reporter Nellie Bly around the world in 72 dye to beat the fake record in the novel around the world in 80 days.
The World’s biggest competition
Focused on lurid, sensational stories and appealed to immigrant readers by using large headlines and bold layout designs. To boost circulation, the Journal invented interviews, fake pictures, and encouraged conflicts that might result in a story.
In promoting journalism as mere dramatic storytelling, hearst reportedly said “The modern editor of the popular journal does not care for facts. The edit wants novelty. The editor has no objection to facts if they are also novel. But he would prefer a novelty that is not a fact to a fact that is not a novelty”
Hearst is remembered as an unscrupulous publisher who once hired gangsters to distribute his newspapers. However, he was considered a champion of the underdog, and his paper’s readership soared among the working and middle classes.
1. the story-driven model, dramatizing important events and used by the penny papers and the yellow press2. “just the facts” model, an approach that appeared to package information more impartially and that the six cent papers favored.
The idea of an impartial, or purely informational, news model was championed by Adolph Ochs, who bought the New York Times in 1896. He first ran the Chattanooga Times and then Took over the struggling times. Through strategic hiring, Ochs and his editors rebuilt the paper around substantial news coverage and provocative editorial pages.
To distance the times from the yellow press, the editors also downplayed sensational stories, instead covering major events and issues.
2. to make a running analysis of it
3. on the basis of both, suggest plans
The rise of broadcast radio in the 1930s forced newspapers to become more analytical in their approach to news.
Some print journalists and editors came to believe that interpretive stories, rather than objective reports, could better compete with radio. They realized that interpretation was a way to counter radio’s and later television’s superior ability to report breaking news quickly- even live.
1. *First Colonial Newspaper* In *1690*, Boston printer Benjamin Harris publishes the first North American newspaper- Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domesetick
2. *First precedent for Libel and Press Freedom* In *1734*, printerJohn Peter Zenger is arrested for seditious libel; a jury rules in Zenger’s favor in *1735*, establishing freedom of the press and newspapers’ right to criticize the government.
3. *First US Based Spanish Paper*
New Orleans El Misisipi is founded in *1808* to serve the Spanish-language readers.
4. *First African American Newspaper*
Freedom’s Journal begins its short-lived operation in *1827* establishing a tradition of newspapers speaking out against racism.
5. *First Native American Newspaper* The Cherokee Phoenix appears in Georgia in *1828*, giving a voice to tribal concerns as settlers encroach and more west.
6. *Penny Press*
Printer Benjamin Day founds the New York Sun in *1833* and sets the price at one cent, helping to usher in the penny press era and news for the working and emerging middle classes.
7. *Yellow Journalism*
Joseph Pulitzer buys the New York World in 1883; William Randolph Hearst buys the New York Journal in 1895 and battles Pulitzer during the heyday of the yellow journalism era.
8. *Modern Journalism*- Adolph Ochs buys the New York Times in *1896*, transforming it into “the paper of record” and jumpstarting modern “objective journalism”
9. *Catholic Worker*
In *1933* Dorothy Day cofounds a religious organization, its radical monthly paper, the Catholic Worker, opposes war and supports social reform.
10. *First Underground Paper*
In *1955*, the Village Voice begins operating in Greenwich Village.
Investigative reporting by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post uncovers the Watergate scandal that leads to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in *1974*
12. *First Online Paper*
Ohio’s Columbus Dispatch in *1980* becomes the first newspaper to go online.
13. *Post-Modern News*
In *1982*, the Gannett chain launches USA Today, ushering in the postmodern era in news with the first paper modeled on television.
14. *Dominance of chains*
Led by Gannett, the Top. 10 newspaper chains by *2001* control more than one-half of the nation’s total daily newspaper circulation.
15. *Newspapers in peril*
In *2009*, a number of daily newspapers close, stop publishing daily editions, or go online only.
By *2014*, most newspapers were charging readers for access to all or part of their Web sites.