COMM 350 Ch 1-10, Morehead State, Dr. Abell

What does cultural imperialism refer to?
Domination of one group over others through the spread of cultural forms, practices and products.
Encoding is ___________, and decoding is__________:
The process of creating a message, the process of interpreting a message.
Popular culture produces __________ in the form of entertainment.
Social norms

Values

Ideologies

Media can be defined as the ____________ through which messages are communicated.
Modes, means or channels
Culture industries:
Mass produce standardized cultural goods.

Normalize dominant capitalist ideologies.

Create social practices that are uniform and homogeneous among people.

Which of the following is/are TRUE about global and regional media circuits:
Euro-American media and popular culture remain dominant in the global flow of media today.

The world’s most populated countries-India and China- represent significant regional media circuits.

India is one of the only non-Western countries that has impacted the global cultural market.

The boycott of Abercrombie and Fitch and the Just Do It! Boycott Nike Now campaign are examples of
Taking informed action in refusing to consume media and popular culture that dehumanize groups of people.
The model of encoding and decoding shows how:
The audience uses their own framework of knowledge to decode the message.
The different interpretations of Pocahontas by children of Euro-American descent, urban Native American children, and Native American children on reservation suggests that
The audience’s positionality shapes the kind of meaning drawn from media.
Laura thinks the movie Spider-Man is generally a good movie but she questions the stereotypical portrayal of the female character. She is engaging in:
Negotiated reading
Intercultural communication scholars are interested in popular culture representation because
Most people rely on popular culture for information about others.
Alternative or independent media refers to
Media practices that fall outside of or are separate from corporate-owned mass media
Sean loves the movie Titanic because of its universal appeal to the power of love. He is engaging in:
Dominant reading of the movie.
The predominance of U.S. media and popular culture internationally has:
Been instrumental in constructing a global semiculture where people from far-reaching countries share some aspects of U.S. popular culture.
Popular culture can be defined as:
Culture that is shared and understood by most people in society.
Cultural homogenization takes place when a set of cultural values and practices are:
Shared and made common through globalization.
(I think this is the correct answer)
Nina is interested in gaining insight into negotiated and oppositional readings about current events. She is likely to find these perspectives from which of the following sources?
News and commentary sources independent from corporate interests
Which of the following is NOT true about the dominant reading of media text?
The interpretation challenges the social norms and expectations.
Fragmegration refers to
The dual and simultaneous dynamic of integration and fragmentation that has emerged in the context of globalization.
Culture jamming is
The act of altering or transforming mass media and popular culture forms into messages or commentary about itself.

A way to resist dominant mainstream media and produce alternative popular culture texts.

Framing in intercultural praxis:
Refers to the use of multiple frames of reference to understand intercultural communication.

Highlights the ways in which our perspectives, our views on ourselves, others and the world around us are always and inevitably limited by cultural frames.

Intercultural communication is explored within the context of globalization to:
foreground the important roles that history plays in current intercultural relations

highlight how relationship of power impact intercultural communication

point out how global institutions-political, economic, and media institutions-shape intercultural communication

When Kim tries to understand her ___________, she pays attention to what advantages and disadvantages she has in relation to others as a woman of European descent, who comes from working class background, is educated, and is an American citizen.
Positionality
Which of the following is an example of understanding culture as a resource:
The commodification of hip hop culture.

The commodification of local cultural practices as tourist attractions.

The export of television programs and programs for economic gain.

When studying culture using an anthropological definition of culture, you would explore:
Systems of shared meaning among people

Symbols that have been passed down from generation to generation.

Standpoint theory is beneficial for intercultural communication because:
Standpoint theory helps us see that we experience, and understand the world quite differently based on our different standpoints and positionalities.
Hegemony:
is defined as domination through consent by Antonio Gramsci.
Which of the following is NOT true about the field of Cultural Studies:
It aims to develop objective approaches to the study of culture in everyday life.
Engaging in “intercultural praxis” means that you
take action based on careful reflection, and critically reflect after taking action.

have the flexibly to consciously shift perspectives between the particular, micro dimensions of intercultural communication and the broader, macro dimensions.

The cultural studies definition of culture assumes that:
Culture is not shared by everyone, but contested and negotiated.

Culture is an apparatus of power and system of domination.

Standpoint theory:
Claims that the social groups to which we belong shape what we know and how we view the world.
Which statement(s) is/are TRUE about ethnocentrism?
Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own group’s ways of thinking is superior to others.

Ethnocentric views held by people/groups in positions of power have combined to justify dehumanizing practices historically.

Which of the follow is true about globalization:
Globalization has increased interaction and interconnection between people from diverse cultures.

Globalization has been facilitated by advances in communication and transportation technologies.

Dialogue as a point of entry into intercultural praxis:
May involve opposing points of view and tension.

Suggests that either/or thinking is challenged.

Invites us to stretch ourselves outside our comfort zones.

Brandon believes that American culture is superior to other cultures. This is a form of:
Ethnocentrism
Which of the following indicate Sybil is engaging in inquiry as a point of entry into intercultural praxis:
Sybil is willingness and interested in finding out about cultures that are different from her own

Sybil is willing to change her view of the world based on learning new things from people from cultures different from her own.

Edward T. Hall
is considered the originator of the field of intercultural communication

focused on the micro-level of human interaction developing an applied approach to the study of intercultural communication

developed training programs, in the 1950s, on culture and communication for diplomats going abroad.

The purpose of engaging in Intercultural praxis is:
To develop our socially responsible action in regard to our intercultural interactions in the context of globalization.
Culture is defined as a resource in the:
globalization definition of culture
Which of the following is TRUE about cultural identity:
Our cultural identity is shaped by our cultural experiences and social locations.
Positionality refers to:
One’s social location within an intersecting web of socially constructed hierarchical categories.
Laura is an African American woman. Because of her experiences of both racism and sexism in the U.S., she is likely able to see and understand issues of race and gender from her own perspective and the perspective of those in power. This is an example of:
Standpoint theory
What of the following is TRUE?
The European conquest starting in the 16th century transformed global migration patterns in ways that continue to impact us today

Movements of people and intercultural interactions are directly related to economic and political forces

The colonial process initiated the division between “the West and the Rest” that we experience today

Globalization is characterized by
The interconnectedness of people’s lives through communication technology, global capitalism, and international political institutions.
Ideological wars, an intercultural dimension of political globalization,
Employ false dichotomies to galvanize the public

Often scapegoats one group for the challenges and ills of society

Which of the following is TRUE?
Intercultural alliances form to resist the impact of institutions of global governance such as the WTO.

Contradictory forces of democratization, Western dominance, and grassroots resistance impact global governance today.

Cultural values, norms and behaviors:
Play a significant role in team-building, decision-making, and job satisfaction
Cultural imperialism is defined as:
The domination of one culture over others.
Diasporic communities are defined as communities
Who are forced to leave their homeland and maintain a longing to return home
Globalization is
Complex and contradictory and has a major impact on intercultural communication
Which of the following is NOT true? Free Trade Agreements
Are accepted by all as beneficial
Cultural globalization is characterized by:
Hybrid cultural forms and identities

Transnational cultural connections

Cultural flows in the context of unequal power relations

Culture as de-territorialized means:
Culture and people are removed from their geographic location of origin.
History is
Important to intercultural communication because our current context of globalization is shaped by the historical events of the last 500 years.

Important because events in the past shape current migration patterns and global relationships of power.

“Global cultural homogenization by U.S. American culture” is a definition of:
Americanization
The terms global south and global north highlight
The division between wealthy, developed nations in the northern hemisphere and poorer, developing nations in the southern hemisphere

The division between former centers of colonial power and formerly colonized countries

The growth in power of multinational corporations is one of the characteristics of:
Economic globalization
Globalization is characterized by which of the following?
A rapidly growing global interdependence and increasing inequities.

An increasingly dynamic, mobile world facilitated by communication and transportation technologies.

A historical legacy of colonization and U.S. hegemony.

Economic globalization has
Increased the need for intercultural awareness, understanding and training
In the context of globalization, the way people connect with their culture and cultivate a sense of home is changing due to:
Advances in communication and transportation technologies
Colonization occurs when:
Outside powers impose language, cultural, and/or religious practices on others for the purpose of expansion or exploitation of land or resources.
Studying intercultural communication is critical in our current age because:
Our assumptions and attitudes about people from different cultures shape who we communicate with, build friendships and alliances with.

Our exposure to people from different cultures through interpersonal and mediated communication is increasing.

Histories of conflict among groups, structural inequities and ideological differences frequently frame and inform our intercultural interactions.

Which of the following is NOT TRUE about race:
Race is part of our past but does not impact people today
The important characteristic of power in intercultural communication is:
That power is pervasive, and individuals are never outside of relationships of power.
Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE about the concept of “race?”
It is a categorization system based on physical differences.

The association of physical, mental, emotional or attitudinal qualities with racial groups has no biological basis.

Race is socially constructed within historical, political and economic contexts with consequences that continue to impact us today in the context of globalization.

Signifier and signified can be explained as:
Signifier is the word, image, or material form; signified is idea or mental concept.
Hierarchy of difference refers to:
A system of classification of people predicated on the socially constructed idea of superior and inferior races

A system that reflected the white supremacist ideologies of the colonial period

A system that was instrumental in legitimizing a system of domination and European superiority

The notion of “racelessness,” or a “color-blind” society
Is supported by racial historicism.
In this chapter “race” is approached as a sign, in order to:
Study how different meanings have been associated with racial categories through communication over time and place

Explore how preferred meanings regarding race have been constructed, negotiated, and contested over time

Recognize how race is a social construct created by people and therefore can be changed

Rearticulating “race” as “class” in the global context
Requires an intersectional analysis as it hides the way that race and gender intersect with class
Why is hip hop culture a useful example for intercultural communication?
Hip hop culture has unique values, norms, behaviors and beliefs

Hip hop culture has a complex language, nonverbal codes, and a history born of struggle, creative resistance, and contestation

Hip hop culture demonstrates how culture is a resource in the global context

Hip hop offers opportunity to engage in intercultural praxis

Which of the following is NOT true about Whiteness/White identity in the United States?
Privilege and Whiteness are the same thing.
The genocide of millions of indigenous peoples during the conquest of the Americas is an example of what kind of history?
Silenced
When Robert hears the word “Apple,” he thinks of healthy snack fruit, while Shirley thinks of her favorite computer. This is because the relationship between signifier and signified is:
Arbitrary
Whiteness refers to
A location of structural advantage

A standpoint

An ideological perspective to which non-White people can ascribe

What does it mean that race is a social construction?
It means race is a product of social norms and practices shaped by the relations of power.
When race or gender is socially constructed, it means:
People assign meaning to the physical characteristics and create social conventions, norms, and practices associated with the meaning.
The two gender system generally constructed in the U.S. is
Reflected and constructed through nonverbal communication

Reflects and maintains inequitable power relations.

(I these are the correct answers)

Mary purchased a bottle of perfume because she liked the floral and sweet scent. The smell of her perfume is the ________, and the feminine and romantic association she makes with the smell is the __________.
Signifier, signified
Race has been re-signified in the global context
In complex, shifting and contradictory ways.

As a result of anti-colonial and Civil Rights movements.

As “culture” and as “class.”

The meanings associated with being a “man” or a “woman” have changed over time and are different in different in cultures. This suggests that:
Gender is a social construct
How does the notion of “race” as a social construct inform our understanding of race?
It suggests that race is a constructed concept that is influenced by relations of power.
Today, financial buildings are the highest and often most prominent buildings in metropolitan areas around the world. This indicates that:
The way cultures use space communicates.
Chinatown in San Francisco is a useful example of contested cultural space
Because of the history of conflict to resist the displacement of Chinatown.
In Chapter 4, hip hop culture is used as an example of how:
People use cultural space (streets, walls, cities) to negotiate and reclaim their culture and identity.

Culture travels across national borders and changes its meaning and form over time.

Cultural space
Shapes verbal and nonverbal communicative practices

Is constructed through verbal and nonverbal communication practices

Hybrid cultures and hybrid cultural spaces are characterized as
Developing and surviving as forms of collective resistance.
McDonald’s is one of the most globalized corporations. If you visit their stores in other countries, you will find menus that are unique to their local culture. This is an example of:
Glocalization
We can say that hip hop culture and cultural space is polysemic because
Multiple and often competing meanings are associated with hip hop cultural space.
The weekly gathering of friends and family in an Iranian-American home, where rituals, food, and cultural practices from Iran are re-created to resist complete assimilation into the dominant culture are an example of ________________.
Hybrid cultural space
Which is TRUE concerning place, cultural space and identities?
People use cultural space to create avowed and ascribed identities.

Geographical location can intersect with social locations (i.e. race, class, gender) to create locations of enunciation.

Chicana feminist scholar, Gloria Anzaldúa, describes the fluid, contradictory and creative experience of living in what she calls the “Borderlands/borderlands.” Her experience exemplifies
A cultural space from which to speak and claim an oppositional identity

Hybrid cultural space

Segregated cultural space
Has been and is used to establish and maintain the hegemony of the dominant group.
Globalization changes the way we understand cultural space because:
Historically, culture is rooted in particular location. In globalization, culture is de-territorialized from the place of origin and re-territorialized in new locations.

Globalization creates hybrid cultural space where different cultures coexist in the same location.

Hybrid cultural spaces are
Sites of negotiation

Sites of resistance

Sites of transformation

In Japan and other parts of the world, artists and musicians create their version of hip hop culture to appeal to their audience and cultural values. This is an example of:
Appropriation
Miles, who is half Mexican American and half White American, has very light brown skin. He was raised in a predominantly Mexican neighborhood, and he identifies himself as Mexican American. However, his friends regard him as “White” because of his fair skin. His “Mexican American” identity is:
Avowed identity
The example of McDonald’s in Moscow described in the textbook is an illustration of hybrid cultural space because
There is a mixing of cultural influences

Of the altered way the space is used

New meanings are produced about the space

Rapidly accessing news and images from distant and remote places and communicating anytime through social media sites with friends around the world exemplify:
Time-space compression
Michelle’s mother is African-American and her father is White. She identifies as bi-racial. However, people in the U.S. identify her Black. The designation of Black as her identity is
An ascribed identity
Hip hop culture, as it emerged in the South Bronx using communicative practices such as tagging and rap, illustrates
The reclaiming of a location of enunciation

The contested nature of cultural spaces

In-hereness and out-thereness of globalization can be best described in which of the following examples?
Ethnic communities, such as Chinatown and Little Italy.

Outsourced call centers that provide customer service from offshore locations.

The instant communication and sharing of experience across the world through communication technology, such as satellite television, Skype, YouTube, and Facebook.

A large number of Indian scientists, doctors, and computer programmers migrated to the U.S. in the 1980s and 1990s. This is an example of:
Brain drain
The “melting pot” metaphor:
Was never accurate because many cultural groups experienced exclusion from the mainstream culture and/or retained their cultural distinctiveness.
Postcolonial migrants are:
People who migrate from former colonies to former centers of colonial power.

Impacting former colonial centers as numbers grow in critical mass.

Part of Indra’s family lives in Bali and others live in the U.S. His mother travels to the U.S. frequently for her jewelry business in Indonesia. Indra’s transmigrant community is likely characterized by which of the following.
Identification with “home” or Indonesia even if “home” is in the U.S. much of time.

Intertwining familial relationships across multiple locations.

Bodi, an immigrant from China, came to the U.S. following his cousins and family friends who provided him with information and support for travel, housing, employment, and education. Which of the following enabled his migration?
Migrant networks
Starting in the late 1980s, a large number of migrants moved from Mexico to work in a meatpacking plant in Marshalltown, Iowa. Back in Mexico, they experienced deteriorating economic conditions, and the meatpacking plant in the U.S. was in need of migrant laborers. This pattern of migration can be best understood from:
Push-pull theory

World-systems theory

Feminization of workforce means:
In the context of globalization, there is an increasing demand for women from developing countries to work at factories and serve as caretakers.
Maya wants to raise money for the immigrant community in her town to provide them with English lessons. She has a strong network of friends, teachers, and community members who are committed to providing support for her cause. Maya benefits from her:
Social capital
Nazim is a 25 years old French citizen of Algerian descent. While he wants to be part of French society, he experiences racism and lack of employment opportunity as a son of immigrant parents. He also feels that he does not belong to Algerian culture because people in Algerian community perceive him as “too French.” Nazim’s migrant-host relationship can be best described as:
Marginalization
Immigration industrial complex refers to:
A systematic criminalization of undocumented migrants.

A systematic exploitation of undocumented migrants that conflates public interests in safety with private interests in making profit.

A systematic otherization of migrant groups based on the rhetoric of fear.

Migration in the context of globalization is:
Rapid, multidirectional and diverse
Soumia, an international student from India, was very excited to come to the U.S. A few weeks after her arrival, however, she started feeling homesick. She began to think that cultural differences are confusing and disorienting. Soumia is experiencing:
Culture shock
Immigration trends in the U.S. changed in the later part of the 20th century in which of the following ways?
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 allowed for kinship and family reunification.

Discriminatory nationality-based quotas were challenged.

The number of Latin American and Asian immigrations increased.

The third wave of migration is characterized by:
Postcolonial migrants who leave former colonies to relocate in former colonizing countries.

Guest worker programs that bring workers from the periphery of Europe to Western Europe to fill labor shortages and support the economy.

Tomoko is in the United States as an international student studying Communication Studies. What kind of migrant is she?
Sojourner
Which theory proposed that cultural adaption occurs through a process of growth, stress and adaptation?
Integrative theory of adaptation
Xenophobia is defined as:
Fear of outsiders
Justin spent a year abroad in Shanghai, China. After about 5-6 months, he found that through hard work, he was about to engage effectively with the host culture, develop strategies to cope with the psychological stress of being in a new environment, and shift his identity so he could connect with his new friends in China as well as the friend who were from the U.S. also living in China. Justin’s experience illustrates
Intercultural transformation
Which of the following factors influence migrants’ adaptation?
The receptivity of the “host” country

Attitudes of the migrant to adaptation

The level of racism, ethnocentrism or anti-immigrant sentiment in the “host” country

Nativist movements refer to
Movements that called for the exclusion of foreign-born people.
Tourists who visit Mardi Gras in New Orleans are unaware of the harsh working conditions experienced by young factory workers in China who produce many of the products that are consumed. Instead, tourists enjoy the festivity through the consumption of products that satisfy their desire for experiences. This is an example of ___________ of commodities:
Fetishization
The steps you can take to be economically responsible include:
Observe your consumption patterns.

Act responsibly based on your knowledge.

Educate yourself about the circumstances and impact.

Commodification of culture is problematic because:
It packages culture as a product for consumption.

It values cultural differences only for its marketability and profitability.

It often relies on stereotypical representations of different cultural groups.

Confucian dynamism is one of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions that emphasizes:
Persistence and long-term orientation to time.

The importance of status.

Collective face-negotiation strategies.

Neoliberalism is characterized by:
The reduction of state intervention.

Deregulation of the market.

Privatization of public resources.

Which of the following is true about capitalism?
In capitalist societies, culture is often commodified and sold as products.

Capitalism is shaped by the close networks among corporations, national governments, and global bodies of governance such as the IMF, World Bank, and WTO.

In New Mexico, consumers and tourists seek “authentic” and “traditional” Native American art work because of their fascination with different and exotic cultures. In Chapter 8, this example is used to illustrate:
Commodification of culture
As consumers, we do not pay attention to the exploitative working conditions (i.e. sweat shops, low wages, and a lack of worker’s rights) behind the production of products we purchase. Instead, we focus on the power of the product to make us look and feel good. Which of the following terms describes this?
None of the above

(not these answers –
Cultural stereotypes
Neoliberalism
Cultural globalization)

In Hofstede’s cultural orientation of masculinity-femininity, a feminine organization is characterized by:
Interchangeable gender roles and norms.

An emphasis on balancing work and life.

The commodification of culture refers to:
The ways cultural experiences are produced and consumed for the market.
What of the following is NOT an accurate description of the relationship between capitalism and intercultural communication?
Capitalism encourages collectivist cultural values.
Abdissa, an immigrant from Ethiopia, feels very uncomfortable calling his bosses by their first names. Which of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions describes the new workplace in the U.S. that he is adapting to?
Low power distance
In using Hofstede’s cultural orientations and GLOBE dimensions, we must be careful:
Not to oversimplify cultural differences.

Not to over-generalize different cultural groups.

Since the implementation of NAFTA, farmers in Mexico must compete with the larger agricultural businesses in the United States. This economic trend is called:
Economic liberalization
In order to be a more responsible consumer, John researched where the groceries sold at the local megastore come from and how it impacts the local agricultural industry. This is an example of:
Being socially, economically and culturally responsible as a consumer.

Educating oneself about the circumstances and impact of capitalism.

Lejla worked as a customer service representative at a call center for five years. Recently, the company decided to move the entire service to the Philippines. This is an example of:
Outsourcing

Global economic competition

The spread of free market economy

High uncertainty avoidance cultures tend to:
Be more formal and rule oriented.
The characteristic(s) of the commodification of culture include(s):
Cultural experiences are produced and consumed.

Culture is produced by corporation rather than ethnic groups or nation-states.

Culture is treated as commodity to sell and make profit.

In GLOBE dimensions, humane orientation refers to:
The extent to which an organization rewards people for being fair, generous, and kind to others.
Which of the following is NOT one of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture that can help us understand intercultural communication in the workplace?
Low/High Content
“Spectacle” is a term that critiques:
The domination of media images and consumer society over individuals.

The way consumption is depoliticized as a leisure activity that brings happiness and fulfillment.

Which of the following is true about the history of capitalism?
The history of capitalism is intertwined with the history of colonialism.

The history of capitalism is intertwined with the development of nation-states.

The history of capitalism is intertwined with the history of global migration.

Low context communication can be defined:
Communication where a large amount of information is explicitly communicated through direct and literal expressions.
Situational factors that shape intercultural conflict include:
Time urgency

Superior-subordinate status in relationship

Kenji, a Japanese man, and Amy, an European American woman, are in a committed relationship for several years. Amy is frustrated because Kenji never expresses his feelings with words, while Kenji thinks Amy is too expressive about her feelings. Which of the following describes their communication styles?
Kenji uses high context communication, and Amy uses low context communication.
Adolfo and Ben work together at a company. When there is a conflict in their office, Adolfo uses direct communication to solve problems and asserts his opinions. Ben uses indirect communication, focusing on maintaining relationships and solving the problem with other workers. Their difference can be described as:
Adolfo has independent orientation and Ben has interdependent orientation to conflict.
Which of the following is an example of “oppositional metaphor”?
“Civilized vs. Uncivilized”

“Us vs. Them”

“Good vs. Evil”

When Heather witnessed a conflict between local residents and Sudanese refugees in town, she paid attention to the power imbalance between the two groups and the divisive rhetoric on immigration in the media. Heather is using:
Macro and meso-frames analysis of conflict
Cultural differences in facework shape intercultural conflict because:
People from individualistic cultures often use more confrontational, controlling, and solution-oriented approaches to conflict.

People from collectivistic cultures often use more avoiding, obliging or integrating.

According to the case study in Chapter 9 about inter-group conflict between Armenian and Latino high school students, what is/are the factor(s) that shape their conflict?
The cultural history of the Armenian Genocide and how their close-knit Armenian community is perceived by others as old-fashioned and resistant to assimilation.

Latino/a student’s struggle to fight against stereotypes and prejudices attached to the category “Hispanic,” such as being lazy and not interested in school.

In the conflict between Israel and Palestine, each group defines who they are as the opposite or the negative images of the other group. This is an example of:
Negative identity
Invitational rhetoric is defined as:
A form of communication committed to equality, recognition and self-determination through invitation, cooperation and coordination.
Negative identity can be defined as:
Group identity that is based on being the opposite of the other, or not being the other.
When Kenji and Amy had a fight, Kenji consulted his best friend Jeff. Jeff then spoke to his girlfriend Emily and they decided to invite Amy and Kenji for dinner in hopes of mending their relationship. This type of approach to conflict is viewed as:
High context communication and interdependent orientation
In the micro-frame analysis of intercultural conflict, you focus on:
Facework
Face work in intercultural interactions, according to Ting-Toomey, means which of the following?
The effort and actions to negotiate your own and the other person’s sense of self
Laura is the president of student organization at the university. Whenever the members have conflicts with each other, she tries to address them by working as a mediator. She tries to improve the culture of the organization by resolving the conflict collectively. Her approach can be characterized as:
interdependent orientation to conflict
When Keith had a conflict with a neighbor who moved from Somalia, he tried to analyze the situation by looking at how he tends to engage in low context communication whereas his neighbor prefers high context communication. He is using:
Micro-frame analysis of conflict
In the macro-frame analysis of intercultural conflict, geopolitical power inequities are understood to be rooted in:
Histories of colonization

Western imperialism

U.S. hegemony

When Marlon witnessed a conflict between Korean American business owners and African American residents in the neighborhood, he paid attention to how the conflict is shaped by inter-group prejudice and ethnocentrism rooted in the history of the neighborhood. Marlon is using:
Meso-frame analysis of conflict
The Arab linguistic term musayara refers to:
The act of accompanying one’s conversational partner in dialogue.

A communication style that focuses on maintaining and promoting harmony.

Cooperative argument is explained as:
A model of argument that manages the resolutions of disagreement within a set of rules that is responsive to intercultural differences.

A model of argument that seeks understanding, ethnical dialogue, relational integrity and empathy.

Cultural self-awareness is defined as:
The awareness or consciousness of oneself as a cultural being, whose beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, values and behaviors are contoured by culture.
Social justice is defined as:
A goal and process that enables the equal participation of all groups.

A movement towards an equitable distribution of resources in society.

Managing ambiguity in intercultural communication means:
To have the willingness to accept uncertainty and unknown situations.
A principle threaded throughout this book is which of the following:
The study and practice of intercultural communication needs to be grounded in critical engagement, democratic participation, and social justice.

When we couple our theories and critical analysis with individual engagement and collective action, we can create a more equitable, socially just world.

Which of the following have we learned about “culture” in this course?
Culture is contested and never static.

Culture can be used as a resource for economic development, collective empowerment, and education.

Which of the following is/are TRUE:
Intercultural alliances are increasingly necessary and frequent in the context of globalization

Intercultural alliances are sites where issues of power and privilege are negotiated and potentially transformed

Which of the following is emphasized when we study intercultural communication?
American culture tends to be future-oriented; yet, histories shape intercultural relations and dynamics.

American culture emphasizes equality; yet, unequal relations of power shape intercultural communication and relationships.

One of the principles informing this book is:
the important role history and relations of power play in intercultural communication.
To study intercultural communication in the context of globalization and social justice means:
To pay attention to how our lives are interconnected across cultural and physical boundaries.

To situate social justice as one of the primary characteristics of intercultural communication.

To explore what it means to be a global citizen.

It is important to address issues of social justice in intercultural communication because:
It is important to address issues of social justice in intercultural communication because:
What does it mean to exercise “inquiry” in intercultural praxis?
To be in an interrogative mode of being.

To be willing to ask questions.

To suspend judgment and be open to new ideas.

Intercultural activism means
engaging in actions that create a democratic world

sharing power and valuing diversity

challenging discrimination, domination and oppression

A foundational principle in this book is following:
People, identities, and cultural forms are located in particular places and simultaneously connected with places around the globe.

intercultural communication is always situated within specific, local contexts as well as broader global contexts

One of the guiding principles of the book is as follows:
Culture is complex and multifaceted; thus, defining culture as “contested meaning,” “shared meaning,” and as a “resource” is useful in the context of globalization.
People who initiate intercultural relationships are drawn to each other based on:
Proximity to each other

Similarities in interests, values, and goals

Physical attraction to one another

Heterosexism is:
An individual’s biased attitudes (such as homophobia) toward people who are not heterosexual.

A systematic discrimination against gays and lesbians.

Prejudicial beliefs that are institutionalized such as marriage and citizenship.

Ashley is Norwegian American and Megan is German American. What type of intercultural relationship do they have?
Inter-ethnic
Patrice (Haitian American and Christian) and Josh (Jewish American) have been in an interracial relationship for six months. Because of some unwelcome reactions and prejudicial comments from people who disagree with their relationship, they began to develop proactive and reactive strategies to manage challenges and discrimination. According to the model of romantic relationship development, which stage are they in?
Coping
As a bicultural, bilingual, and biracial child, Jose finds himself constantly translating, mediating, and navigating between his Italian American relatives and Mexican American relatives. What term best describes his intercultural experience?
Intercultural bridgework
Which of the following statements about intercultural relationships on the internet is true?
There are various internet dating sites that challenge or reinforce racial stereotypes to a varying degree.
Eric and Michael have been in a romantic relationship for the past ten years. Since their State does not allow same-sex marriage, they have come to develop their own definition of family and what it means to be in a committed relationship. This is an example of:
Relational culture/identity
Which of the following is/are TRUE about intercultural relationships?
Intercultural relationships today are embedded in the history of colonization.

Civil Rights movement of the second half of the twentieth century paved the way for intercultural relationships today.

A primary challenge of interracial romantic relationships is:
The assumptions and prejudices held by society about interracial relationships.
“The systemic subordination of class groups by the dominant, privileged class” is a definition of:
Classism
Anti-miscegenation laws:
Prohibited marriage between people of different races.

Existed in over 40 states until 1967.

Were overturned in the landmark Loving v. Virginia Supreme Court case.

Randy thinks that heterosexuality is the only normal, natural and universal form of sexuality. This type of assumption is called:
Heteronormativity
A person, group, or community who works across lines of cultural differences in support of and partnership with others is called:
Intercultural ally
Cultural differences in the notion of friendship can be found in:
Different views on how long it takes to develop a friendship.

Different views on how soon and how much one discloses about oneself to a friend.

Different views on what is appropriate behavior in friendship.

The notion of “friendship” varies across cultures because:
Western cultures typically have an individualistic orientation to friendship, where friendship is voluntary and chosen.

In collectivistic cultures, friendship is typically based on group associations and a sense of mutual obligation.

The sense of how long it takes to develop friendship varies across different cultures.

Sami and Dmitri have been friends for several years. They have introduced each other to their family members and trust each other as friends. At which stage of intercultural friendship development process are they?
On-going involvement phase
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Ethnicity does not apply to European Americans as the dominant group.
Which of the following is true of intercultural relationships?
Concerns of the extended family and societal perceptions of differences are accentuated compared to relationships between people from the same culture.
Which of the following statements is true?
Ethnic differences among European Americans have been blurred into one racial category.

People who avow or are ascribed an identity as White have an ethnicity.

Ethnicity plays a role in choices that are made regarding who develops and sustains friendships and romantic relationships.

While Alison identifies as heterosexual, she is active in providing support and raising public awareness for people in LGBTQ community. Alison is:
An intercultural ally for LGBTQ community
What does it mean to engage in intercultural bridgework?
To develop sensitivity, understanding and empathy for multiple groups of people.

To translate languages, values, norms and ways of thinking between two different cultures.

To navigate across multiple cultures and create connections among them.

Which of the following is/are myth(s) about interracial relationships?
Non-dominant groups marry into the dominant group for status.

Dominant group choose non-dominant group partners out of rebellion or to spite their parents.

Children from interracial marriages have psychological problems, particularly in terms of identity.

Laura comes from an upper-class Christian family. When she started dating Ben, who is non-religious and from working-class background, her family was not accepting of their relationship. This is an example of how:
Intercultural relationships often involve multiple and intersecting cultural differences, including class and religion.
Kathy, a white European American woman, and Oguz, a Muslim American man, have been dating for two months. Kathy has become more aware of how religious differences and stereotypes impact the people in Muslim communities including Oguz. Which state of intercultural romantic relationship development process is she in?
Racial/cultural awareness
Which of the following is/are NOT true?
Sexuality does not matter in intercultural relationships because gender norms are universal across cultures.

Sexuality does not matter in intercultural relationships because ideas about femininity and masculinity are universal across cultures.

Sexuality does not matter in intercultural relationships because it is a private issue that has no impact on civil rights, social institutions, and education.

Defined as the personal attitudes individuals of any class culture may hold about members of other classes, ____________ shapes the dynamic of intercultural relationships.
Class prejudice