COMM 1110

Many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include

A) organizing your thoughts logically.

B) tailoring your message to your audience.

C) adapting to listener feedback.

D) all of the above.

E) b and c only.

D) all of the above.
One way to build confidence as a speaker is to create a vivid mental blueprint in which you see yourself succeeding in your speech. According to your textbook, this process is called

A) visualization.

B) anticipatory rehearsal.

C) representation.

D) imaginistic practice.

E) foreshadowing.

A) visualization.
Research has shown that the anxiety level of most speakers drops off significantly

A) before they rise to speak.

B) as soon as they begin to speak.

C) when they are 30 to 60 seconds into the speech.

D) after they reach the middle of the speech.

E) none of the above.

C) when they are 30 to 60 seconds into the speech.
Asad was giving an interesting speech about the earliest astronomical observatories—a subject he was very excited about—when he misidentified the founder of the Istanbul observatory. When he realized his mistake, he corrected it, but then he felt flustered and wasn’t as confident for the rest of his speech. What advice from your textbook should Asad keep in mind?

A) Audiences focus more on a speaker’s ideas than on details of her or his delivery.

B) Most of a speaker’s nervousness isn’t visible to the audience.

C) There is no such thing as a perfect speech.

D) all of the above

E) b and c only

D) all of the above
Dealing with such matters as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion are all part of what your textbook calls

A) induction.

B) oral deliberation.

C) critical thinking.

D) deduction.

E) rational communication.

C) critical thinking.
As your textbook states, public speaking is a form of empowerment because it gives speakers the ability to manipulate people.

True/False

False
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Public speaking is more highly structured than everyday conversation.

True/false

True
Some nervousness before you speak is usually beneficial.

True/false

True
Using the power of visualization to control stage fright means that you should approach your speech as a performance in which the audience is looking for perfection.

True/false

False
Organizing ideas for presentation in a speech is an important aspect of critical thinking.

True/false

True
As your textbook makes clear, speechmaking carries heavy ethical responsibilities because it is a form of

A) communication.

B) authenticity.

C) power.

D) self-expression.

E) privilege.

C) power.
Which of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for ethical speechmaking?

A) Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends.

B) Present your main points in nontechnical language.

C) Be fully prepared for each speech.

D) Explain your credibility in the introduction.

E) Be alert to feedback from the audience.

C) Be fully prepared for each speech.
As a public speaker, you face ethical issues when

A) selecting the topic for your speech.

B) researching your speech.

C) organizing your speech.

D) all of the above.

E) a and b only.

D) all of the above.
All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking except

A) Be honest in what you say.

B) Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language.

C) Be fully prepared for each speech.

D) Make sure your goals are ethically sound.

E) Explain your credibility on the speech topic.

E) Explain your credibility on the speech topic.
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to keep from plagiarizing?

A) Gather research materials from sources you know are reliable.

B) Get all your factual information from encyclopedias.

C) Avoid using direct quotations from other people in your speech.

D) Get an early start on researching and preparing your speech.

E) Avoid using personal experience in your speech.

D) Get an early start on researching and preparing your speech.
As your textbook explains, name-calling is ethically acceptable in public speaking as long as it is used in a humorous way.
False
Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines.
True
When used repeatedly and systematically, name-calling can become a social force that encourages prejudice and can lead to hate crimes.
True
Because the aim of speechmaking is to secure a desired response from listeners, speakers need to give their strategic objectives priority over their ethical obligations.
False
When you paraphrase someone in a speech, you have an ethical responsibility to give that person credit for his or her ideas.
True
When business managers are asked to list the communication skills most crucial to their job, they usually rank __________ number one.

A) conversation

B) critical thinking

C) public speaking

D) writing

E) listening

E) listening
According to your textbook, effective listening skills are important for

A) speakers.

B) audiences.

C) students.

D) all of the above.

E) b and c only.

D) all of the above.
Fletcher is listening for pleasure as a friend discusses her trip to Australia. According to your textbook, Fletcher is engaged in __________ listening.

A) receptive

B) empathic

C) appreciative

D) personal

E) comprehensive

C) appreciative
A new class registration system has been established on campus. Tonight, a representative from the Registrar’s office will speak about how to use the new system. You will be listening to the speaker in hopes of understanding the steps involved in registering for classes next semester. As explained in your textbook, you will be engaged in ___________ listening.

A) critical

B) comprehensive

C) intimate

D) appreciative

E) empathic

B) comprehensive
When listening for a speaker’s evidence, you should keep an ear out for its

A) sufficiency.

B) accuracy.

C) objectivity.

D) relevance.

E) all of the above.

E) all of the above.
Hearing and listening are essentially the same.
True
False
False
One of the major obstacles to listening effectively is that the brain can process many more words than can be spoken in a minute.
True
False
True
According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of comprehensive listening.
True
False
True
As your textbook explains, focusing on a speaker’s delivery and personal appearance is an excellent way to strengthen your listening skills.
True
False
False
Note taking is usually a barrier to effective listening.
True
False
False
Which of the following does your textbook recommend for developing your first classroom speech?

A) Be creative in structuring the speech.

B) Use colorful, descriptive language.

C) Describe an exciting experience.

D) all of the above

E) b and c only

D) all of the above
For her first speech, Rebekah plans to explain her interest in gymnastics beginning with her childhood and continuing through her days in high school. Which pattern of organization discussed in your textbook will she use in her speech?

A) artistic

B) chronological

C) kinetic

D) topical

E) functional

B) chronological
A sentence or two that lets the audience know that a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another is called a

A) corollary.

B) bridge.

C) transition.

D) summary.

E) conclusion.

C) Transition
According to your textbook, the type of delivery in which you plan your speech in detail and learn it well without trying to memorize the exact wording is called

A) conventional.

B) methodical.

C) extemporaneous.

D) extraneous.

E) intuitive.

C) extemporaneous.
Which of the following does your textbook recommend that you do when rehearsing your first speech?

A) Memorize the speech word for word.

B) Ask family members or friends for feedback.

C) Read over the speech silently until you are sure you know it.

D) all of the above

E) a and c only

B) Ask family members or friends for feedback.
Taking a moment to look at your audience and smile before you begin to speak can help you establish rapport with them.
True
False
True
When you give a speech, you should try to have the same expressiveness in your voice as you have in ordinary conversation.
True
False
True
Extemporaneous delivery means delivering a speech “off the cuff,” with no advance preparation.
True
False
False
Each main point in the body of your first speech should cover a single aspect of the topic.
True
False
True
Much of the anxiety associated with public speaking comes from lack of experience giving speeches.
True
False
True
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a method of brainstorming for a speech topic?

A) clustering

B) taking a personal inventory

C) conducting an Internet search

D) all of the above

E) a and c only

D) all of the above
Advocating a position is most appropriate when the general purpose of your speech is to

A)
persuade.

B)
inspire.

C)
deliberate.

D)
entertain.

E)
inform.

A)
persuade.
According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement for a speech should be

A)
determined after the central idea.

B)
written using figurative language.

C)
the same as the title of the speech.

D)
limited to one distinct idea.

E)
expressed as a question.

D)
limited to one distinct idea.
“To inform my audience that learning digital photography is a piece of cake” is a poorly phrased specific purpose statement for a speech because it

A)
is written as a statement rather than as a question.

B)
is written as an infinitive phrase rather than as a statement.

C)
fails to encapsulate the main points of the speech.

D)
is made up of more than one distinct idea.

E)
is expressed using figurative language.

E)
is expressed using figurative language.
Identify the flaw in the following specific purpose statement for a classroom speech: “To inform my audience about Hinduism.”

A)
It’s too technical.

B)
It’s too broad.

C)
It’s too personal.

D)
It’s too figurative.

E)
It’s too specific.

B)
It’s too broad.
After choosing a topic, the next step in speech preparation is determining your general purpose.

True
False

True
The following is an example of an effective specific purpose statement for a speech: “The five most common types of volcanoes are the cinder cone volcano, the shield volcano, the strato-volcano, the giant caldera, and the fissure volcano.”

True
False

False
Whether the general purpose of your speech is to inform or to persuade, the specific purpose statement should contain a reference to your audience.

True
False

True
It is acceptable for a specific purpose statement to include two unrelated ideas.

True
False

False
The central idea of a speech often emerges after you have done your research and have decided on the main points of the speech.

True
False

True
Creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people or assuming that all members of the group are alike is called

A)
egocentrism.

B)
genotyping.

C)
sensationalism.

D)
stereotyping.

E)
ethnocentrism.

D)
stereotyping.
If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience on the subject of mandatory retirement, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its

A)
economic standing.

B)
group membership.

C)
gender.

D)
age.

E)
education.

D)
age.
If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience arguing that all children should be required to use standard English in the public schools, the most important factor to consider in audience analysis would probably be

A)
the age of the audience.

B)
the physical setting for the speech.

C)
the ethnic background of the audience.

D)
the time of day for the speech.

E)
the size of the audience.

C)
the ethnic background of the audience.
According to your textbook, which of the following is a situational characteristic of a speech audience?

A)
gender

B)
size

C)
religion

D)
group membership

E)
age

B)
size
If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience on 3-D printing technology, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the

A)
group membership of the audience.

B)
size of the audience.

C)
knowledge of the audience about the topic.

D)
gender of the audience.

E)
physical setting for the speech.

C)
knowledge of the audience about the topic.
Keeping speeches within strict time limits is an artificial constraint of classroom speeches and is less important for speeches outside the classroom.

True
False

False
Knowing how the physical setting might affect your listeners’ receptivity to your ideas is an important factor in situational audience analysis.

True
False

True
You are most likely to be successful in your classroom speeches if you think of your classmates as a real audience.

True
False

True
The need to adapt to the audience means that speechmakers must usually compromise their own beliefs or values.

True
False

False
A public speaker can safely assume that all members of a religious denomination share the same beliefs and values.

True
False

False
Encyclopedias, yearbooks, biographical aids, and quotation books are all examples of

A)
special indexes.

B)
reference works.

C)
bibliographical aids.

D)
research guides.

E)
general indexes.

B)
reference works.
Newspaper and periodical databases

A)
catalog articles from a large number of newspapers, journals, and magazines.

B)
are valuable for locating materials in encyclopedias and other reference works.

C)
often provide abstracts and full texts of articles.

D)
all of the above.

E)
a and c only.

E)
a and c only.
As part of the research for his informative speech, Malik needs brief life and career facts about German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The best kind of library reference source for him to consult would be a(n)

A)
periodical index.

B)
special dictionary.

C)
encyclopedia.

D)
biographical aid.

E)
yearbook.

D)
biographical aid.
According to your textbook, when is it appropriate to cite an abstract of a magazine or journal article in your speech rather than locating and reading the full article?

A)
never

B)
when the article is more than five years old

C)
when the article is not available on a computerized database

D)
when the only copy of the article is on the bookshelves

E)
when the article is short enough to be summarized in one paragraph

A)
never
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as ways to help narrow a Google search to make it more effective?

A)
Develop a strategy to search for specific terms you want to find.

B)
Type specific questions into the search box.

C)
Explore specialized Google resources such as news, books, and scholar.

D)
all of the above

E)
a and c only

D)
all of the above
You should avoid asking tough questions during a research interview.

True
False

False
When conducting an interview, you are likely to offend the interviewee if you ask for clarification of an answer you don’t understand.

True
False

False
When taking research notes, it is important to distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas.

True
False

True
Like magazine and journal articles, most documents posted on the Internet have been subjected to close editorial review.

True
False

False
You can find a great deal of information on the Internet, but you cannot always find the same depth of research materials as in a good library.

True
False

True
According to your textbook, what kind of supporting material is used in the following speech excerpt:

Imagine this: You have spent most of the night studying for an exam. But when you get up the next morning ready to take the test, you go to your front door and it won’t open. So you head to the back door, and it won’t open either. You are stuck in the house. It would be pretty frustrating, wouldn’t it? This is exactly the kind of frustration wheelchair-bound students feel when they can’t get to class because of the snow.

A)
emotional example

B)
causal example

C)
metaphorical example

D)
synthetic example

E)
hypothetical example

E)
hypothetical example
In a speech about valley fever, a potentially deadly disease that has reached serious proportions in several southwestern states, a speaker said:

After being plagued by asthma attacks in Hawaii for six years, Lori Crown hoped to find relief by moving to the dryer climate in Bakersfield, California. A few months after arriving in Bakersfield, Crown was suffering from severe headaches, swollen feet, painful bumps on her hands and legs, and a prolonged fever. The diagnosis—valley fever.

To combat the disease, Crown has to take fluconazole, an antifungal drug that costs $685 for a one-month supply of pills. Although the drug helps, Crown still gets painful headaches, frequent fevers, and debilitating fatigue. “It’s so frustrating,” Crown says. “One day I’ll feel fine, then I’ll be in bed for the next three.” Most days she wishes she had stayed in Hawaii.

According to your textbook, what kind of supporting material is used in this statement?

A)
scientific example

B)
extended example

C)
hypothetical example

D)
illustrative example

E)
expert example

B)
extended example
To give statistics greater impact, a speaker should

A)
use statistics sparingly.

B)
let the statistics speak for themselves.

C)
cite exact numbers rather than rounding off.

D)
combine the statistics with technical language.

E)
conceal the source of the statistics.

A)
use statistics sparingly.
How does the following excerpt from a classroom speech violate the guidelines for the use of statistics presented in your textbook?

I discovered on the Internet that each year, for every 100,000 students living in college dormitories, there are 4 cases of bacterial meningitis.

A)
It doesn’t round off the statistics.

B)
It doesn’t state the statistics clearly.

C)
It doesn’t cite a qualified source for the statistics.

D)
all of the above

E)
b and c only

C)
It doesn’t cite a qualified source for the statistics.
The main value of using expert testimony in a speech is to

A)
enhance the vividness of the speaker’s ideas.

B)
gain attention in the introduction of the speech.

C)
build the credibility of speakers who are not experts on their topics.

D)
keep the audience’s attention throughout the body of the speech.

E)
relate the speaker’s ideas directly to the audience.

C)
build the credibility of speakers who are not experts on their topics.
When you use testimony in a speech, it is acceptable either to paraphrase or to use a direct quotation.

True
False

True
Acceptable testimony can include either statements from recognized experts or from ordinary people with special expertise on the topic.

True
False

True
According to your textbook, it is acceptable to use atypical examples to reinforce your ideas as long as you don’t use too many of them.

True
False

False
Because they tell a story vividly and dramatically, extended examples are a good way to pull listeners into a speech.

True
False

True
The three basic types of supporting materials discussed in your textbook are examples, statistics, and testimony.

True
False

True
According to your textbook, what organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?

I. The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage.

II. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.

III. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.

IV. The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber.

spacial

descriptive

chronological

progressive

logical

Spacial
Here are the main points for a persuasive speech on low adult literacy.

I. Low adult literacy has reached crisis proportions in the United States.

II. Solving the problem requires action by government and individual citizens alike.

These main points are arranged in __________ order.

spatial

topical

problem-solution

comparative-advantage

causal

Problem-solution
Here are the main points for an informative speech about the accomplishments of Leonardo da Vinci.

I. As a painter, da Vinci produced the Mona Lisa and other masterpieces.

II. As an inventor, da Vinci drew plans for a parachute and a flying machine.

III. As an astronomer, da Vinci concluded that the earth revolves around the sun.

These main points are arranged in __________ order.

topical

objective

descriptive

career

spatial

Topical
How do the following main points for a speech about how to determine the value of a baseball card violate the guidelines presented in your textbook for organizing main points?

I. The first factor determining the value of a baseball card is the fame of the player.

II. The second factor determining the value of a baseball card is the age of the card.

III. The third factor determining the value of a baseball card is the rarity of the card and the physical condition of the card.

The main points don’t each deal with a separate aspect of the topic.

The main points should have been organized in causal order.

The main points are too concrete in their language.

all of the above

b and c only

The main points don’t each deal with a separate aspect of the topic.
According to your textbook, brief statements that help listeners follow your ideas by indicating exactly where you are in the speech are called

markers.

signposts.

transitions.

bridges.

links.

signposts.
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of a transition: “Now that we’ve seen that binge drinking is a serious problem for many students, let’s look at some ways to help curb the problem.”

True
False

True
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of an internal summary: “So much for the present; what about the future?”

True
False

False
If a speech is 45 minutes long, an audience can be expected to keep track of as many as a dozen main points.

True
False

False
Research suggests that using a clear, specific method of speech organization can enhance your ability to deliver a speech fluently.

True
False

True
“As we’ll see, the problem can be broken down into two parts, weak laws and lackluster enforcement” is an example of an internal preview.

True
False

True
When used in a speech introduction, telling a story, asking a question, making a startling statement, and arousing curiosity are all methods of

previewing the body of the speech.

enhancing the speaker’s credibility.

establishing goodwill with the audience.

revealing the topic of the speech.

gaining the attention of the audience.

gaining the attention of the audience.
Which of the following would you most likely find in a well-constructed speech introduction?

a visual aid

a preview statement

an internal summary

a research citation

a lengthy quotation

a preview statement
Paul began his speech as follows:

They called Lou Gehrig the iron horse. This tireless worker played an astounding 2,130 consecutive baseball games even though he suffered 17 hand fractures during those years. This would be like one of us never missing a day of school for over 13 years. Can you imagine completing kindergarten through your senior year with perfect attendance? Never taking a sick day, never a college visit day, or even senior skip day. And, to match Gehrig, you would also have to end your school career with an A average.

What method for gaining attention and interest did Paul use?

revealing the general purpose

relating the topic to the audience

previewing the body of the speech

stating the importance of the topic

summarizing the central idea

relating the topic to the audience
If Robert Downey Jr. were to deliver a speech about developments in particle physics, his main task in the introduction of his speech would probably be to

establish credibility.

reveal the topic.

gain attention.

preview the body.

define key terms.

establish credibility.
Which objective of a good speech introduction is fulfilled by the following statement?

Today we will explore the three most important forms of intellectual property protection—copyrights, trademarks, and patents.

preview the body

establish the speaker’s goodwill

state the importance of the topic

summarize the introduction

relate to the audience

preview the body
One function of a preview statement is to signal that the body of the speech is about to begin.

True
False

True
Under normal circumstances, the introduction should constitute about 10 to 20 percent of a speech.

True
False

True
A speech conclusion that builds in power and intensity as it moves toward the closing line is known as a crescendo ending.

True
False

True
The conclusion should normally comprise about 5 to 10 percent of a speech.

True
False

True
It is overly repetitious to restate the main points in the conclusion of a speech.

True
False

False
All of the following are necessary in a preparation outline except

labels for the introduction, body, and conclusion.

directions for delivering the speech.

transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries.

a consistent pattern of indentation and symbolization.

a specific purpose statement.

directions for delivering the speech.
Ryo is working on the preparation outline for his informative speech. According to your textbook, his outline should

be as brief as possible.

state main points and subpoints in full sentences.

contain a bibliography.

all of the above.

b and c only.

b and c only.
In a preparation outline, main points should be

positioned farthest to the left.

indicated by Arabic numerals.

written in key words to jog the memory.

listed after subpoints.

stated as questions.

positioned farthest to the left.
“What’s Your Learning Style?” is an appropriately worded

speech title.

general purpose statement.

main point for a preparation outline.

specific purpose statement.

central idea.

speech title.
According to your textbook, in a speaking outline, the conclusion should be

written out word for word.

labeled as a separate part of the speech.

set off in parentheses.

all of the above.

a and c only.

labeled as a separate part of the speech.
You should include your specific purpose statement with your preparation outline.

True
False

True
In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by Roman numerals and subpoints by capital letters.

True
False

True
A preparation outline should include your bibliography.

True
False

True
A speaking outline is usually longer and more detailed than a preparation outline.

True
False

False
Delivery cues on a speaking outline remind a speaker how to say something, rather than what to say.

True
False

True
The denotative meaning of a word is

A)
what the word suggests or implies.

B)
based on the audience’s sense of appropriateness.

C)
usually more abstract than its connotative meaning.

D)
often too technical to be used in a speech.

E)
its literal or dictionary meaning.

E)
its literal or dictionary meaning.
The connotative meaning of a word is

A)
its dictionary definition.

B)
determined by the speaker.

C)
concrete and precise.

D)
what the word suggests or implies.

E)
usually too technical for a general audience.

what the word suggests or implies.
Phrases such as “dry as a bone,” “clear as a bell,” “dark as night,” and “smart as a whip” should be avoided in speeches because they are

A)
abstract.

B)
cliches.

C)
similes.

D)
connotative.

E)
figurative.

B)
cliches.
Your textbook recommends using repetition and parallelism to enhance the __________ of your speeches.

A)
rhythm

B)
credibility

C)
emotional appeal

D)
appropriateness

E)
imagery

A)
rhythm
In her speech about depression, Tanya, said:

“A person suffering from depression can experience a variety of symptoms. He might have difficulty concentrating or making decisions; he might show signs of fatigue; he will probably lose interest in his favorite activities.”

Which of the guidelines for the inclusive use of language in public speaking mentioned in your textbook does this passage violate?

A)
Use language appropriate to the topic.

B)
Use the names that groups use to identify themselves.

C)
Avoid the generic “he.”

D)
all of the above

E)
a and b only

C)
Avoid the generic “he.”
A speaker should avoid using familiar words because they make a speech sound trite.

True
False

False
Abstract words are usually clearer to listeners than are concrete words.

True
False

False
There is a difference between one’s everyday personal style and one’s developed style as a public speaker.

True
False

True
Using inclusive language is an important aspect of audience adaptation in public speaking.

True
False

True
Using language with a strong rhythm can increase the impact of a speaker’s words.

True
False

True
Good speech delivery

A)
is accompanied by frequent gestures.

B)
requires that the speaker have a strong voice.

C)
sounds conversational even though it has been rehearsed.

D)
draws the attention of the audience away from the message.

E)
is best achieved by reading from a manuscript.

C)
sounds conversational even though it has been rehearsed.
Communication based on a speaker’s body and voice, rather than on the use of words, is called

A)
implicit communication.

B)
nonverbal communication.

C)
unintentional communication.

D)
instinctive communication.

E)
physical communication

B)
nonverbal communication.
The U.S. Secretary of State is giving a speech announcing the specific terms of an agreement with Russia on the use of chemical weapons. What kind of delivery is the Secretary of State most likely to use?

A)
memorized

B)
impromptu

C)
personal

D)
manuscript

E)
colloquial

D)
manuscript
Sofia has prepared her speech in great detail. She is practicing to deliver it from a brief set of notes, and every time she goes through the speech, she uses slightly different wording. What kind of delivery is Sofia planning to use?

A)
informal

B)
memorized

C)
extemporaneous

D)
impromptu

E)
manuscript

C)
extemporaneous
What does your textbook say about eye contact for public speakers who address audiences in the United States?

A)
To appear credible and trustworthy, a speaker should gaze intently at one section of the audience.

B)
In classroom speeches, it is most important to maintain steady eye contact with the instructor.

C)
Speakers should look at the audience about 80 to 90 percent of the time they are talking.

D)
Speakers who establish strong eye contact with the audience lose credibility as a result.

E)
Even with a large audience, engaging the eyes of each person is preferable to scanning the audience in general.

C)
Speakers should look at the audience about 80 to 90 percent of the time they are talking.
According to your textbook, the first step in practicing your speech delivery is to go through your preparation outline aloud to see how it translates into spoken discourse.

True
False

True
Rehearsing how you behave at the beginning and end of your speech is one of the easiest things you can do to improve your image with an audience.

True
False

True
Regional or ethnic dialects are fine in speeches as long as listeners find them acceptable.

True
False

True
Personal appearance has little effect on the audience’s perception of a speaker.

True
False

False
When you reach the end of your speech, you should maintain eye contact with the audience for a moment after you finish talking.

True
False

True
Alain is planning to use video as a visual aid in his persuasive speech. According to your textbook, he should

A)
limit the video to about 30 seconds in length.

B)
edit the video to illustrate his point clearly and precisely.

C)
make sure the video will project clearly when on a large screen or monitor.

D)
all of the above.

E)
a and c only.

D)
all of the above.
If you wanted to demonstrate the comparative spending of the United States and Canada on four different kinds of social services, which type of visual aid would be most effective?

A)
a bar graph

B)
a drawing

C)
a line graph

D)
a chart

E)
a pie graph

A)
a bar graph
Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to show the proportion of deaths last year that resulted from accidents, illnesses, natural causes, and homicides?

A)
a line graph

B)
a chart

C)
a photograph

D)
a pie graph

E)
a diagram

D)
a pie graph
Which of the following does your textbook say you should do when preparing PowerPoint slides for a speech?

A)
Use images strategically.

B)
Use a limited amount of text.

C)
Use colors consistently.

D)
all of the above

E)
b and c only

D)
all of the above
When using visual aids in a speech, you should

A)
display aids only while discussing them.

B)
maintain eye contact with listeners when showing visual aids.

C)
avoide passing visual aids among the audience.

D)
all of the above.

E)
a and c only.

D)
all of the above.
Research shows that an average speaker who uses visual aids effectively will come across as more professional than a dynamic speaker who does not use visual aids.

True
False

True
Research has shown that using visual aids can increase the audience’s retention of a speaker’s message.

True
False

True
If you were showing statistical trends in a speech, the best visual aid to use would probably be a line graph.

True
False

True
Lists on a chart should rarely exceed seven or eight items.

True
False

True
A visual aid is only as useful as the explanation that goes with it.

True
False

True
According to your textbook, the questions listeners ask when judging an informative speech include

A)
Is the information communicated clearly?

B)
Is the information communicated accurately?

C)
Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience?

D)
all of the above

E)
a and b only

D)
all of the above
“To inform my audience of the five steps of the scientific method” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)

A)
function.

B)
concept.

C)
experiment.

D)
object.

E)
process.

E)
process.
“To inform my audience about the major theories explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs” is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n)

A)
concept.

B)
object.

C)
function.

D)
theory.

E)
comparison.

A)
concept.
If your specific purpose were “To inform my audience of the major steps in an effective job interview,” you would probably organize your speech in __________ order.

A)
comparative

B)
spatial

C)
chronological

D)
causal

E)
illustrative

C)
chronological
Which of the following is discussed in your textbook as a guideline for effective informative speaking?

A)
Relate the subject directly to the audience.

B)
Use at least one visual aid with each main point.

C)
Don’t overestimate what the audience knows.

D)
all of the above

E)
a and c only

E)
a and c only
Informative speeches about processes are usually arranged in chronological order.

True
False

True
“To inform my audience about how wine is made” is a specific purpose for an informative speech about an object.

True
False

False
As your textbook explains, abstractions are especially useful for clarifying ideas in informative speeches.

True
False

False
To personalize ideas means that speakers present their thoughts in human terms that relate to the experiences of audience members.

True
False

True
Research suggests that connectives are less important in speeches to inform than in speeches to persuade.

True
False

False
Of all the kinds of speechmaking, __________ speaking is the most complex and the most challenging.

A)
persuasive

B)
after-dinner

C)
ceremonial

D)
informative

E)
commemorative

A)
persuasive
According to your textbook, persuasive speakers have an ethical obligation to

A)
make sure their goals are ethically sound.

B)
learn about all sides of an issue.

C)
present their evidence fairly and accurately.

D)
all of the above.

E)
a and b only.

D)
all of the above.
According to your textbook, persuasion is a psychological process in which listeners engage in a __________ with the speaker.

A)
mental dialogue

B)
situational disagreement

C)
cognitive restructuring

D)
feedback loop

E)
logical debate

A)
mental dialogue
That part of the audience a speaker most wants to persuade is called the

A)
specific audience.

B)
designated audience.

C)
central audience.

D)
special audience.

E)
target audience.

E)
target audience.
Persuasive speeches on questions of __________ argue for or against particular courses of action.

A)
need

B)
value

C)
policy

D)
fact

E)
plan

C)
policy
“To persuade my audience that student-loan repayment amounts should be tied to an individual’s income” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of

A)
opinion.

B)
attitude.

C)
value.

D)
policy.

E)
fact.

D)
policy.
The __________ is the obligation of a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.

A)
burden of proof

B)
strategic duty

C)
deliberative responsibility

D)
balance of practicality

E)
causal imperative

A)
burden of proof
As your textbook explains, you must deal with three basic issues whenever you discuss a question of policy. Those issues are need, plan, and

A)
efficiency.

B)
practicality.

C)
productivity.

D)
flexibility.

E)
viability.

B)
practicality.
The final step in Monroe’s motivated sequence is to call for action by the audience in support of the speaker’s plan.

True
False

True
“To persuade my audience that capital punishment is unjust” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of policy.

True
False

False
According to your textbook, people are persuaded by a speaker, in part, because

A)
they are convinced by the speaker’s reasoning.

B)
they perceive the speaker as having high credibility.

C)
they are won over by the speaker’s evidence.

D)
all of the above

E)
a and c only

D)
all of the above
According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are competence and

A)
logic.

B)
charisma.

C)
character.

D)
pathos.

E)
status.

C)
character.
What contemporary researchers term credibility, Aristotle termed

A)
ethics.

B)
logos.

C)
ethos.

D)
pathos.

E)
credos.

C)
ethos.
Developer Martin Cray had low credibility when he began his speech to a neighborhood group opposed to a new shopping center he hoped to build. During the speech, his credibility increased because his audience was impressed with his command of the facts and his willingness to work with the neighborhood on plans for the shopping center. According to your textbook, the credibility produced by everything Martin said and did during the speech is called _________ credibility.

A)
derived

B)
functional

C)
perceived

D)
variable

E)
ongoing

A)
derived
Evidence and reasoning are the two major elements of persuasion that Aristotle called

A)
pathos.

B)
logos.

C)
credos.

D)
ethos.

E)
mythos.

B)
logos.
According to your textbook, it is especially important to use evidence in a persuasive speech in order to

A)
reinforce your competence on the topic.

B)
establish common ground with your audience.

C)
answer listeners’ objections to your position.

D)
generate goodwill among your audience.

E)
reinforce your reasoning.

C)
answer listeners’ objections to your position.
The fallacy of hasty generalization occurs when a speaker

A)
compares specific instances that are not essentially similar.

B)
jumps to a conclusion on the basis of too few instances.

C)
generalizes on the basis of atypical cases.

D)
all of the above.

E)
b and c only.

E)
b and c only.
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?

If we allow the government to restrict the sale of semiautomatic weapons, before we know it, there will be a ban on ownership of handguns and even hunting rifles. And once our constitutional right to bear arms has been compromised, the right of free speech will be the next to go.

A)
either-or

B)
ad hominem

C)
bandwagon

D)
invalid analogy

E)
slippery slope

E)
slippery slope
According to your textbook, vivid, richly textured examples are an excellent way to generate emotional appeal in a persuasive speech on a question of policy.

True
False

True
The either-or fallacy forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

True
False

True
As your textbook explains, when you give a speech of introduction, you should be sure to adapt your remarks to the

A) occasion.

B) audience.

C) main speaker.
D) all of the above.

E) a and b only.

D) all of the above.
All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for a speech of introduction except

A) Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama.

B) Make sure your remarks are completely accurate.
C) Limit your remarks to fifteen minutes in length.

D) Adapt your remarks to the main speaker.

E) Adapt your remarks to the audience.

C) Limit your remarks to fifteen minutes in length.
A speaker introducing the president of a university to an audience of prospective students and their families will best accomplish this goal by

A) defending the changes in graduation requirements instituted by the president.

B) discussing the history of the university and its excellent athletic teams.

C) praising the president as the finest public speaker on campus.

D) presenting a detailed biography of the president’s entire life.
E) summarizing the president’s major accomplishments at the university.

E) summarizing the president’s major accomplishments at the university.
When Peter Englund delivered a speech at the Stockholm Concert Hall explaining why Alice Munro was receiving the 2013 Nobel Prize in Literature, what kind of speech did Englund deliver?

A) a celebratory speech

B) a speech of introduction
C) a speech of presentation

D) a memorial speech

E) an after-dinner speech

C) a speech of presentation
Which of the following is an example of a commemorative speech?

A) soccer coach’s pre-game pep talk

B) a speaker’s acceptance of an award

C) a teacher’s lecture on banking ethics
D) a daughter’s eulogy in honor of her father

E) a political candidate’s campaign speech

D) a daughter’s eulogy in honor of her father
A speech praising the bravery of the firefighters killed in New York on September 11, 2001, is an example of a commemorative speech.

True
False

True
The three major traits of a good acceptance speech are brevity, humility, and graciousness.

True
False

True
If the audience is not familiar with the award being given, a speech of presentation should briefly explain the meaning of the award.

True
False

True
One major purpose of a speech of introduction is to establish a welcoming climate that will boost the credibility of the main speaker.

True
False

True
The primary purpose of a special occasion speech is to convey information to an audience.

True
False

False
Before meeting with her reading group, Holly collected information about the history of a book that had been recommended to the group. During the group’s next meeting, Holly shared her findings as the group discussed whether to add the book to its reading list. What kind of leadership need did Holly’s actions fulfill?

A)
a personal need

B)
a designated need

C)
a maintenance need

D)
a procedural need

E)
a task need

E)
a task need
As explained in your textbook, which of the following is a defining trait of a small group?

A)
The group assembles for a specific purpose.

B)
The group contains a minimum of three members.

C)
The group has a designated leader.

D)
all of the above

E)
a and b only

E)
a and b only
As explained in your textbook, a group member to whom other members defer because of his or her rank or expertise is called a(n)

A)
implied leader.

B)
specific leader.

C)
emergent leader.

D)
designated leader.

E)
appointed leader.

A)
implied leader.
Which of the following is a maintenance need of a problem-solving small group?

A)
setting the agenda of each meeting

B)
keeping the discussion on track

C)
helping the group reach consensus on a final decision

D)
presenting an oral report for the group

E)
reducing interpersonal tension in the group

E)
reducing interpersonal tension in the group
According to your textbook, which of the following is a responsibility of every member in a problem-solving small group?

A)
Seek to become the group’s designated leader.

B)
Reserve a room for the group’s meetings.

C)
Keep disagreement at the interpersonal level.

D)
Work to keep the group’s discussion on track.

E)
Serve as teh moderator in a panel discussion.

D)
Work to keep the group’s discussion on track.
The ideal of small-group discussion is to reach a consensus decision on major issues facing the group.

True
False

True
According to your textbook, the best approach to brainstorming in a small group is for each member to write down her or his ideas before sharing them with the group.

True
False

True
Disagreements among group members should be kept at the task level rather than the personal level.

True
False

True
The maintenance needs of a small group include such matters as whether members get along with each other and feel good about their roles in the group.

True
False

True
Each member of a small group should be prepared to assume a leadership role when necessary.

True
False

True
According to your textbook, when you are in a formal speaking situation the most effective way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern is

a. asking someone to lower the lights.

b. beginning to speak loudly and clearly.

c. rapping your hand lightly on the lectern until everyone is quiet.

* d. looking directly at the audience without saying a word.

e. asking everyone to be quiet and pay attention.

If a real estate developer were speaking to a group of citizens opposed to the creation of a shopping center in their neighborhood, the most important objective of her or his introduction would probably be to

a. gain the attention of the audience.

b. reveal the topic of the speech.

c. relate the topic to the audience.

d. state the importance of the topic.

* e. create goodwill with the audience.

Which of the following is a basic objective of a speech introduction?

a. reinforce the central idea

b. preview the main points

c. gain the attention of the audience

d. all of the above

* e. b and c only

According to your textbook, the following passage from a speech introduction is an example of a(n) .
I became interested in canine companions two years ago when my older sister, who was paralyzed in a car accident, received a canine companion named Lucky. Since then I have learned more about the subject by watching Lucky, by talking with my sister, and by reading a number of articles and pamphlets.
a. preview statement

b. narrative statement

* c. credibility statement

d. attention statement

e. thesis statement

All of the following are basic objectives of a speech introduction except

a. establish credibility and goodwill.

* b. support your main points.

c. reveal the topic of the speech.

d. preview the body of the speech.

e. get the audience’s attention and interest.

Jason began the introduction of his informative speech with these words:
How many of you just can’t wait until spring break? How many of you plan to hit the road about a minute after your last class lets out? How many of you are looking forward to having a great time?
Which objective of a speech introduction were these words designed to fulfill?
a. reveal the topic of the speech

b. indicate the importance of the topic

* c. gain the attention of the audience

d. enhance the credibility of the speaker

e. preview the main points of the speech

According to your textbook, which of the following is one of the four major objectives of a speech introduction?

* a. reveal the topic

b. identify the audience

c. reinforce the central idea

d. all of the above

e. a and c only

Rachel began her speech as follows:
I want all of you to think about your day. What did you eat? How active were you? How late will it be before you get to bed? These are the kinds of questions I would like to talk about this evening.
What method(s) for gaining attention and interest did Rachel use?
a. questioning the audience

b. stating the importance of the topic

c. relating the topic to the audience

d. all of the above

* e. a and c only

Which of the following would you expect to find in a well-constructed speech introduction?

a. a statement establishing the speaker’s credibility

b. a statement gaining the audience’s attention

c. a statement previewing the main points of the speech

* d. all of the above

e. a and b only

If Will Smith were to deliver a speech about the future of medical care in the United States, his main task in the introduction of his speech would probably be to
* a. establish credibility.

b. reveal the topic.

c. gain attention.

d. preview the body.

e. define key terms.

Even when you use other interest-arousing lures in a speech introduction, you should always

a. startle the audience.

b. use a rhetorical question.

* c. relate the topic to the audience.

d. tell an interesting story.

e. present striking statistics.

In the introduction to his speech on the art of digital photography, Seung mentioned that he works part-time at a camera shop and has had some of his pictures printed in the newspaper. By sharing this information with his audience, Seung was seeking to accomplish which goal of a speech introduction?

a. gain attention

b. preview the speech

c. reveal the topic

d. relate to the audience

* e. establish credibility

When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually

a. preview the main points to be discussed in the body.

b. gain the attention and interest of your audience.

c. establish your credibility on the speech topic.

* d. all of the above.

e. a and b only.

The following passage from a speech introduction is an example of .

After attending a seminar on currency security, I became fascinated by the technology developed by the Treasury Department to prevent the counterfeiting of paper money. I learned more about the subject by reading information from the Treasury Department, as well as by interviewing Donna Marshall, a security expert at Bank of America.

a. revealing the topic

b. previewing the body

c. stating the importance of the topic

* d. establishing the speaker’s credibility

e. relating to the audience

When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually

a. reveal the topic of the speech.

b. support the central idea with evidence.

c. preview the main points of the speech.

d. all of the above.

* e. a and c only.

Paul began his speech as follows:

They called Lou Gehrig the iron horse. This tireless worker played an astounding 2,130 consecutive baseball games even though he suffered 17 hand fractures during those years. This would be like one of us never missing a day of school for over 13 years. Can you imagine completing kindergarten through your senior year with perfect attendance? Never taking a sick day, never a college visit day, or even senior skip day. And, to match Gehrig, you would also have to end your school career with an A average.

What method for gaining attention and interest did Paul use?

a. revealing the general purpose

* b. relating the topic to the audience

c. previewing the body of the speech

d. stating the importance of the topic

e. summarizing the central idea

Which of the following would you be most likely to find in a speech introduction?

a. a visual aid

* b. a preview statement

c. an internal summary

d. a research citation

e. a quotation

Tobias began his informative speech by saying:

You hear a noise under the hood of your car, so you pull over to the side of the road. Your engine goes dead; you try to start the car, but it just sits there. Then you see a lot of black smoke. What’s happened? Why won’t your car go anywhere?

What method for gaining attention and interest did Tobias use?

a. establishing goodwill with the audience

* b. arousing the curiosity of the audience

c. stating the importance of the topic

d. presenting a startling statement

e. establishing his credibility as a speaker

Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech introduction?

a. a transition

b. an internal summary

c. a lengthy quotation

* d. a startling statement

e. a causal argument

When you need to make sure an audience has the information necessary to understand the body of your speech, your preview statement in the introduction might include a

* a. definition.

b. credibility statement.

c. statistical reference.

d. all of the above.

e. a and c only.

Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech introduction?

* a. a credibility statement

b. a transition

c. a causal argument

d. an internal summary

e. a call to action

Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech introduction?

a. a preview statement

* b. a call to action

c. a credibility statement

d. a provocative quotation

e. a startling statement

Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech introduction?

a. a preview statement

b. an announcement of the topic

c. a brief quotation

d. a credibility statement

* e. an internal summary

If you were giving an informative speech to your classmates on the subject of photokinesis, you would probably include a in your introduction.

a. quotation

b. startling statement

c. rhetorical question

d. story

* e. definition

According to your textbook, is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind.

* a. goodwill

b. receptiveness

c. identification

d. connectedness

e. egocentrism

In the introduction of his speech on the Special Olympics, Mason mentioned that he had attended the events last year to cheer on a family friend who was competing in some races. Sharing this information with the audience helped Mason achieve which goal of a speech introduction?

a. relating to the audience

b. generating emotional appeal

c. stating the importance of the topic

* d. establishing credibility

e. previewing the body

is the audience’s perception of whether the speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.

a. Identification

b. Goodwill

c. Connectivity

d. Egocentrism

* e. Credibility

Which objective of a good speech introduction is fulfilled by the following statement?

Today we will explore the three most important forms of intellectual property protection—copyrights, trademarks, and patents.

* a. preview the body

b. establish the speaker’s goodwill

c. state the importance of the topic

d. summarize the introduction

e. relate to the audience

According to your textbook, the following passage from a speech introduction is an example of a(n) .

Today I would like to share what I have learned about attention deficit disorder by first discussing its effects on people and then looking at the treatments that can be used to help people who suffer from this condition.

a. opening statement

b. attention statement

* c. preview statement

d. credibility statement

e. transition statement

According to your textbook, the following passage from a speech introduction is an example of a(n) .

In order for you to understand why the mariachi are significant to Hispanic culture, I will give you a brief overview of the history of the mariachi, their style of dress, and the ways they are used in entertainment today.

* a. preview statement

b. credibility statement

c. transition statement

d. attention statement

e. summary statement

As your textbook explains, when preparing a speech introduction, you should usually

a. practice the introduction no more than one or two times.

* b. make the introduction about 10 to 20 percent of the entire speech.

c. plan to begin speaking immediately so the audience will quiet down.

d. all of the above.

e. b and c only.

In the introduction of her speech on bike paths, Shannon mentioned her involvement with a local cycling club and her work on a grant requesting state funding for a local bike trail. By sharing this information with her audience, Shannon was seeking to accomplish which goal of a speech introduction?
a. gain attention

* b. establish credibility

c. preview the body of the speech

d. relate to the audience

e. reveal the topic

What does your textbook say about preparing effective speech introductions?
a. The best introduction is likely to be the one that comes to mind first.

b. A lengthy quotation can gain attention and help build credibility.

c. Determine the exact wording of the introduction before preparing the body.

d. Plan to deliver the introduction impromptu so it will be spontaneous.

* e. Make your introduction no more than 10 to 20 percent of the entire speech.

According to your textbook, the following passage from a speech introduction is an example of a(n) .
In my speech today, I will show you the serious health dangers posed by the flu, and I will urge each of you to get a flu shot every year without fail.
* a. preview statement

b. transition statement

c. credibility statement

d. attention statement

e. summary statement

When you advocate a highly unpopular position, it is particularly important to

in the introduction of your speech.

a. tell a story

b. define unclear terms

c. have a concise preview statement

d. state the importance of the topic

* e. establish goodwill toward the audience

When preparing an introduction for a speech to a hostile audience, you should be especially careful to
a. preview the body of the speech.

* b. establish credibility and goodwill.

c. state the importance of the topic.

d. use statistics in the introduction.

e. arouse the curiosity of the audience.

When used in a speech introduction, telling a story, asking a question, making a startling statement, and arousing curiosity are all methods of
a. previewing the body of the speech.

b. enhancing the speaker’s credibility.

c. establishing goodwill with the audience.

d. revealing the topic of the speech.

* e. gaining the attention of the audience.

According to your textbook, a speaker who attempts to establish goodwill in the introduction of a speech is aiming to convince the audience that she or he
a. will not talk for a long time.

* b. has the best interests of the audience in mind.

c. is willing to take questions at the end of the speech.

d. will avoid using illogical arguments.

e. is qualified to speak on the topic.

Creating goodwill is especially important in the introduction of a(n) speech.
a. commemorative

b. acceptance

* c. persuasive

d. after-dinner

e. informative

When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually
a. practice the introduction no more than two or three times.

b. make sure the introduction takes up 25 percent of the speech.

* c. complete the introduction after the body of the speech.

d. stick with the first introduction that comes to mind.

e. use humor to gain the audience’s attention and interest.

The best time to work out the exact wording of a speech introduction is
a. shortly after you determine the central idea.

b. before you work out the conclusion.

c. when you prepare your speaking outline.

* d. after you prepare the body of the speech.

e. as you rise to deliver an extemporaneous speech.

According to your textbook, the best time to work out the exact wording of a speech introduction is
a. while you are researching the speech.

b. as you rise to deliver a persuasive speech.

c. at the same time you formulate the specific purpose.

* d. after you prepare the body of the speech.

e. before you finish phrasing the central idea.

What does your textbook say about preparing an effective speech conclusion?
a. Make your conclusion about 5 to 10 percent of the entire speech.

b. Work especially hard on establishing your credibility in the conclusion.

c. Keep an eye out for concluding materials as you research the speech.

d. all of the above

* e. a and c only

What does your textbook say about preparing effective speech conclusions?
a. Be sure to reinforce your credibility before ending the speech.

b. The best conclusion is likely to be the one that comes to mind first.

c. Leave most of the conclusion to chance so it will sound natural.

* d. Make your conclusion about 5 to 10 percent of the entire speech.

e. Use an extended example in the conclusion for emotional appeal.

Which of the following does your textbook mention as a means of reinforcing the central idea in the conclusion of a speech?
* a. end with a quotation

b. end with a visual aid

c. end with thanking the audience

d. all of the above

e. a and c only

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to reinforce the central idea in a speech conclusion?
a. speed up your rate of delivery

* b. refer back to the introduction

c. ask for questions from the audience

d. all of the above

e. b and c only

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to reinforce the central idea in a speech conclusion?
a. end with a quotation

b. make a dramatic statement

c. refer to the introduction

* d. all of the above

e. a and b only

According to your textbook, in addition to reinforcing the central idea, a speech conclusion should also

a. secure the audience’s attention.

b. build your credibility as a speaker.

c. reveal the topic of the speech.

d. provide a clear preview statement.

* e. signal the end of the speech.

According to your textbook, which of the following statements about speech conclusions is true?

a. The conclusion should take up about 25 percent of a speech.

b. Ending a speech abruptly is an excellent way to reinforce the speaker’s central idea.
c. The last sentence of a speech should usually offer to answer questions from the audience.
* d. All four methods of reinforcing the central idea can be combined in a single conclusion.
e. It is usually best to let a conclusion grow out of the inspiration of the moment.

Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech conclusion?

a. dramatic statement

b. summary of the main points

* c. a statement to arouse curiosity

d. a reference to the introduction

e. a brief quotation

Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech conclusion?

a. a causal argument

b. an extended example

* c. a provocative quotation

d. a rhetorical question

e. an internal preview

Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech conclusion?

a. a preview statement

b. an announcement of the topic

c. a lengthy quotation

* d. a reference to the introduction

e. a statement of goodwill

Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech conclusion?

a. a preview statement

b. an announcement of the topic

c. a gesture of goodwill

d. a credibility statement

* e. a restatement of the central idea

Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech conclusion?

a. a personal story

* b. a reference to the introduction

c. an internal preview

d. a credibility statement

e. a visual aid

Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech conclusion?

* a. a credibility statement

b. a provocative quotation

c. a call to action

d. a reference to the introduction

e. a summary of the main points

The conclusion of Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech is an example of a
a. dissolve ending.

b. connective ending.

* c. crescendo ending.

d. cascade ending.

e. diminutive ending.

According to your textbook, when a speaker concludes a speech by fading out on an emotional note she or he is using a ending.

a. descending

b. crescendo

c. cascade

* d. dissolve

e. reflective

According to your textbook, a(n) ending is a conclusion that builds force until reaching a peak of power and intensity.
* a. crescendo

b. cascade

c. dissolve

d. reflective

e. ascending

The conclusion of a speech is an appropriate time to
a. add supporting materials you could not work into the body.

* b. reinforce your listeners’ commitment to the central idea.

c. apologize for any mistakes you made during the speech.

d. all of the above.

e. b and c only.

Referring back to your introduction in the conclusion of your speech is recommended as a way to
a. secure the audience’s attention.

b. reinforce your credibility as a speaker.

c. move the audience to action.

* d. give the speech psychological unity.

e. develop a dissolve ending.

Dale started his speech on financial planning with a story about his cousin Mike’s bankruptcy hearing. In the conclusion, Dale gave an update on Mike’s current financial condition. According to your textbook, referring to the introduction in the conclusion is a way to
a. secure the audience’s attention.

b. reinforce your credibility as a speaker.

c. move the audience to action.

* d. give the speech psychological unity.

e. develop a dissolve ending.

An appeal to action is most appropriate in the conclusion of a(n) speech.
a. informative

b. after-dinner

c. acceptance

d. commemorative

* e. persuasive

In her persuasive speech, Josina concluded with the following statement:
So the next time you see flyers around campus announcing a blood drive, decide that this will be your moment to get involved—to do something worthwhile, to take a step that may help save someone’s life.
What method of concluding her speech did Josina use?
a. extended example

b. internal summary

c. reference to the introduction

* d. appeal to action

e. causal reasoning

A(n) is most appropriate in the conclusion of a persuasive speech.
* a. appeal to action

b. lengthy quotation

c. internal summary

d. extended example

e. definition

According to your textbook, how well a speech is organized likely will influence

a. how clearly the audience understands the speech.
b. how the audience views the competence of the speaker.
c. how confident the speaker feels about his or her delivery.
* d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.

The is the longest and most important part of the speech.

* a. body
b. blueprint
c. introduction
d. conclusion
e. frame

According to your textbook, what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech?

a. It is hard to maintain parallel wording if there are too many main points.
b. It is hard to phrase the central idea if a speech has too many main points.
c. It is hard to organize supporting materials if there are too many main points.
d. It is hard to deliver a speech extemporaneously if it has too many main points.
* e. It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points.

The most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and

* a. audience.
b. research.
c. visual aids.
d. credibility.
e. delivery.

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the accomplishments of Leonardo da Vinci.

I. As a painter, da Vinci produced the Mona Lisa and other masterpieces.
II. As an inventor, da Vinci drew plans for a parachute and a flying machine.
III. As an astronomer, da Vinci concluded that the earth revolves around the sun.

These main points are arranged in order.

* a. topical
b. objective
c. descriptive
d. career
e. spatial

Here are the main points for a speech persuading the audience to become literacy tutors.

I. You should volunteer as a literacy tutor because it helps children.
II. You should volunteer as a literacy tutor because it strengthens the community.
III. You should volunteer as a literacy tutor because it is personally rewarding.

These main points are arranged in order.

* a. topical
b. argumentative
c. problem-solution
d. psychological
e. analytical

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the book To Kill a Mockingbird.

I. To Kill a Mockingbird was the first, and only, novel written by Harper Lee.
II. To Kill a Mockingbird won a Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a modern classic.
III. To Kill a Mockingbird has been banned by some public schools because of its themes.

According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in order.

a. literary
b. procedural
c. ascending
d. analytical
* e. topical

Here are the main points for a speech explaining the reasons for the current shortage of teachers.

I. Teachers are leaving the profession because of low pay.
II. Teachers are leaving the profession because of excessive bureaucracy.
III. Teachers are leaving the profession because of inadequate facilities.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. ascending
b. consecutive
c. chronological
d. descending
* e. topical

Here are the main points for a speech about the methods used by Feng Shui consultants.

I. Feng Shui consultants use light cures to redirect energy.
II. Feng Shui consultants use sound cures to generate new energy.
III. Feng Shui consultants use weight cures to bring feelings of stability.
IV. Feng Shui consultants use living cures to nourish life and growth.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. formal
b. professional
c. problem-solution
* d. topical
e. causal

Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?

I. As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house movement in Chicago.
II. As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child-labor laws, unemploy-ment compensation, and better public sanitation.
III. As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote.
IV. As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.

* a. topical
b. spatial
c. chronological
d. descriptive
e. formal

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the major categories of dog breeds:

I. The working dogs do rescue, police, herding, and guide jobs.
II. The hound dogs are hunters that specialize in small animals.
III. The terrier dogs make good watchdogs.
IV. The toy dogs are primarily house pets.

These points are organized in order.

a. spatial
b. descriptive
c. chronological
d. illustrative
* e. topical

Which organizational pattern is reflected in a speech with the following the main points?

I. Soda lime glass is used in almost all ordinary glass products.
II. Lead crystal glass is used mostly for luxury glass products.
III. Heat resistant glass is used for cooking and scientific products.

a. causal
b. informative
c. chronological
* d. topical
e. descriptive

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the history of chocolate:

I. Chocolate was originally used in Mexico as a drink by the Aztecs.
II. Chocolate was introduced to Europe after the Spanish conquered the Aztecs.
III. Chocolate was first made into candy during the 1800s.
IV. Chocolate’s popularity and uses continue to expand today.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. causal
b. analytical
c. descriptive
* d. chronological
e. spatial

Here are the main points for a speech about the major steps involved in a successful job interview:

I. The first step is preparing for the interview before it takes place.
II. The second step is presenting yourself well during the interview itself.
III. The third step is following up after the interview.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. topical
b. spatial
* c. chronological
d. informative
e. causal

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the history of chocolate:

I. Chocolate was originally used in Mexico as a drink by the Aztecs.
II. Chocolate was introduced to Europe after the Spanish conquered the Aztecs.
III. Chocolate was first made into candy during the 1800s.
IV. Chocolate’s popularity and uses continue to expand today.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. causal
b. analytical
c. descriptive
* d. chronological
e. spatial

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the process of drying and storing garden herbs.

I. The first step is to prepare the herbs for drying by rinsing and gathering stems together.
II. The second step is to hang the herb bunches upside down in a dry place.
III. The third step is to strip the dried leaves and store the herbs properly.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. topical
* b. chronological
c. descriptive
d. practical
e. spatial

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the civil rights movement.

I. The 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education marked the beginning of the modern civil rights movement.
II. In 1963 peaceful protests and violent police responses in Birmingham, Alabama, dramatically increased support for the civil rights movement.
III. In 1965 the Voting Rights Act was passed, marking the major legislative achievement of the civil rights movement.

These main points are arranged in order.

a. spatial
b. historical
c. descriptive
* d. chronological
e. topical

Jackson had been a rodeo fan since childhood. In his informative speech, he gave a presentation with the following main points. Jackson’s points were arranged in
order.

I. Rodeos began in the Old West as contests of skill among cowboys during cattle roundups.
II. By 1920 rodeos had become a popular spectator sport for the general public.
III. Today rodeos combine traditional western events with a circuslike atmosphere and the marketing techniques of big business.

a. topical
b. formal
* c. chronological
d. analytical
e. spatial

Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points?

I. Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers.
II. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every 10 years will do much to help solve the problem.

a. legal
b. topical
c. chronological
* d. problem-solution
e. analytical

Connectives- are words or phrases that join one thought to another and indicate the relationship between them.

Transitions- state both the idea the speaker is leaving and the one she or he is coming to.

A(n) -Internal preview- works just like the preview statement in the introduction, except that it comes in the body of the speech.

“The final point I’d like to present . . . ” is an example of a(n) -signpost-

A speech whose specific purpose is to show a cause-effect relationship is usually organized in -causal- order