Combo with "gly 1102 topic 37" and 18 others

The Barringer Meteor Crater is a young (50,000 years old) crater located inside this state.
Arizona
The greatest extinction (in percent of species extinct) in history occurred at the end of this period.
Permian
(blank) are “dusty iceballs” of rock, frozen water and organic compounds.
Comets
Once the flash heating of the atmosphere by the terminal Cretaceous impact cooled, atmospheric temperatures would have risen because of the vast amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere blocking solar radiation from reaching the surface.
false
The vast majority of asteroids in our solar system are found in the Asteroid Belt between Jupiter and Pluto.
false
The shortcoming of the volcano hypothesis is that it fails to demonstrate that the volume and type of volcanism could have accounted for the impact evidence and there can be little argument that a giant asteroid collided with Earth at precisely the time of the global extinctions.
true
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A rough estimate of the average duration of species prior to extinction is
about 2 million years.
The comet head consists of a solid nucleus surrounded by a (blank) up to 1.5 million miles in diameter.
nebulous coma
(Blank) is a rare platinum group metal.
Iridium
The Kuiper Cloud is a large, spherical cloud of comets surrounding the solar system.
false
The extinction of a species occurs when the last representative of a species is no longer capable of reproducing and dies, leaving only the fossil legacy of its time on earth.
true
Microtektites are small, droplet-shaped silica glass cooled from molten material expelled from an impact crater.
true
The fossil record reveals that the rate of extinction over geologic history was not a uniform rate.
true
The Deccan traps of India and Pakistan, southern Brazil, and the western U. S. all show evidence of extensive volcanism at the time of the C/T boundary.
true
The most famous of all extinctions occurred at the end of the (blank) and marks the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.
Cretaceous
In 1981, the geophysicist G. Penfield found a bowl-shaped depression near the Yucatan Peninsula town of Chicxulub that he thought might be the C/T boundary impact crater.
true
Unlike the moon, Earth has very active weathering processes that over time remove the evidence of impacts, or at least make old one s very hard to recognize.
true
All dinosaurs became extinct at the Creatceous/Tertiary boundary.
true
All pterosaurs’ skulls have huge eye sockets.
true
The 400-500 teeth in each jaw of Pterodaustro may have been used as a sieve for filtering out plankton scooped up into its mouth.
true
Most endotherms bear live young.
true
Ramphorhyncoids went extinct prior to the great extinction of dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous.
true
In most pterosaurs, the scapula and coracoid are fused to form a
scapulocoracoid
Pterosaurs have a global distribution.
true
The pterosaurs diversified into several lineages during the Lower Triassic.
false
Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to develop flapping flight.
true
All pterosaurs lacked teeth.
false
The (blank) was a pterosaur membrane that extended from the fifth toe to the tail along the posterior edge of the leg.
uropagatia
Only endothermic animals have developed the ability to fly.
true
Which vertebrates were the first to be capable of powered flight?
pterosaurs
The shape of the deltopectoral crest is used to differentiate pterosaur clades.
true
The earliest pterosaurs are from the (blank) of Italy.
Upper Triassic
Some Rhamphorhynchus specimens have a membranous tail vane.
true
Which statement about pteranodons is false?
They were all filter feeders. (True: They are toothless. They are the largest pterosaurs. They exhibit sexual dimorphism. They have global distribution.)
A decrease in abundance and diversity of pterosaurs during the Cretaceous, most probably was caused by
diversification of marine birds.
There is no evidence that pterosaurs had body hair.
false
Pterosaurs have a small head, relative to body size.
false
There is no evidence of sexual dimorphism in pterosaurs.
false
Pteranodons are among those pterosaurs exhibiting a number of anatomical differences between the sexes.
true
The (blank) is a small membrane spanning the area between the shoulder and the wrist of pterosaurs.
propatagium
The main wing membrane of pterosaurs is the
patagium.
The pterosaur images in your text reveal that this South American country has a rich fossil record of these winged creatures.
Brazil
The pterosaur humerus has a large (blank), an anterior projection for the anchoring of flight muscles.
deltopectoral crest
Ichthyosaurs preceded dinosaurs by some 20-30 million years.
true
All plesiosaurs had (blank), or belly ribs, that interlocked and supported the belly.
gastralia
The first ichthyosaurs appeared during the Mid Triassic
false
The sclerotic ring is a doughnut-shaped bone surrounding the
eye.
Based upon the size of ichthyosaurs, it is estimated as capable of diving to a depth of 600 m and coming back to the surface in 20 minutes.
true
Fossil evidence reveals that some mesosaurs were cannibalistic.
true
Swimming propulsion of plesiosaurus was provided by the
giant paddles.
Elasmosaurs had large skulls and short necks.
false
Like turtles, ichthyosaurs were egg-layers.
false
Plesiosaurs evolved during the Late Triassic and became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous (same as dinosaurs).
true
Ichthyosaurs have short arms with strong limb girdles used for swimming.
false
Some have likened this marine reptile to being a sauropod of the deep because of its long neck.
elasmosaurus
The diet of mosasaurs also included a great deal of squid-like cephalopods, particularly of the now-extinct ammonites and belemnites.
true
As with other plesiosaurs, the Pliosaurs also had large eyes, slightly forward, giving them overlapping fields of vision and the depth perception that comes with it.
true
Ichthyosaurs were extinct when Mosasaurs evolved.
true
Skulls of some mosasaurs were found with a (blank), a scent sniffer used by snakes and lizards.
Jacobson’s organ
The ancestry of ichthyosaurs is uncertain but they most likely are related to the (blank), a group including dinosaurs, birds, pterosaurs, lizards, snakes, etc.
diapsids
The geologic range of mosasaurs is restricted to what period?
Cretaceous
Pachycephalosaurus
is the dinosaur with the thickest skull.
Argentinosaurus
is believed to be the heaviest dinosaur.
Troodon
was probably the most intelligent dinosaur based on brain size relayive to body size.
Micropachycephalosaurus
was probably the shortest adult dinosaur, measuring 20 inches (50.8 cm).
Carcharodontosaurus is larger than T-rex.
true
T-rex
was the last of the great meat-eaters.
The most expensive dinosaur ever purchased is the T-rex called “Sue.”
true
Supersaurus
is believed to be the longest dinosaur.
Torosaurus
has the biggest and longest skull of any dinosaur.
Gigantosaurus
lived about 95 million years ago and appears to edge out other theropods for the title of largest meat-eater.
Stegosaurus
is the dinosaur with the smallest head relative to body size.
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry was first discovered by Princeton graduate student William Lloyd.
false
Osborn thought the Bone Cabin Quarry accumulated
in an old river bar
Bone Cabin Quarry is near (10 miles) this famous dinosaur locality.
Como Bluffs
Who discovered dinosaur fossils near Jensen, Utah and developed it into Dinosaur National Monument?
Earl Douglass
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry contains the densest concentration of dinosaur bones from the Jurassic ever discovered.
true
Roughly 3/4 of all dinosaur bones discovered at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry were those of plant-eating dinosaurs.
false
The exact boundaries of the bone beds at Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry are still unknown.
true
Dinosaur National Monument is the largest and most spectacular display in the world of dinosaur bones still embedded in the rocks that surround them.
true
A Mexican sheepherder built a cabin of dinosaur bones at the site of Bone Cabin Quarry.
true
Dinosaur National Monument was a dinosaur quarry for the Carnegie Museum prior to becoming a National Monument.
true
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry National Landmark is located in Cleveland, Ohio.
false
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry National Landmark is still an active quarry.
true
Not teeth marks were ever found among dinosaur bones in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry.
false
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry suffered a devastating loss in the 1960’s, when uranium exploration destroyed an estimated 100,000 dinosaur bones.
false
In the spring of 1898 Henry Fairfield Osborn discovered Bone Cabin Quarry.
true
In reading “Fossil Wonders of the West,” Osborn mentions a theory of dinosaur extinction based upon egg pouching by mammals.
true
In 2001, the University of Utah graduate student Terri “Bucky” Gates hypothesized that the great number of dinosaur bones found in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry is best explained by the presence of quicksand deposited by the runoff from a freshwater lake deposit.
false
Large ectothermic dinosaurs would have more trouble maintaining a constant body temperature than smaller ones because of their large body volume.
false
Dr. Bakker finds the predator/herbivore dinosaur ratios similar to Cenozoic mammal (endothermic) populations and interprested this as strong evidence for endothermy.
true
Endothermic predator-prey ratios should be lower than for ectotherms.
true
Today feathers are found only on endothermic birds.
true
Most ectotherms have sprawling postures.
true
Endotherms require more food per body weight than is the case for ectotherms.
true
Mammals have a fully divided 4 chamber heart and numerous fossilzed dinosaurs have only 2 chambers.
false
Endotherms require great motor and sensory control which is associated with larger and more complex brains.
true
Most endotherms are egg-layers.
false
Most endotherms have an erect gait.
true
Many dinosaurs have lamellar-zonal bone (growth rings), a common characteristic of living ectotherms with seasonal pauses in their growth.
true
Growth rings occur in all living endotherms because of a seasonal pause in bone growth as food supplies are limited or climate unfavorable.
false
Endotherms must eat more food per body volume than ectotherms because of their higher level of activity.
true
The rate of metabolic reactions depends on the internal body temperature.
true
The density of blood vessels in bone is higher in all ectotherms than endotherms.
false
Ectothermic animals maintain a body temperature at 36-40 degrees Celsius.
false
Endotherms require high blood pressure and rapid blood circulation to allow oxygen and energy to circulate quickly through the body.
true
The optimum temperature of mammals is usually lower than those in the environment around them.
false
Ectothermic animals develop their heat from the external environment rather than metabolic sources.
true
Dinosaurs have complex scrolls of thin bone within the nasal cavity (turbinates) once covered with mucous membranes.
false
Ceratopsians were very social animals, some travelling in large groups or herds of 1000 or more individuals.
true
Ceratopsians do not display sexual dimorphism.
false
Pentaceratops have 5 significant horns–2 horns are forward-pointing over the orbits, another a nasal horn, and 2 protruding cheekbone horns.
true
Pachyrhinosaurus is a memorable ceratopism of about 6 m in the length, with a short beak, and a low face with masses of very roughened bone that extend the length of the snout from the nose to eyes.
true
Chasmosaurus has two very large openings (parietal fenestra) in the frill.
true
Whereas Psittacosaurus has only a small rudimentary frill, the Protoceratopsidae display a much larger bony frill that extended back over the neck.
true
Ceratopsians became very abundant in the Late Cretaceous, especially in North America.
true
The Neoceratopsia is comprised of 2 families, the smaller Protceratopsidae and the Ceratopisdae.
true
Protoceratops bears the distinction of being one of the first dinosaurs for which specimens were found of a range of ages, probably of each sex.
true
The Ceratopsia (“horned faces”) includes a relatively large group of some 20 genera, mostly from the Upper Cretaceous of North America.
true
Ceratopsians are ornithiscian dinosaurs and are closely related to ornithopods, both being plant-eating ornithiscians.
true
Triceratops was the smallest of the ceratopsians.
false
As is the case with Psittacosauridae, the Protoceratopsidae have no nasal or post-orbital horns, just a thickened bump in front of the orbit.
true
Centrosaurus have 6 long, bony spikes sticking out fanwise from the back of its frill.
false
Protoceratops has no horns (nasal or post-orbital) and the nostrils are much larger than the Ceratopsidae.
false
Psittacosaurus is the basal member of the ceratopsian clade and the only member of the Psittacosauridae.
true
All ceratopsians had horns on their skull.
false
The Ceratopsidae are all large, habitually bipedal, with very large skulls, large nostrils, very prominent frills, and a variety of horns.
false
The margins of some ceratopsian frills had extra bones called
epoccipitals
Centrosaurus has 2 large frill openings (parietal fenestra) with a parietal strut dividing them.
true
The Neoceatopsia were obligate bipedals.
false
Psittacosaurus is the basal member of the ceratopsian clade and the only member of the Psittacosauridae.
true
All ceratopsians had a relatively large frill.
false
While the Protoceratopsidae were bipedal, the Psittacosaurus were clearly an obligate quadrupedal.
false
The frill is a shelf of bone projecting from the back of the skull.
true
3 dimensional vision occurs because each eye sees an object at a slightly different angle, therefore, projecting a slightly different image on the retina.
true
Animals with a wide range of depth perception are more often ambush predators, lying in wait until their prey comes close and within range of depth perception.
false
An infection on the toe of “Big Al” the Allosaurus contributed to his death.
true
Although some fossilized dinosaur organs have been recovered, none of these is a heart.
false
In rare cases, internal organs may be represented as fossil molds or casts, even more rarely they are mineralized.
true
Active predators tend to have a narrower range of depth perception than scavengers or ambush predators.
false
The blood pressure required to pump blood from the heart to the head is a function of the distance and elevation from the head to the heart.
true
All animals have different monocular and binocular ranges of vision.
true
Allosaurus and Carcharadontosaurus had binocular fields of vision half as wide and more similar to modern alligators. These dinosaurs may have been ambush predators.
true
Binocular vision occurs where the two monocular fields of view overlap and it is within the binocular range that an animal experiences depth perception.
true
Dinosaurs developed tumors, had arthritis, and suffered from diffused idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
true
The crest of lambeosaurines are hollow with a complex series of tubes inside, connecting to the nose and throats.
true
Bacterial infection from bites and scratches may have been lethal to dinosaurs.
true
A mature Brachiosaurus may have held its head 43 ft (13 m) above the ground, more than twice the height of a giraffe.
true
Among the important measurements taken at trackways is the depth of the impression.
False
The initial step in measuring dinosaur tracks and trackways is to measure the size and shape of individual fore (manus) and hind (pes) footprints and the angles and distances between them.
True
The Linnaean system of nomenclature provides a uniform language of communication for scientists to refer to the same object or species.
True
The largest front prints of sauropods are more than a meter long an deeper than a bathtub.
True
Dinosaur tracks are best preserved in sediment that was moist but not too moist.
True
Dinosaurs did not drag their tail or belly, indicating that they walked upright with their limbs directly (or nearly so) under their body.
True
More than one consecutive dinosaur track is a
trackway.
Places covered with dinosaur tracks, such as watering holes or migratory paths.
dinosaur stomping grounds
The heel of tridactyl theropod tracks is more rounded than the heel of tridactyl hadrosaurs’ tracks.
False
The term “pentadactyl” refers to a foot or hand with how many digits?
5
Quadruped tracks generally reveal differences in the size and shape of rear and front prints.
true
Dinosaur tracks and trackways demonstrate that dinosaurs were diagonal walkers, meaning that there is an angle between the midline of travel and successive right and left footprints.
true
Tracks of stegosaurs are extremely rare which suggests that stegosaurs were probably upland or dryland animals, rarely near wetland areas where tracks are preserved.
true
Quadruped tracks are the most common, suggesting that most dinosaurs walked on four legs.
false
The term (blank) refers to those tracks with 4 digits
tetradactyl
The stride refers to the distance between successive steps, for example, the distance between the steps of your right foot and your next step of the left foot.
false
Theropod tracks generally have relatively long and narrow digit impressions, each digit ending with sharp, slender claw marks.
true
The rem gastrolith refers to fossilized fecal matter.
false
Dinosaur tracks have been found on all continents, except
Antarctica
The shortcoming of the volcanic hypothesis is that it fails to demonstrate the volume and type of volcanism could have accounted for the impact evidence and there can be little argument that a giant asteroid collided with Earth at precisely the time of the global extinctions.
True
The extinction of a species occurs when the last representative of the species is no longer capable of reproducing and dies, leaving only the fossil legacy of its time on Earth.
True
The fossil record reveals that the rate of extinction over a geologic history was not a uniform rate.
True
The Kuiper Cloud is a large, spherical cloud of comets surround the solar system.
False
Once the flash heating of the atmosphere by the terminal Cretaceous impact cooled, atmospheric temperatures would have risen because of the vast amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere blocking solar radiation from reaching the surface.
False
The fossil record reveals that extinctions typically involve all forms of life (invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, etc) at similar rates.
False
The Barringer Meteor Crater is a young (50,000 years old) crater located in this state.
Arizona
The greatest extinction (in percent of species extinct) in history occurred at the end of this period.
Permian
A rough estimate of the average duration of species prior to extinction is ______.
About 2 million years
The fossil record reveals that most species extinctions were caused by changes in the natural environment.
True
The comet head consists of a solid nucleus surround by a _____ up to 1.5 million miles in diameter.
Nebulous coma
______ are “dusty iceballs” of rock, frozen water, and organic compounds.
Comets
All dinosaurs became extinct at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary.
True
Unlike the moon, Earth has a very active weathering process that over time remove the evidence of impacts, or at least make old ones very hard to recognize.
True
The most famous of all extinctions occurred at the end of the ____ and marks the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
Cretaceous
____ is a rare platinum group metal.
Iridium
The Deccan traps of India and Pakistan, southern Brazil, and the western US all show evidence of extensive volcanism at the time of the C/T boundary.
True
Microtekites are small, droplet-shaped silica glass cooled form molten material expelled form an impact crater.
True
The vast majority of asteroids in our solar system are found in the Asteroid Belt between Jupiter and Pluto.
False
In 1981, the geophysicist G. Penfield, found a bow-shaped depression near the Yucatan Peninsula town of Chicxulub tat he thought might be the C/T boundary impact crater.
True
Pterosaurs have a small head, relative to their body size.
False
The pterosaur humerus has a large ____, an anterior projection for the anchoring of flight muscles.
Deltopectoral crest
The shape of the deltopectoral crest is used to differentiate pterosaur clades.
True
Ramphorhyncoids went extinct prior to the great extinction of dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous.
True
The ____ was a pterosaur membrane that extended from the fifth toe to the tail along the posterior edge of the leg.
Uropatagia
The main wing membrane of pterosaurs is the _____.
Patagium
Which vertebrate animals were the first to be capable of powered flight?
Pterosaurs
Pterosaurs have a global distribution.
True
Only endothermic animals have developed the ability to fly.
True
There is no evidence that pterosaurs had body hair.
False
Most endotherms bear live young.
True
The earliest pterosaurs are from the _____ of Italy.
Upper Triassic
All pterosaurs lacked teeth.
False
There is no evidence of sexual dimorphism in pterosaurs.
False
The 400-500 teeth in each jaw of Pterodaustro may have been used as a sieve for filtering out plankton scooped up into its mouth.
True
In most pterosaurs, the scapula and coracoid are fused to form a ____.
Scapulocoracoid
A decrease in the abundance and diversity of pterosaurs during the Cretaceous, most probably was caused by _____.
Diversification of marine birds
Pteranodons are among those pterosaurs exhibiting a number of anatomical differences between the sexes.
True
Some Rhamphorhynchus specimens have a membranous tail vane.
True
Most endotherms bear live young.
True
Which statement about pteranodons is false?
They were all filter feeders
The pterosaur images in your text reveal that this South American country has a rich fossil record of these winged creatures.
Brazil
Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to develop flapping flight.
True
All pterosaurs skulls have huge eye sockets.
True
The ______ is a small membrane spanning the area between the shoulder and the wrist of pterosaurs.
Propatagium
The pterosaurs diversified into several lineages during the Lower Triassic
False
There is no evidence of sexual dimorphism in pterosaurs.
False
Ichthyosaurs were extinct when Mosasaurs evolved.
True
Ichthyosarus preceded dinosaurs by some 20-30 million years.
True
As with other plesiosaurs, the Pliosaurs also had large eyes, slightly forward, giving them overlapping fields of vision and the depth perception that comes with it.
True
Based upon the size of ichthyosaurs, it is estimated as capable of diving to a depth of 600 meters and coming back to the surface in 20 minutes.
True
The geologic range of mosasaurs is restricted to what period?
Cretaceous
Like turtles, ichthyosaurs were egg-layers.
False
The sclerotic ring is a doughnut-shaped bone surrounding the ____.
Eye
Ichthyosaurs have short arms with strong limb girdles used for swimming.
False
Some have likened this marine reptile to being a sauropod of the deep because of its long neck.
Elasmosaurus
Plesiosaurs evolved during the Late Triassic and became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous (same time as dinosaurs).
True
Propulsion of mosasaurs through the water was accomplished by ____.
Undulation of the eel-like tail
Skulls of some mosasaurs were found with a ____, a scent sniffer used by snakes and lizards.
Jacobson’s organ
The ancestry of ichthyosaurs is uncertain but they most likely are related to the ____, a group including dinosaurs, birds, pterosaurs, lizards, snakes, etc.
Diapsids
Fossil evidence reveals that some mosasaurs were cannibalistic.
True
Elasmosaurs had large skulls and short necks
False
Swimming propulsion of plesiosaurs was provided by the ____.
Giant paddles
The diet of mosasaurs also inclined a great deal of squid-like cephalopods, particularly of the now extinct ammonites and belemnites.
True
The first ichthyosaurs appeared during the Middle Triassic.
False
Ichthyosaur fossils have been found on most continents.
True
All plesiosaurs had ___, or belly ribs, that interlocked and supported the belly.
Gastralia
______ was probably the shortest adult dinosaur, measuring 20 inches (50.8cm)
Micropachycephalosaurus
_____ was the last of the great meat-eaters.
Tyrannosaurus rex
____ lived abuot 95 million years ago and appears to edge out other theropods for the title of the largest meat-eater.
Gigantosaurus
_____ was probably the most intelligent dinosaur based on brain size relative to body size.
Troodon
_____ is believed to be the heaviest dinosaur.
Argentinosaurus
Carcharodontosaurus is larger than tyrannosaurus rex.
True
_____ has the biggest and longest skull of any dinosaur.
Torosaurus
______ is believed to be the longest dinosaur.
Supersaurus
______ is the dinosaur with the smallest head relative to its body size.
Stegosaurus
_____ is the dinosaur with the thickest skull.
Pachycephalosaurus
The most expensive dinosaur ever purchased is the Tyrannosaurus rex called “Sue”.
True
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry was first discovered by Princeton graduate student William Lloyd.
False
Who discovered dinosaur fossils near Jensen, Utah and developed it into Dinosaur National Monument?
Earl Douglass
No teeth marks were ever found among dinosaur bones in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry.
False
A Mexican sheepherder built a cabin of dinosaur bones at the site of Bone Cabin Quarry.
True
Roughly three-quarters of all dinosaur bones discovered at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry were those of plant-eating dinosaurs.
False
Bone Cabin Quarry is near (10 miles) this famous dinosaur locality.
Como Bluffs
Dinosaur National Monument was a dinosaur quarry for the Carnegie Museum prior to becoming a National Monument.
True
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry suffered a devastating loss in the 1960’s, when uranium exploration destroyed an estimated 100,000 dinosaur bones.
False
In 2001, University of Utah graduate student Terri “Bucky” Gates hypothesized that the great number of dinosaur bones found in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry is best explained by the presence of quicksand deposited by the runoff from a freshwater lake deposit.
False
In the reading “Fossil Wonders of the West”, Osborn mentions a theory of dinosaur extinction based upon egg pouching by mammals.
True
The exact boundaries of the bone beds at Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry are still unknown.
True
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry contains the densest concentration of dinosaur bones from the Jurassic ever discovered.
True
The Clevelend-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry National Landmark is located in Cleveland, Ohio.
False
In the spring of 1898 Henry Fairfield Osborn discovered Bone Cabin Quarry.
True
The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry National Landmark is still an active quarry.
True
Dinosaur National Monument is the largest and most spectacular display in the world of dinosaur bones still imbedded int eh rocks that surround them.
True
Osborn thought the Bone Cabin Quarry fossils accumulated ____.
In an old river bar
Most ectotherms have sprawling postures
True
Ectothermic animals maintain a body temperature at 36-40 degrees C.
False
Endotherms require great motor and sensory control which is associated with larger and more complex brains.
True
The density of blood vessels in bone is higher in all ectotherms than in endotherms.
False
Mammals have a fully divided four-chambered heart and numerous fossil dinosaur hearts have only two chambers
False
Today feathers are only found on endothermic birds.
True
Dinosaurs have complex scrolls of thin bone within the nasal cavity (turbinates) once covered with mucous membranes.
False
Most endotherms are egg-layers.
False
The optimum temperature of mammals is usually lower than those in the environment around them.
False
Endotherms require more food per body weight than is the case for ectotherms.
True
One dinosaur researcher, Dr. Bakker, finds the predator/herbivore dinosaur ratios similar to Cenozoic mammal (endothermic) populations and interpreted this as strong evidence for endothermy.
True
Endothermic predator- prey ratios should be lower than for ectotherms.
True
Most endotherms have an erect gait.
True
Endotherms require high blood pressure and rapid blood circulation to allow against oxygen and energy to circulate quickly through the body.
True
Ectothermic animals develop their heat from the external environment rather than metabolic sources.
True
Endotherms must eat more food per body volume than ectotherms because of their higher level of activity.
True
Growth rings occur in all living endotherms because of a seasonal pause in bone growth as food supplies are limited or climate unfavorable.
False
Many dinosaurs have lamellar-zonal bone (growth rings), a common characteristic of living ectotherms with seasonal pauses in their growth.
True
Large ectothermic dinosaurs would have more trouble maintaining a constant body temperature than smaller ones because of their large body volume.
False
The rate of metabolic reactions depends on the internal body temperature.
True
The thickened skull of ____ has led to speculation that males clashed heads with one another in competition for females during breeding season.
Pachycephalosaurus
Most Pachycephalosaurs lived during the Late Cretaceous in ____
North America and Asia
The Homalocephalidae were the largest pachycephalosaurs
False
Pachycephalosaurs were all bipedal
True
Which of the following pachycephalosaur characteristics is false?
Quadrapedal
Pachycephalosaurs first evolved during the _____.
Early Cretaceous
The name “Pachycephalosauria” means ____.
Thick-headed
All known pachycephalsaurs are from the Northern Hemisphere.
True
Pachycephalosauridae have a flat skull roof.
False
Running, Stegoceras would have had its back almost perpendicular with the ground requiring the tail to act as a counterbalance.
False
The Homalocephalidae family is more diverse than the Pachycephalosauridae.
False
The Pachycephalosauria are divided into two families based upon their ____.
Skull roof characteristics
The Homalocephalidae were the largest pachycephalosaurs.
False
Pachycephalosaurs were all herbivores.
True
Unlike Stegoceras, Pachycephalosaurus has very prominent bony spikes projecting from the snout.
True
Homalocephale from Mongolia had a relatively flat skull roof.
True
Psittacosaurus is the basal member of the ceratopsian clade and the only member of the Psittacosauridae.
True
Protoceratops bears the distinction of being one of the first dinosaurs for which specimens were found of a range ages, probably of each sex.
True
Ceratopsians do not display sexual dimorphism.
False
Triceratops was the smallest of all ceratopsians.
False
Pentaceratops has five significant horns—two horns are forward pointing over the orbits, another a nasal horn, and two protruding cheekbone horns.
True
Centrosaurus has two large frill openings (pariental fenestra) with a parietal strut dividing them.
True
The Ceratopsidae are all large, habitually bipedal, with very large skulls, large nostrils, very prominent frills, and a variety of horns.
False
As is the case with the Psittacosauridae, the Protoceratopsidae have no nasal or post-orbital horns, just a thickened bump in front of the orbit.
True
Ceratopsians were very social animals, some traveling in large groups or herds of 1000 or more individuals.
True
The Neoceatopsia were obligate bipedals.
False
Ceratopsians became very abundant in the Late Cretaceous, especially in North America.
True
All ceratopsians had horns on their skull.
False
Ceratopsians are ornithischian dinosaurs and are closely related to ornithopods, both being plant-eating ornithischians.
True
Protoceratops has no horns (nasal or post-orbital) and the nostrils are much larger than the Ceratopsidae.
False
The frill is a shelf of bone projecting from the back of the skull.
True
The Neoceratopsia is comprised of two families, the smaller Protoceratopsidae and the Ceratopsidae.
True
A bony shelf on the back of the skull unites this group called the ______.
Marginocephalia
The margins of some ceratopsian frills had extra bones called ______.
Epoccipitals
The Ceratopsia (“horned faces”) includes a relatively large group of some 20 genera, mostly from upper cretaceous of North America.
True
Pachyrhinosaurus is a memorable ceratopsian of about 6m in length, with a short beak, and a low face with masses of very roughened bone that extend the length of the snout from the nose to eyes.
True
Whereas Psittacosaurus has only a small rudimentary frill, the Protoceratopsidae display a much larger bony frill that extended back over the neck.
True
All ceratopsians had a relatively large frill.
False
Chasmosaurus has two very large openings (parietal fenestra) in the frill.
True
While the Protoceratopsidae were bipedal, the Psittacosaurus were clearly an obligate quadrupedal.
False
Centrosaurus has six long, bony spikes sticking out fanwise from the back of its frill.
False
Although some fossilized dinosaur organs have been recovered, none of these is of a heart.
False
Bacterial infection from bites and scratches may have been lethal to dinosaurs.
True
Three-dimensional vision occurs because each eye sees an object at a slightly different angle, therefore, projecting a slightly different image on the retina.
True
In rare cases, internal organs may be represented as fossil molds or casts, even more rarely they are mineralized.
True
Allosaurus and Carcharadontosaurus had binocular fields of vision half as wide and more similar to modern alligators. These dinosaurs may have ben ambush predators.
True
Dinosaurs developed tumors, had arthritis, and suffered from diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
True
The blood pressure required to pump blood from the heart to the head is a function of the distance and elevation of the head form the heart.
True
A hatchling of this dinosaur was found in Italy with fossilized traces of muscles, large intestines, windpipe, and a liver spot.
Scipionyx
Binocular vision occurs where the two monocular fields of view overlap and it is within the binocular range that an animal experiences depth perception.
True
Active predators tend to have a narrower range of depth perception than scavengers or ambush predators.
False
All animals have different monocular and binocular ranges of vision.
True
Active predators tend to have a narrower range of depth perception than scavengers or ambush predators.
False
Animals with a wide range of depth perception are more often ambush predators, lying in wait until their prey comes close and within their range of depth perception.
False
A mature Brachiosaurus may have held its head 43 feet (13m) above the ground, more than twice the height of a giraffe.
True
An infection of the toe on the right food of “Big Al” the Allosaurus contributed to his death.
True
The crest of a lambeosaurines is hollow with a complex series of tubes inside, connecting to the nose and throats.
True
The Linnaean system of nomenclature provides a uniform language of communication for scientists to refer to the same object or species.
True
Dinosaur tracks and trackways demonstrate that dinosaurs were diagonal walkers, meaning there is an angle between the mid-line of travel and successive right and left footprints.
True
The term gastrolith refers to fossilized fecal material.
False
The initial step in measuring dinosaurs tracks and trackways is to measure the size and shape of individual fore (manus) and hind (pes) footprints and the angles and distances between them.
True
Quadruped tracks generally reveal differences in the size and shape of rear and front prints.
True
The term ____ refers to those tracks with four digits.
Tetradactyl
The largest of the front prints of sauropods are more than a meter long and deep as a bathtub.
True
Among the important measurements taken at trackways is the depth of the impression.
False
Tracks of stegosaurs are extremely rare which suggests that stegosaurs were probably upland or dryland animals, rarely near wetland areas where tracks are preserved.
True
Dinosaur tracks are best preserved in sediment that was moist but not too moist.
True
Dinosaur tracks have been found on all continents, except ______.
Antarctica
Quadruped tracks are the most common type of dinosaur tracks, suggesting that most dinosaurs walked on four legs.
False
In some places bedding planes are completely covered with dinosaur tracks. They most often seem to occur around watering holes but may also be developed along migratory paths. These types of track occurrences are called ______.
Dinosaur stomping grounds
Theropod tracks generally have relatively long and narrow digit impressions, each digit ending with sharp, slender claw marks.
True
Coprolites are trace fossils representing stones that were swallowed to assist in the digestion of food.
False
Dinosaurs did not drag their tail or belly, indicating they walked upright with their limbs directly (or nearly so) under their body.
True
The heel of tridactyl theropod tracks is more rounded than the hell of tridactyl hadrosaurs tracks.
False
More than one consecutive dinosaur track is a ______.
Trackway
The term “pentadactyl” refers to a foot or hand with how many digits?
5
The stride refers to the distance between successive steps, for example, the distance between the step of your right foot and your next step of the left foot.
False