Combo with "Altruism" and 1 other

According to social exchange theory, altruistic behaviors benefit the individual who performs them.
t
What is the observed effect of altruistic tendencies among female vampire bats?
a
Happiness and guilt are emotions that tend to increase the incidence of altruistic behavior.
t
Emotional elevation generally decreases acts of altruism.
f
Experiencing empathy can motivate altruistic behavior.
t
Performing helping behaviors can reduce physiological effects of agitation or discomfort.
t
According to kin selection, one will demonstrate altruism only to immediate family members.
f
Juniper, a college student, is walking to her next class, which begins in five minutes. She knows that the professor is very irritated by lateness and may ask her to leave the classroom if she is late. While she is rushing to the class, she notices a man lying on the sidewalk. The man is clutching his throat and turning blue. When she notices this, Juniper’s palms begin to sweat and she feels agitated. Juniper notices that there are many other students in the area who have noticed the man.

Which of the following factors is likely to encourage Juniper to perform an altruistic act?

c
Emotional elevation only occurs in animal kin groups.
f
Some ant colonies consist of a queen, who performs all reproductive duties for the colony, and worker ants, who perform all the labor that the colony needs to gather food, expand and defend territory, and survive. The worker ants are also able to—but do not—contribute reproductively to the colony. In a colony like this, the worker ants will give their lives to defend the queen.

What is the most likely explanation for the altruistic behavior of the worker ants?

a
According to kin selection, one will demonstrate altruism only to immediate family members.
f
Kenneth has just received his annual job performance review. Due to his hard work, Kenneth’s salary was raised. Later in the day, Kenneth sees someone he doesn’t know changing his car tire on the side of the road and pulls over to help.

Which of the following factors is most likely responsible for Kenneth’s altruistic behavior?

a
Performing helping behaviors can reduce physiological effects of agitation or discomfort.
t
Which of the following is an example of kin selection?
d
Emotional elevation only occurs in animal kin groups.
f
The emotion of elevation generally occurs when __________ helpful behaviors.
b
Some ant colonies consist of a queen, who performs all reproductive duties for the colony, and worker ants, who perform all the labor that the colony needs to gather food, expand and defend territory, and survive. The worker ants are also able to—but do not—contribute reproductively to the colony. In a colony like this, the worker ants will give their lives to defend the queen.
Why is the worker ant considered altruistic?
B.
The worker ant is willing to forgo reproduction itself.
What effect does a sense of urgency often have on the incidence of altruistic behavior?
An elevated sense of urgency will increase altruistic behavior.
What is the physiological reason we are motivated to help others?
to relieve the emotional agitation caused by empathy
Juniper, a college student, is walking to her next class, which begins in five minutes. She knows that the professor is very irritated by lateness and may ask her to leave the classroom if she is late. While she is rushing to the class, she notices a man lying on the sidewalk. The man is clutching his throat and turning blue. When she notices this, Juniper’s palms begin to sweat and she feels agitated. Juniper notices that there are many other students in the area who have noticed the man.
Which of the following factors is likely to discourage Juniper from performing an altruistic act?
C.
Juniper sees that there are many other witnesses.
Which of the following statements regarding emotion and altruism is true?
B.
The cause of happiness does not make a difference in whether or not someone demonstrates altruism.
What is the observed effect of altruistic tendencies among female vampire bats?
A.
Vampire bats who share food tend to live longer than other bats.
Which of the following is an example of kin selection?
IS NOT
C.
A badger attacks a bear who was foraging for food.
Some ant colonies consist of a queen, who performs all reproductive duties for the colony, and worker ants, who perform all the labor that the colony needs to gather food, expand and defend territory, and survive. The worker ants are also able to—but do not—contribute reproductively to the colony. In a colony like this, the worker ants will give their lives to defend the queen.
What is the most likely explanation for the altruistic behavior of the worker ants?
A.
kin selection
Some researchers believe there is no such thing as true altruistic behavior because they believe that helping behavior__________.
IS NOT
A.
is unrelated to biological concerns
Which of the following is an example of violence?
Julia, a child, shoves the new girl at school out of the way in order to get on the swings.
Which of the following is an example of instrumental aggression?
B.
holding up a bank (bank robbery)
According to the frustration-aggression principle, what is the relationship between frustration and aggression?
A.
Frustration often leads to aggression.
Paul watches a lot of violent television. When he goes to school, he is usually anxious because he believes that the other students may attack him. His constant agitation prevents him from concentrating in class.
Which of the following effects is most likely responsible for Paul’s behavior?
B.
victim effect
Which of the following is an example of hostile aggression?
kicking someone during a heated argument
The social interaction theory claims that aggressive behavior is __________.
IS NOT
A.
beneficial for releasing toxic emotions
Timothy is having a debate with another person. During the debate, Timothy’s opponent claims that Timothy is not intelligent enough to argue correctly. This causes Timothy to become embarrassed.
Based on the above reading, why is Timothy likely to respond to this insult with aggressive behavior?
IS NOT
D.
Timothy understands that aggression is a tool.
Desensitization is a cognitive phenomenon in which those exposed to violence tend to __________.
B.
become numb to more violence
How is anger different from aggression?
IS NOT
B.
Anger is temporary, and aggression is a permanent behavioral trait.
Passionate love is generally comprised of which two components of romantic love?
A.
intimacy and passion
Frank is living in a third floor apartment. He has four neighbors on the third floor:
Judy, who lives next door, Henry, who lives two doors down, Polly, who lives three doors down, and Julian, who lives four doors down.
In accordance with the effects of proximity, which of the following is the most likely outcome of this living arrangement?
Frank and Judy will become friends.
If two individuals are categorized as having used complex matching to date, what can be assumed about them?
D.
The individuals differ greatly in physical attractiveness.
Based on the evolutionary perspective of mate selection, what is the best explanation for an individual’s mate selection preferences?
Individuals want to increase their chances of successfully producing offspring.
Which of the following features is not universally accepted as a sign of physical attractiveness?
B.
a curvy figure
Which of the following is not an advantage that attractive people enjoy in interpersonal relationships?
IS NOT
D.
being perceived as more successful
According to the evolutionary perspective of mate selection, why do men and women exhibit different preferences in mate selection?
IS NOT
A.
Each gender has differing hormone compositions.
Altruism is an uncontroversial term in that only one cause for altruistic behavior is accepted by psychologists.
F
A behavior is still considered altruistic if it grants some benefit to the person performing the behavior, especially if the behavior puts the individual at some risk.
T
Which of the following statements regarding emotion and altruism is true?
The cause of happiness does not make a difference in whether or not someone demonstrates altruism.
An adult vervent monkey sees a jaguar approaching. He cries out loudly, warning all the other vervent monkeys in the area of danger.
The monkey is putting itself at risk for other individuals.
Instinct theory holds that aggression is a biologically adaptive trait.
T
Some researchers claim that aggression is similar to motivational states like hunger and thirst.
T
Research indicates that social isolation tends to decrease aggressive behaviors.
F
Research indicates that high serotonin levels may increase aggression.
F
Which of the following factors is not linked to increased levels of aggression?
domestication
The social interaction theory explains that the purpose of aggression is to control another person’s behavior.
T
Timothy is having a debate with another person. During the debate, Timothy’s opponent claims that Timothy is not intelligent enough to argue correctly. This causes Timothy to become embarrassed.
Based on the above reading, why is Timothy likely to respond to this insult with aggressive behavior?
Timothy feels threatened by his opponent’s remark.
Some media reinforce violence as a method for solving problems.
T
How is anger different from aggression?
Anger is an emotion, and aggression is a description for a behavior.
Kathy is a big fan of horror movies. Although she was initially too afraid to watch them alone, she soon found that she could not get enough of them. Kathy began to watch television shows that were more violent as well.
Which of the following effects is most likely responsible for Kathy’s behavior?
appetite effect
Social learning theory predicts that those who witness aggressive behavior being punished may be __________.
less likely to behave aggressively
Frederick is pulled over by a police officer for speeding and is ding to the evolutionary perspective, the amount of parental investment a female puts into the relationship is generally larger than that of a mgiven a ticket. Fredrick thinks the officer was being arbitrarily mean. He gets angry but feels like he can’t show the officer his anger. Soon after getting back on the freeway, Frederick cuts off another driver and makes a rude gesture.
displaced aggression hypothesis
According to the evolutionary perspective, the amount of parental investment a female puts into the relationship is generally larger than that of a male.
T
Based on the evolutionary perspective of mate selection, what is the best explanation for an individual’s mate selection preferences?
Individuals want to increase their chances of successfully producing offspring.
Passionate love is generally comprised of which two components of romantic love?
intimacy and passion
Frank is living in a third floor apartment. He has four neighbors on the third floor:

Judy, who lives next door, Henry, who lives two doors down, Polly, who lives three doors down, and Julian, who lives four doors down.

In accordance with the effects of proximity, which of the following is the most likely outcome of this living arrangement?

Frank and Judy will become friends.
Most relationships will enjoy equal amounts of intimacy, passion, and commitment.
F
Attraction is the measure of romantic love between two individuals.
F
If two individuals are categorized as having used complex matching to date, what can be assumed about them?
The individuals differ greatly in physical attractiveness.
Reciprocal liking is adaptive because it lowers the risk of relationship rejection.
T
Which of the following relationships is most likely to be classified as an example of companionate love?
a couple married 30 years
William meets Kate. They have similar facial features. Based on the effects of similarity on attraction, which of the following is most likely to be William’s reaction?
William will be more attracted to Kate than he would a stranger.
WRONG
How similar two individuals are to each other influences how attractive one appears to the other.
T
Cultures and societies define norms and standards for what constitutes a socially acceptable relationship.
T
In a relationship with low amounts of equity, both individuals equally contribute to making important decisions.
F
In interpersonal attraction, the phrase “Birds of a feather flock together” is more accurate than “Opposites attract.”
T
Companionate love usually lasts longer than passionate love.
T
Which of the following features is not universally accepted as a sign of physical attractiveness?
a curvy figure
According to the evolutionary perspective of mate selection, why do men and women exhibit different preferences in mate selection?
Each gender has differing societal expectations and restrictions.
Billie and Pat have been friends for many years. They’ve shared many interesting memories and know that they’ll keep in touch as long as they can. Still, Billie and Pat have never even considered moving their relationship to another level of intimacy.
Which type of love would Billie and Pat be most likely to share?
platonic
All of the following are considered aversive stimuli within the environment that may increase aggression except __________.
physiological agitation
Helpful behavior has the tendency to encourage helpful behavior in observers.
T
A person is less likely to help an individual in need if there is a large group of people around than if there is a small group of people.
T
Which of the following statements are not supported by theorists opposing the claim that violent video games lead to aggressive behavior?
Influences of violent video games on aggression are major.
The evolutionary and social structure perspectives of mate selection are incompatible theories.
F
What is the physiological reason we are motivated to help others?
to relieve the emotional agitation caused by empathy
A behavior is still considered altruistic if it grants some benefit to the person performing the behavior, especially if the behavior puts the individual at some risk.
T
If two individuals are categorized as having used complex matching to date, what can be assumed about them?
The individuals differ greatly in physical attractiveness.
Which of the following is an example of hostile aggression?
kicking someone during a heated argument
Some researchers claim that aggression is similar to motivational states like hunger and thirst.
T
Most relationships will enjoy equal amounts of intimacy, passion, and commitment.
F
Revan was excited about working with a group of friends on the next science project. He developed a plan for how the group could most effectively share responsibilities. However, halfway through the project, he realized that no one seemed to be completing their assigned tasks, which led him to complete more than his share of the work.
Based on this information, it is most likely that the behaviors of Revan’s friends were influenced by ___________.
social loafing
What is the effect of social facilitation on those performing a difficult task?
Performance tends to suffer.
Which of the following is not true concerning obedience studies?
The obedience experiments revealed that the tendency to obey decreased if the victim was depersonalized.
Alec was excited that he made it to the finals in swimming. During training, he strived to improve his time by racing against a set time on the clock. Although he couldn’t seem to beat his prior record while practicing, he surpassed it easily during the final meet as his friends cheered him on.
Based on this information, it is most likely that Alec’s performance was influenced by __________.
social facilitation
The prisoners responded to guard treatment during the Stanford prison experiment in all of the following ways except ___________.
maintaining a sense of mental stability
The Stanford prison experiment led researchers to conclude which of the following?
Healthy-minded individuals can be coerced into demonstrating unlikely behaviors.
Ted is a confederate who is working with the experimenter in the Solomon Asch experiment. A college student who is not a confederate sits to Ted’s right, and to his left are four other confederates. During the experiment, the following card is displayed:
Solomon Asch asks each student which line is the longest. All the other confederates say that C is the longest line.
If Ted also says that C is the longest line, what is the most likely response of the college student to his right?
The student is likely to choose C.
Many groups experience polarization, which is when opinions become more and more extreme.
T