COM Debate flashcards Affirmative

High Tuition Induces Debt
High Tuition Induces Debt

Wiener, Jon. “Aiming Higher: Make College Tuition Free.” The Nation, 300.14 (April 6, 2015): 224.

“The mother of all problems in higher education today is high tuition at public colleges and universities, which forces students into decades of debt and makes for-profit schools seem like a plausible alternative”

Debt is Justified as a Trade Off for Personal Enrichment
Debt is Justified as a Trade Off for Personal Enrichment

Wiener, Jon. “Aiming Higher: Make College Tuition Free.” The Nation, 300.14 (April 6, 2015): 224.

“Students are told that incurring this debt is justifiable because a college education increases their earning power and boosts their “human capital”—which, they are told, is a financial advantage that goes beyond net worth.”

Tuition Free Universities Exist and Flourish Today
Tuition Free Universities Exist and Flourish Today

Wiener, Jon. “Aiming Higher: Make College Tuition Free.” The Nation, 300.14 (April 6, 2015): 224.

“college is free now in Sweden, Denmark and Finland, while in France, public universities are free for students from lower-income families, and those from higher-income families pay about $200 a year.”

Government Already Expends Billions on Education
Government Already Expends Billions on Education

Wiener, Jon. “Aiming Higher: Make College Tuition Free.” The Nation, 300.14 (April 6, 2015): 224.

“The U.S. government already spends lots of money on student aid. Federal spending in 2014, the College Board reports, includes $47 billion in grants, $101 billion in loans and $20 billion in tax credits. “

Free Tuition Eliminates Monetarily Driven Schools
Free Tuition Eliminates Monetarily Driven Schools

Wiener, Jon. “Aiming Higher: Make College Tuition Free.” The Nation, 300.14 (April 6, 2015): 224.

“Making college free would have one additional benefit: it would drive the for-profit schools out of business”

For-Profit Colleges Distract from the Purpose of College
For-Profit Colleges Distract from the Purpose of College

Wiener, Jon. “Aiming Higher: Make College Tuition Free.” The Nation, 300.14 (April 6, 2015): 224.

“A Senate Education Committee report in 2012 released by Iowa Democrat Tom Harkin provided ‘overwhelming documentation of exorbitant tuition, aggressive recruiting practices, abysmal student outcomes, taxpayer dollars spent on marketing and pocketed as profit, and regulatory evasion and manipulation.’ For-profit colleges represent predatory capitalism at its worst.”

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Research Institutions Differ From Instructional Ones
Research Institutions Differ From Instructional Ones

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“As a working definition, we can understand research to be the scientific, critical, and creative investigation of truth, and we can define instruction as the effective communication of that truth.”

High Tuition Induces Averted Focus From Education
High Tuition Induces Averted Focus From Education

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

Universities have lost their focus on research and instruction, and this loss of vision is the underlying crisis facing higher education. In other words, the movements of corporatization and privatization are only side effects of the main crisis, which is a loss of educational priorities.”

For Profit Colleges Are Not Driven By Education
For Profit Colleges are Not Driven By Education

” The Low-Down on For-Profit Colleges.” NACAC. National Association For College Admission Counseling, n.d. Web. 27 May 2015. .

“For-profit colleges are run by companies that operate under the demands of investors and stockholders. These institutions are privately run and exist, at least in part, to earn money for their owners”

For Profit Colleges Use Federal Aid That Can Contribute Toward Free Tuition Nationally
For Profit Colleges Use Federal Aid That Can Contribute Toward Free Tuition Nationally

” The Low-Down on For-Profit Colleges.” NACAC. National Association For College Admission Counseling, n.d. Web. 27 May 2015. .

“for-profit colleges can receive up to 90 percent of their revenue from federal student aid.”

Colleges Do Not Illustrate the True Cost of Education in Tuition
Colleges Do Not Illustrate the True Cost of Education in Tuition

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“As Charles Schwartz, a retired physics professor from UC Berkeley, has shown, the numbers never add up in higher education because universities and colleges use a false and misleading method to determine the cost of undergraduate instruction.”

Tuition Fees Do Not Pay for Education
Tuition Fees Do Not Pay for Education

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“To be precise, undergraduates are subsidizing the cost of research and graduate education, and no one is willing to admit this fact.”

Institutions Not Driven By Education Abuse Student’s and the Government’s Reason for Financial Aid
Institutions Not Driven By Education Abuse Student’s and the Government’s Reason for Financial Aid

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“…once research becomes the priority at a college or university, the cost of administration and facilities skyrockets, and this increase is paid for in part by undergraduate tuition and state and federal taxes.”

Expenses Hinder Student’s Potential In College
Expenses Hinder Student’s Potential in College

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“a key to increasing college attainment in America is to make sure that more students graduate on time. In order to accomplish this goal, we must reduce the expenses associated with public higher education.”

Tuition Disqualified Individuals From Getting an Education
Tuition Disqualified Individuals From Getting an Education

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“The biggest reason why students do not graduate in a timely fashion, or at all, is that they cannot afford the tuition and related costs.”

European Countries Serve as Testament to Functioning Tuition-Free Education
European Countries Serve as Testament to Functioning Tuition-Free Education

Biffl, Gudrun, and Joe Isaac. “Should Higher Education Students Pay Tuition Fees?.”European Journal of Education,” 37.4 (December 2002): 433-455.

“In many European countries, in addition to paying no or comparatively low tuition fees, students are assisted by grants, low-interest loans, tax breaks, subsidised services and family allowances. Outstanding amongst these are the Nordic countries, Germany and Greece (European Commission/Eurydice, 2000).”

Europe has Developed Systems Which Accommodate the Financial Needs of All People
Europe has Developed Systems Which Accommodate the Financial Needs of All People

Biffl, Gudrun, and Joe Isaac. “Should Higher Education Students Pay Tuition Fees?.”European Journal of Education,” 37.4 (December 2002): 433-455.

“Some countries which impose comparatively low tuition fees (e.g. Belgium and Spain)1 provide grants and support for fees as well as cash family benefits. The same is true of Austria, whereas from 2001, an annual tuition fee of C726 applies. In the Netherlands,2 the fee is more than offset by a basic grant with no means test. Even countries which charge comparatively high fees (e.g. the UK which charged ?1,705 per annum in 2001-02) make the fees dependent on parent income, thus providing free university education to the poorer students who are also entitled to subsidised loans.”

Free Tuition Provides Equal Opportunity to Students
Free Tuition Provides Equal Opportunity to Students

Biffl, Gudrun, and Joe Isaac. “Should Higher Education Students Pay Tuition Fees?.”European Journal of Education,” 37.4 (December 2002): 433-455.

“It seems that countries in favour of free education, in addition to various financial support schemes, are concerned that ‘the principle of equal access – or even of balanced social representation in higher education enrolment – should be upheld'”

A Degree/Higher Education Has Benefits in Avoiding Unemployment
A Degree/Higher Education Has Benefits in Avoiding Unemployment

Biffl, Gudrun, and Joe Isaac. “Should Higher Education Students Pay Tuition Fees?.”European Journal of Education,” 37.4 (December 2002): 433-455.

“The benefits of [higher education] also extend to unemployment. For those with [higher education], the unemployment rate in 1998 of most OECD countries (OECD, 2000b) was half that of those with only secondary education and post-secondary non-tertiary qualifications. Moreover, the duration of unemployment for the former was also much shorter.”

The Negative Externalities to Tuition Have Long Term Consequences
The Negative Externalities to Tuition Have Long Term Consequences

Hirsh, Deborah. “Access to a College Degree or Just College Debt” The New England Journal of Higher Education, 23.2 (2008): 17.

“College access programs that prepare students to aspire to and apply to college are important but not sufficient. While access to a college education, especially for underrepresented student populations, has improved, similarly upward trends in college graduation rates have failed to materialize. Access into an institution is important, but if students fail to graduate, then it becomes access to debt instead of access to a degree.”

The Impact of Tuition on Student Debt is Not Negligible
The Impact of Tuition on Student Debt is Not Negligible

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. The Federal Role in Postsecondary Education: Unfinished Business, 1975-1980: A Report. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Print.

“On the average, tuition charges in four-year public institutions represent about one-fourth of educational costs.”

An Altered Form of Financial Aid Will Only Raise Costs
An Altered Form of Financial Aid WIll Only Raise Costs

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. The Federal Role in Postsecondary Education: Unfinished Business, 1975-1980: A Report. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Print.

“We do not believe that tuition equalization grants should equal this entire educational subsidy in public institutions, because full tuition equalization grants could create pressures for increases in tuition in at least some private institutions.”

Free Education Has Been Considered Because of Its Potential
Free Education Has Been Considered Because of Its Potential

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. Low or No Tuition, the Feasibility of a National Policy for the First Two Years of College: An Analytical Report. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Print.

“The concept of ‘two years of free access’ to higher education in the United States has a long history, dating back to some of the first public junior colleges established in the early years of the present century”

Tuition Restricts Student’s Potential For Academic Exploration
Tuition Restricts Student’s Potential For Academic Exploration

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. Low or No Tuition, the Feasibility of a National Policy for the First Two Years of College: An Analytical Report. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Print.

“Many lower division students, it is felt, are uncertain about their probability of succeeding and, sometimes, even of their motivation or taste for advanced study. They should be given maximum opportunity to try out their chances for successful achievement in postsecondary education in the first two years, with a minimal financial burden.”

Fees Should Only Be Paid By Those Eligible to Pay
Fees Should Only Be Paid By Those Eligible To Pay

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. Low or No Tuition, the Feasibility of a National Policy for the First Two Years of College: An Analytical Report. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Print.

“Once a student has successfully advanced to upper-division work, s/he can be more confident and, if s/he wishes to continue in, or transfer to, an institution with costs beyond those available to him/her through student grants or his/her parents’ contributions, should be prepared to augment his/her resources through part-time work or borrowing.”

The Majority of College Age Individuals Do Not Attend College
The Majority of College Age Individuals Do Not Attend College

United States of America. US Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences. Fast Facts. N.p.: n.p., n.d. National Center for Education Statistics. Web. .

“Between 2001 and 2011, the number of 18- to 24-year-olds increased from 28.0 million to 31.1 million, an increase of 11 percent, and the percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in college rose from 36 percent in 2001 to 42 percent in 2011”

Students Historically Have Only Been Able to Attend College Without Tuition Costs
Students Historically Have Only Been Able to Attend College Without Tuition Costs

“Literature and Writing for Qualified Students.” College Composition and Communication 7.3 (1956): 144. Web. 22 May 2015.

“While preparation is undeniably important for college admission and retention, the lower college attendance rates of low income students (when compared to students from more affluent families) historically have had a strong income component. These students have been surveyed many times and a constant refrain is that without the MAP grant, which can cover up to 100 percent of college tuition and fees, they could not have attended college”

Thousands of Dollars of Debt Accrue From Attending College
Thousands of Dollars of Debt Accrue From Attending College

Joseph, Marc. “It’s Too Expensive to Go to College Anymore.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015.

“According to College Data, the average yearly budget to attend an in-state public university is $22,261. The average at a private college is $43,289. CNN reports that the average college student in the class of 2013 faces $35,200 in debt.”

Debt is Projected to Exceed Graduates Ability to Pay (So Reducing Tuition Would Rectify This)
Debt is Projected to Exceed Graduates Ability to Pay (So Reducing Tuition Would Rectify This)

Joseph, Marc. “It’s Too Expensive to Go to College Anymore.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015.

“In an article in The Huffington Post this summer, they predicted that student loan debt will exceed the median annual income for college grads by 2023. This is on top of the wages of college graduates actually dropping 5.4 percent over the last decade.”

Debt is Becoming a Growing Problem For Prospective Students
Debt is Becoming a Growing Problem For Prospective Students

Joseph, Marc. “It’s Too Expensive to Go to College Anymore.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015.

“This weak economy of ours is forcing institutions to limit their generosity in scholarships and financial aid, so the average student takes on more debt than the generation before.”

Analogy – Tuition Prices Grow Comparatively Beyond Individuals’ Ability to Pay
Tuition Prices Grow Comparatively Beyond Individuals’ Ability to Pay

Campos, Paul F. “The Real Reason College Tuition Costs So Much.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 04 Apr. 2015. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“If over the past three decades car prices had gone up as fast as tuition, the average new car would cost more than $80,000.”

College Costs Have Escalated Due to Expanding Administration (Not Better Education)
College Costs Have Escalated Due to Expanding Administration (Not Better Education)

Campos, Paul F. “The Real Reason College Tuition Costs So Much.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 04 Apr. 2015. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“a major factor driving increasing costs [of college] is the constant expansion of university administration. According to the Department of Education data, administrative positions at colleges and universities grew by 60 percent between 1993 and 2009, which Bloomberg reported was 10 times the rate of growth of tenured faculty positions”

There is A Calculated Cost Burden for Tuition-Free Public Education
There is a Calculated Cost Burden for Tuition-Free Public Education

Weissmann, Jordan. “Here’s Exactly How Much the Government Would Have to Spend to Make Public College Tuition-Free.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 03 Jan. 2014. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“[the cost it would take to make college tuition free for everyone is] A mere $62.6 billion dollars! According to [2012] Department of Education data, that’s how much tuition public colleges collected from undergraduates in 2012 across the entire United States.”

For Profit Schools Consume A Large Part of Government Financial Aid
For Profit Schools Consume A Large Part of Government Financial Aid

Weissmann, Jordan. “Here’s Exactly How Much the Government Would Have to Spend to Make Public College Tuition-Free.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 03 Jan. 2014. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“At one point, a Senate investigation found that the for-profit sector alone was chowing down on 25 percent of all federal aid dollars.”

College is Generally Agreed to Be Necessary For Self-Betterment
College is Generally Agreed to Be Necessary For Self-Betterment

Kingkade, Tyler. “Most Americans Say They Can’t Afford Public College.”The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“A majority of those surveyed in the HuffPost/YouGov poll, 53 percent, agreed that a college education is necessary in order to get ahead in life, compared to just 28 percent who said it was not.”

Colleges Are Generally Accepted As Unaffordable As It Stands
Colleges Are Generally Accepted as Unaffordable As It Stands

Kingkade, Tyler. “Most Americans Say They Can’t Afford Public College.”The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“Despite the noted importance of an education, Americans said they don’t think public colleges, traditionally considered a lower-cost option for families, are affordable. A majority, 62 percent, said they believe most people are not able to afford the cost of a public college education, according to the poll results.”

Tuition Can Be Paid For By Students Progressively
Tuition Can Be Paid For By Students Progressively

Kingkade, Tyler. “Most Americans Say They Can’t Afford Public College.”The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“Instead of being handed a tuition bill, students at public colleges would agree to give up around 3 percent of their income for a set number of years, which would go towards funding state universities. The HuffPost/YouGov poll found tepid support for such a plan.”

College Debt is Driven By Student Loans (Which Pay for Tuition)
College Debt is Driven By Student Loans

Bidwell, Allie. “Average Student Loan Debt Hits 30,000.” US News. U.S.News & World Report, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“The average amount of student loan debt again crept up for the Class of 2013, and is approaching $30,000, according to a new report from the Institute for College Access and Success.”

Educational Opportunity Shouldn’t Warrant Debt
Educational Opportunity Shouldn’t Warrant Debt

Bidwell, Allie. “Average Student Loan Debt Hits 30,000.” US News. U.S.News & World Report, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 24 May 2015. .

“A college degree is still the best path to a job and decent pay, and while loans are increasingly needed to get through school, graduating with burdensome debt is not a foregone conclusion”

Money For Tuition Can Be Acquired By Cutting Other Costs
Money For Tuition Can Be Acquired By Cutting Other Costs

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“the cost for free public higher education could be greatly reduced by lowering the spending on administration, athletics, housing, dining, amenities, research, and graduate education.”

Tuition Pays For Other Student’s Education
Tuition Pays For Other Student’s Education

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“current tuition rates are inflated because schools increase their sticker price in order to subsidize institutional financial aid for low- income students and to provide merit aid for wealthy, high- scoring students.”

Removing or Lessening Student Loans Will Save The Government Money
Removing or Lessening Student Loans Will Save The Government Money

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“by eliminating the need for student loans, the government would save billions of dollars by avoiding the current cost of nonpayment of loans, servicing and subsidizing them, and borrowers’ defaults.”

Tuition-Free Education Would Remove Business as an Incentive for Colleges to Offer Education
Tuition-Free Education Would Remove Business as an Incentive for Colleges to Offer Education

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“If we made all public higher education free, not only could we do away with this unjust tax system, but we could also stop the movement of public funds to expensive private and for- profit universities and colleges.”

A Changed Financial Aid System Would Enable More Easily Controlled College Costs
A Changed Financial Aid System Would Enable More Easily Controlled College Costs

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“Replacing the current mix of financial aid, institutional aid, tax subsidies, and grants with direct funding for public institutions would give the government a way to control costs at both public and private universities and colleges.”

Free Education Would Promote Principle Values
Free Education Would Promote Principle Values

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“The central reason why we should change how we support public higher education and make it free is that this system plays a key role in allowing us to have an effective democracy. Thomas Jefferson argued for a free public university because he knew that in order to have a real democracy, you need to have highly educated citizens.”

College Costs Turn Education Into A Private Good/Commodity
College Costs Turn Education Into aA Private Good/Commodity

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“Furthermore, universities themselves are now stressing that the major advantage of going to college is that people will earn more, and the unintended effect of this argument is that higher education is seen as a private good purchased by an individual student.”

States Can Manipulate and Monopolize Future Jobs by Adjusting Education Costs
States Can Manipulate and Monopolize Future Jobs by Adjusting Education Costs

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“[states believe] that they can cut their funding for universities, letting the responsibility for paying the increased costs fall on the individual student — who is seen as making a down payment on a future job.”

Cutting Administration Would Improve Teacher Quality
Cutting Administration Would Improve Teacher Quality

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“As the experience in Finland shows, a key to improving the quality of education is to increase the respect and compensation for teachers. It might seem that this would drive up the costs of higher education, but we could actually save money by regularizing the use of non- tenure- track teachers and reducing non-educational expenses.”

Less Money Spent on Admins Saves on Tuition Fees
Less Money Spent on Admins Saves on Tuition Fees

Samuels, Robert. Why Public Higher Education Should Be Free : How to Decrease Costs and Increase Quality at American Universities. n.p.: .

“All faculty would then have time to take on tasks like student advising that are now done by an army of staff, which would result in significant savings.”

Tuition Reduction Isn’t Enough – Abolition is Key
Tuition Reduction Isn’t Enough – Abolition is Key

Dynarski, Susan. “Building the Stock of College-Educated Labor.” Journal of Human Resources 43.3 (2008): 576-610. JSTOR [JSTOR]. Web. 27 May 2015.

“more than tuition reduction is necessary to substantially increase the stock of college-educated labor.”