COM 101 Study Guide Exam 1

Human Communication
process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction
Intrapersonal communication
self-communicating based on how we process information; affects all other interactions
Dyadic Communication
between two people in person or thru forms of media
Small Group Communication
3-15 people where everyone can participate fully; majority members can conform others; creative
Public Communication
a group is too large for all members to participate, unequal amount of speaking
Mass Communication
messages to large, widespread audiences through media; controlled by ‘gatekeepers’
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Communication Satisfies What 4 Needs
Physical Needs, Identity Needs, Social Needs, Practical Needs
Linear Model
sender encodes a message to a receiver who decodes; communication channel=means by way communication is conveyed
Mediated Communication
phone, email, voicemail (communication medium)
Noise
any forces that interfere with effective communication; external (physical), physiological (illness), psychological (exaggeration)
Environments
fields of experience that help communicators understand behaviors; include ethnicity, social class, hurried, experience, passion; differing environments make it hard to understand others
Transactional Model
simultaneous sending and receiving with discernible responses (feedback!); e.g. midterm examination; possible through all forms of media; impossible to identify sender/receiver; mutually enforcing cycle of influence
Communication Competence
effective communication involves achieving one’s goals in a manner that ideally maintains or enhances the relationship in which it occurs
3 Things about Competence
it’s situational, relational, can be learned
7 Characteristics of Competent Communicators
wide range of behaviors, ability to choose most approp behavior, skill at performing behaviors, empathy/perspective talking, cognitive complexity, self-monitoring, commitment to relationship
Coordination
situations where participants interact smoothly with satisfaction and without understanding
Language
collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals; meanings are in people, not in word
Symbols
arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator’s thoughts; the way one experiences the world
Language Rules
PHONOLOGICAL (pronunciation), SYNTACTIC (spelling), SEMANTIC (definition), PRAGMATIC (understanding)
Ways that Language Shapes + Reflects Attitudes
Naming, Credibility, Status, Sexism + Racism (generic he), power, affiliation
Convergence
adapting one’s speaking style to that of the societal norm
Divergence
speaking in a way that emphasizes their difference from others
Equivocal Language
words have more than one correct definition; equivocal misunderstandings can lead to serious consequences
Relative Words
gain meaning by comparison; depend on their meaning by what they’re compared to
Slang and Jargon
language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar co-culture; regionalisms are terms understood by people who live in a certain geographic area
Abstract Lang and Such
speech that describes something vaguely; varying degrees of specificity; abstraction ladder=lower terms are more specific whereas higher terms are general
3 Bad Habits of Disruptive Language
Confusing Facts + Opinions, Confusing Facts + Inferences, Emotive Language (attitudes)
Euphemism
positive or better word used to replace a less pleasant one; many are not worth the effort to create them
Equivocation
a deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in more ways than one (intentionally ambiguous)
Different Verbal Communication Styles in Diff Countries
Direct/Indirect; Elaborate/Succinct; Formal/Informal
Linguistic Relativism
the notion that worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis
best declaration of linguistic relativism; Hopi culture – implications of linguistic difference can be profound
Nonverbal Communication
those behaviors other than words themselves that form a socially shared coding system
Kinesics
the norm, includes gestures, eye contact, and body position
Emblems
body movement that carry meaning in themselves; still convey clear message without verbal hints
Illustrators
body movements that help receivers interpret what’s being said, accompanied by speech(talking with hands)
Regulators
body movements that guide conversations (head nod during conversation)
Adaptors
body movements that help satisfy physical or psychological needs
Affect Displays
movements that express emotion without touch (facial expressions)
Haptics
refers to all aspects of touch; a critical part of our life with important developmental benefits
Types of Haptics (Touch)
functional/professional, social/polite, friendship, warmth, love/intimacy
Proxemics
the way we use space
Physical Appearance
the way we look including body type and attire (3 body types:Ectomorph – thin and lean, Mesomorph – strong and muscular, Endomorph – large and heavy-set) > attire key
Vocalics
voice – reflects aspects of vocal tone, such as pitch, loudness, accent, rate of speech, tone, amount of pauses; creates variety of emotions
Chronemics
use and perception of time, number of things we do at once: duration, punctuality, Polychronism-multitasking, Monochromism-single activity
Artifacts
physical attributes and environmental attributes that communicate directly, define the communication context, guide social behavior in some way
6 Functions of Nonverbal Codes
1. structuring and regulating interaction 2. creating and managing identities, impressions 3. communicating emotions 4. defining and managing relationships 5. inf others 6. deceiving others
Viewing
a multimodal activity that involves a set of relational social practices whether image is personal, context-specific, or public
Interpellation
interruption of a procedure in order to question someone or something formally > “images interpellate humans”
Producer
someone who oversees the job and who’s final product is represented in the outcome > authorship not just who created something but who has its rights (may not be just 1 person)
Aesthetics
appreciation of the beauty and value within something; assoc. with philosophy
Taste
informed by experiences relating to one’s class; culturally specific
Notions for taste provide the basis for the idea of connoisseurship > not just opinion
Habitus
a set of dispositions we share and preferences we share that are related to our class, education, and social standing
Hegemony
emphasizes the power that is wielded by one class over another; enacted through the push and pull among the class levels
Negotiation
an interpretation can be negotiated from dominant meanings of an image > bargaining over meaning among viewer, image, context (ex. American Idol)
Oppositional Reading
taking a position against by disagreeing with ideological positions or rejecting it altogether
Appropriation
traditionally taking something for oneself without consent; borrowing and changing the meaning of items
Reappropriation
the cultural process by which a group reclaims—re-appropriates—terms or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group
Bricolage
something that is made or put together with whatever materials happen to be available
Counter-bricolage
The practice used by advertisers and marketers of manufacturing to make aspects of bricolage widespread
5 Attributes of Books
fixity (static text), discreteness (text isolated), division of labor (author and reader perform diff tasks), primacy for creativity + originality, linearity
8 Principles of Good Writing
1. be brief 2. be precise 3. be active 4. be imaginative 5. be direct 6. be consistent 7. be aware (don’t plagiarize) 8. be concise