Collin College, Dr. Rich Spring 2016 Biology 1407 Vocabulary for Practical 1

Microevolution
Microevolution
Evolutionary change below the species level through Mutation, selection, gene flow, and genetic drift.
Example: Evolved Mosquito resistance to DDT
Macroevolution
Macroevolution
Evolutionary change above the species level. Includes the origin of a new group of organisms through a series of speciation events and the impact of mass extinction on the diversity of life.
Example: Wales from land dwelling animals, Dinosaurs to Birds
Artificial Selection
Artificial Selection
Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits
Example: Dogs
Homologous structures
Homologous structures
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry but may have different function
Example: Bat wing and human arm
Analogous Structures
Analogous Structures
Structures that are similar because of convergent evolution. Have the same function but different origins.
Example: Insect wing and bat wing
Vestigial Structures
Vestigial Structures
Feature of an organism that is a historical remnant of a structure that served a function in the organism’s ancestors.
Example: Wisdom Teeth, Coccyx
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Clade
Clade
Group of species that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.
Example: Birds
Taxonomy
Taxonomy
A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life using binomial nomenclature. Developed by Carolus Linnaeus.
Taxonomic Ranks
Taxonomic Ranks
Ranking system developed by Carolus Linnaeus in which organisms are grouped similarly.
Taxon Ranks in order from most inclusive to least inclusive: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Families, Genus, Species (Dirty kinky people can often find good sex)
Systematics
Scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationship.
Gametophyte
In alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis.
Sporophyte
Sporophyte
In alternation of generations, multicellular diploid form that produces haploid spores by meiosis
Zygote
diploid cell produced by union of haploid gametes during fertilization. Fertilized egg
Gametes
haploid reproductive cells egg and sperm
Gametangium
Plant structure in which gametes are formed
female = archegonia
Male= antheridia
Spore
Spore
haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis. (Fern)
Sporangium
Sporangium
multicellular organ in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop
Archegonium
Archegonium
female gametangium. Moist chamber in which female gametes develop
Archegoniophore
Archegoniophore
Stalk or other outgrowth on a prothallum upon which archegonia are born
Antheridium
Antheridium
the male gametangium. A moist chamber in which male gametes develop.
Antheridiophore
Antheridiophore
Gametophore bearing antheridia only
Gemma Cup
Gemma Cup
cup structure on mosses and iverwort used for asexual reproduction. Where Gemmae are born.
Protonema
Protonema
Thin photosynthetic filament which develops after spore germination and soon gives rise to a mature gametophyte.
thallus
leaf-like lobed body found on thalloid liverworts.
Homosporous
Referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte. Bryophytes
Heterosporous
Referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: Microspores, which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes.
Xylem
Xylem
Vascular plant tissue which conducts water and dissolved minerals throughout the plant.
phloem
phloem
Conducts nutrients, such as sucrose, hormones and other molecules throughout the vascular plant.
Cuticle
Cuticle
waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves used for protection against desiccation in a vascular plant.
Rhizome
Rhizome
An underground stem that branches horizontally, producing aerial stems and underground roots.
Rhizoid
Rhizoid
long, tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground.
Sporophylls
Sporophylls
Reproductive sporangia – located on the surface of leaves.
Frond
Frond
Fern leaves
Strobilus
Strobilus
Cluster of sporophylls – cone shaped structure
Microphylls
Microphylls
in lycophytes, small leaf with single unbranched vein. scalelike leaves
Fiddlehead
Fiddlehead
young coiled fern leaves
Prothallus
Prothallus
heart shaped gametophyte of ferns and related plants
Annulus
Annulus
A fuzzy region of the Sorus which catapults mature spores.
Indusium
Indusium
Protects the sori in a fern.
Sorus
Sorus
Cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll (distinct brown spots on the underside of a frond)
Fern life cycle
Fern life cycle
Vascular plant, gametophytes are hermaphorditic. Sprophyte is diploid and dominant part of the plant cycle.
Moss life cycle
Moss life cycle
Non-vascular plant, gametophyte is haploid, photsynthetic and dominant part of the plant life cycle.
Spermatophyte
Seed plant, made up of gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Ovules
Ovules
structures of seed plants containing the female sex cells with the potential to develop into seeds
Pollination
Pollination
Pollen is carried from the male reproductive organs to the female reproductive organ in a number of ways, including wind, insects, and birds.
microsporophyll
microsporophyll
male plants produce pollen by leaf homologues. leaf-like structure that bears microsporangia
megasporophyll
megasporophyll
female plants produce ovules by leaf homologues. Leaf-like structure that bears megasporangia
microsporangium
microsporangium
a sporangium that produce spores that give rise to male gametophytes
megasporangium
megasporangium
female sporangia – structure in which megaspores are formed
microgametophyte
microgametophyte
male gametophyte that develops from microspores of heterosporous plant
megagametophyte
megagametophyte
Embryo sac – the female gametophyte that arises from a megaspore of heterosporous plant
vascular cambium
vascular cambium
cylindrical layer of cambium that runs through the stem of the plant and undergoes secondary growth. (new xylem on the interior side and new phloem on the exterior side)
springwood
springwood
Annual ring of wood: large, thin-walled cells, formed during the first part of the growing season (spring)
summerwood
summerwood
Annual ring of wood: compact, thick-walled cells formed during the later part of the growing season (summer)
cork cambium
cork cambium
Secondary growth – adds secondary dermal tissue. Replaces epidermis with a thicker, tougher periderm.
monocot
monocot
Flowering plant whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf
eudicot
eudicot
flowering plant having two cotyledons in the seed and normally having net-veined leaves.
peduncle
peduncle
stalk where flower begins, stalk bearing a flower or fruit.
receptacle
receptacle
A swollen region that contains the other floral part arranged in whorls – formed by the peduncle or pedicels.
sepals
The outermost whorl, leaflike, green petals
petals
petals
The most conspicuous part of the flower.
stamen
stamen
The male portion of the flower which consists of a slender stalk, the filament, and the sac-like anther where pollen is produced.
pistil (carpel)
pistil (carpel)
The most obvious female portion of the plant which is centrally located. Ovule producing part.
stigma
stigma
a sticky knob that receives pollen, sits atop a slender tube called the style.
style
style
long slender stalk that connects the stigma and the ovary.
ovary
ovary
Enlarged basil portion of the pistil where ovules are produced.
embryo sac
embryo sac
female gametophyte of angiosperm
simple fruit
simple fruit
Result of ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil.
multiple fruit
multiple fruit
Multiple carpels of many flowers
aggregate fruit
aggregate fruit
One flower with many carpels