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Collegial And Formal Type Of Leadership Concerning Head Teachers

This assignment consists of two parts. In the first portion, the theoretical accounts of collegial and formal type of leading are considered and compared to the caput instructor ‘s function to which the writer is familiar within the educational system of Cyprus. The caput instructor ‘s function will be analysed in both leading manners.

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In the 2nd portion, the writer concentrates on the premises made about the school organisation and its values with the collegial and formal types of leading. The assignment ends with a decision based on the writer ‘s apprehension of leading that emerges from a consideration of both theory and pattern in relation to these two theoretical accounts.

Part 1

Harmonizing to Pashiardis ( 1995 ) the educational system in Cyprus has a bureaucratic construction and school principals are invariably seeking to fulfill the administrative officials instead than the demands of pupils and parents. Everything must be done in a pre-determined mode, which barely leaves any infinite for mistakes or gives leeway for divergence from the mainstream. This is the chief ground why the formal theoretical account of leading is being chosen. Most of the elements of direction tantrum into the bureaucratic construction of the Cypriot educational system. On the other manus, within the collegial theoretical account of leading the regulating organic structure of each school is free to put extra purposes and aims that would non merely profit the school community but besides the quality of the instruction offered.

Collegial Model of Management

Harmonizing to Bush ( 1995 ) and his collegial theoretical account, the purposes emerge from a participative procedure whereby staff reach an understanding based on common values. The leader in a collegial theoretical account believes that school staff should ever be a squad in order to be effectual and that everyone should be involved in all activities refering the school patterns. In this instance, all instructors should hold a common vision, set a mission and be cognizant of their function to guarantee the success of the academic endeavor.

The elements of Collegial Model are the procedures by which ends are determined by the nature of determination procedure and the leading manner. The collegial theoretical account is based on understanding ends among the members of an organisation and nowadayss sidelong constructions and all members have the right to take part in the determination procedure. As Kaily P. ( 2010 ) wrote A«specific jobs can be addressed by different commissions which are appointed at the beginning of the school twelvemonth. These commissions consist of instructors harmonizing to their abilities and expertness. They undertake to turn to and work out jobs that arise during the school twelvemonth such as pupil subject by explicating a codification of behavior, force at school- bar and intervention, development activities for motive in acquisition, larning troubles and workaroundsA» ( Kaily P. E849 Web Activity 1, 2 November 2010 ) . Furthermore, Palli C. ( 2010 ) A«there is a shared leading and a corporate sense of duty among the staff at her school. At the beginning of the school twelvemonth at that place was a deputation of functions and duties. Besides the instructors had the chance to choose the commissions they wanted to be members harmonizing to their interestsA» ( Palli C. E849 Web Activity 1, 3 November 2010 ) .

The most positive facet of the Collegial Model is the fact that ends have already been agreed, ensuing to the possibility for the participant staff to concentrate and to accomplish the ends set. Everybody ‘s aspirations, expertness and capablenesss are taken into consideration and used in a manner that promotes the public assistance of the school unit. As Bennett ( 1995 ) has argued, cognition is an of import power resource. Sharing cognition in a collaborative manner requires a high grade of common trust and consensus.

Formal Model of Management

Looking into Bush ( 1995 ) the formal theoretical accounts of direction aver that aims are set at the institutional degree. Goals are determined by senior staff and the support of other instructors is taken for granted. Therefore, the activities of schools are evaluated in the visible radiation of these official intents. Furthermore, the organisational construction is regarded as nonsubjective world. Persons hold defined places in the organisation and working relationships are assumed to be strongly influenced by these official places. Formal theoretical accounts treat constructions as hierarchal with decision-making as a ‘top-down ‘ procedure.

In contrast to collegiality, the features ofA the formal direction modelsA harmonizing to Bush ( 2003 ) A«heads haveA authorization because of their positionsA and areA accountableA for what they do to their patron they use anyA rationalA manner to accomplish goalsaˆ¦A»A ( Bush, 2003, p.126 ) fits a batch to the Cypriot Educational System. Not merely do public schools but besides private 1s have debt-reduction direction programmes and everything must be centralized and economic systems of graduated table must be made. One is asked to yearly describe in beforehand how many pupils are registered for the undermentioned academic twelvemonth that the figure of instructors is reduced to the lower limit to salvage resources as Webb and Vulliamy ( 1996 ) reference A«in bureaucratism, efficiency, subject, control, reliabilityA is more importantA» ( Webb and Vulliamy, 1989, p.312 ) . Promotion is on the footing of seniorityA ( Bush 2003 ) more like a typical formal bureaucratic Cypriot school. However, after a long waiting at the age of 40-55 one eventually leaves from the low-paying Cypriot private school and is employed by a ‘highly-benefiting ‘ Cypriot public school. When he/she gets employed in a public school, which will merely happen out merely a few yearss before the school twelvemonth starts, uncovering bureaucratism which is neither efficient nor dependable.

Part 2

Harmonizing to Bush and Derek ( 2003 ) leading may be understood as ‘influence ‘ but this impression is impersonal in that it does non explicate or urge what ends or actions should be sought through this procedure. However, A«certain alternate concepts of leading focal point on the demand for leading to be grounded in steadfast personal and professional valuesA» ( Bush and Derek, 2003, p.4 ) . Wasserberg ( 1999 ) besides claims that A«the primary function of any leader is the fusion of people around cardinal valuesA» ( Wasserberg, 1999, p.158 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Gross ( 1985 ) values are generated externally to the person instead than being internal, personal creative activities. However persons play important function in set uping peculiar values with environments in which they live and work. Bush ( 1998 ; 2003 ) besides links A«leadership to values or aim while direction relates to implementation or proficient issuesA» ( Bush, 1998, 2003, p.324 )

Collegial theoretical account is interpinned by integrative and actuating values. Integrative values are those that serve to pull persons into collectivity and motivation values are those that shape single and corporate perceptual experiences of demands and involvements. The deduction of these values for leading function in the educational system in Cyprus could be justified since caput instructors normally encourage the staff to take portion in any decision-making process. In this certain values are agreed in the schools. Thus the personal sentiments of ( instructors, parents pupils ) are acceptable by others, differences and dissensions are shown in a democratic signifier. In add-on, coaction is promoted by caput instructors. Every instructor, parent, pupil has its personal demands and involvements. Head instructors try to assist all members in personal and professional troubles and offer ways in order for everyone to hold a function in the school. Furthermore, caput instructors promote trust and assurance among all members, make constructive remarks and promote staff to take part in educational seminars and other educational plans.

The formal leading theoretical account combines largely regulative and directing values which seek to command the behavior of persons and groups. The equal chances and race dealingss statute law is enacted in many developed states. Such values are an of import portion of the policy procedure both nationally and within organisations. Whether we accept or reject person else ‘s value system is non the same as denying that it is a value which shapes their actions. This is one of the three different sorts of Gross ‘s ( 1985 ) classified values which influence different aspects of the school.A Although the ministry of Education and Culture directs schools on how to run, each school may develop its ain rules and values harmonizing to its peculiar demands and purposes. Under the counsel of the Head Teacher certain values have been defined for my school ‘s civilization like: Equal chances for all kids as an look of cardinal human rights, the development of pupils ‘ societal accomplishments, democratic duologue in instance of struggles among the kids, the multi-dimensional betterment of kids ‘s personality, the importance of interaction with the external environment ( parents ) , and the pattern of multiple intelligences. All the above societal values are articulated within the school serve to pull persons into a formality.

The manner that my school is managed promotes coaction and reduces conflict between staff. The caput instructor supports the attempts of his instructors and motivates them to portion and bring forth the school ‘s values. He helps instructors cope with the troubles encountered and promotes respect, democracy, honestness and trust. He encourages instructors to take portion in educational seminars and provides equal chances for engagement in determination doing seeking to follow democratic values. As Gross ( 1985 ) references “ Persons play a important function in set uping peculiar values within the environments in which they live and work. Valuess are manifested in the actions people take, including the things that they say and the linguistic communication they use ” ( Gross, 1985, p.47 ) . A Harmonizing to Sergiovanni ( 2000 ) , how we resolve a job relates to the extent to which our determination devising is dominated by the values of our life universe and our system universe. As he interprets, system universe should be interdependent with life universe ( the kernel of values and beliefs )


In decision it can be seen that at that place has to be a leading manner which will integrate patterns from both manners of leading and which promote the development of the school through the engagement and engagement of all the staff members. A caput instructor ‘s function is to do the vision and the mission of the school known to his/her staff in order for the instructors with the right cognition and ability to be involved in the determination devising.

Bennett, N. ( 1995 ) Pull offing Professional Teachers: in-between direction in primary and secondary schools, London, Paul Chapman.

Bush, T. ( 1995 ) , 2nd edn, Theories of Educational Management, London, Paul Chapman.

Bush, T. ( 1998 ) The National Professional Qualification for Headship: the key to effectual school leading? , School Leadership and Management, 18 ( 3 ) 321-34.

Bush, T. ( 2003 ) , Theories of Educational Management, 3rd edn. London: Sage.

Bush, T. And Derek G. , ( 2003 ) , School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence, Full study Spring, 2003

E849 Leading and Managing for Effective Education, Study Guide, ( 2003 ) , The Open University.

Gross, F. ( 1985 ) , Ideologies, Goals and Values, Westport, CT, Greenwood Press.

Kaily, P. E849 Web Activity 1, 2 November 2010

Palli, C. , E849 Web Activity 1, 3 November 2010

Pashiardis, P. ( 1995 ) , A«Cyprus principals and the catholicities of effectual leadership’A» , International Studies in Educational Administration, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp. 16-26.

Sergiovanni 2000, Effective Educational Leadership, O.U. , Sage

Wasserberg, M. ( 1999 ) , Making the vision and doing it go on, in Tomlinson, H. , Gunter, H. and Smith, P. ( Eds. ) , Populating Headship: Voices, Valuess and Vision, London, Paul Chapman.

Webb, R. and Vulliamy, G. ( 1996 ) , The altering function of the primary caput instructor, Educational Management and Administration, 24 ( 3 ) , 301-15.