Last Updated 05 Apr 2018

College Biology Unit 4 (Chapter 19)

Category Biology 
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The geologic timescale is divided into several eras or epochs of time. What are the major events that separate those eras?

• dominant animal forms
• major lunar events
• major extinction events
• major solar events

major extinction events
Which important organic compounds did Harold Urey and Stanley Miller synthesize in a glass sphere?

• amino acids
• cholesterol
• lipids
• carbohydrates

amino acids
Which of the following is a correct sequence of events in the history of life on Earth?

• Cambrian explosion, multicellular organisms, photosynthesis, eukaryotes
• prokaryotes, photosynthesis, eukaryotes, land organisms
• prokaryotes, eukaryotes, land animals, land plants
• aquatic organisms, photosynthesis, RNA world, land organisms

prokaryotes, photosynthesis, eukaryotes, land organisms
Early cyanobacteria are thought to be responsible for the liberation of molecular oxygen into Earth's primitive atmosphere.

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. first dinosaurs
b. first bacteria
c. first amphibians
d. first primates
e. oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere
f. first land plants
g. first birds

b, e, f, c, a, g, d,
The time-frames in the geological timescale generally denote ___.

a. 10,000-year increments
b. 10-million-year increments
c. the reappearance of certain life-forms
d. transitions in life-forms
e. the appearance of larger life-forms

d. transitions in life-forms
The first life on Earth may have been:

a. eukaryotic cells
b. RNA molecules
c. bacteria
d. formed on land
e. algae

b. RNA molecules
Which of the following characteristics of early plants were adaptations to life on land? (Select all that apply)

a. multicellularity
b. outer cuticle
c. photosynthesis
d. lack of vertical growth
e. internal embryonic development

b, d, e
What is the order of evolution among the following organisms, earliest first?

a. amphibians
b. lobe-finned fish
c. mammals
d. reptiles
e. primates

b, a, d, c, e
Photosynthesis was an important innovation in the history of life because (select all that apply):

a. it allowed RNA to replicate itself
b. it put large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
c. it allowed living things to capture energy from the sun
d. it brought about the production of large amount of food
e. it helped the Earth to warm

a, c, d
Mitochondria and chloroplasts (select all that apply):

a. are organelles within cells
b. have a bacterial structure
c. were early protists
d. resulted from symbiosis
e. appeared late in evolutionary history

a, b, d
What is the order of the evolution among the following organisms, earliest first:

a. gymnosperms
b. green algae
c. seedless vascular plants
d. bryophtes
e. angiosperms

b, d, c, a, e
Which of the following eukaryotic organelles are believed to have evolved through endosymbiosis?

• nucleus and mitochondrion
• mitochondrion and chloroplast
• nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum
• chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum

mitochondrion and chloroplast
What were the first animals to move from water to land?

• tetrapods
• arthropods
• amphibians
• reptiles

arthropods
Which of the following statements best describes the history of life on Earth?

• The Earth had multicellular life-forms for most of its history.
• The Earth was lifeless far longer than it had living things.
• The Earth had photosynthetic organisms about 100 million years after it formed.
• The Earth had single-celled life-forms for most of its history.

The Earth had single-celled life-forms for most of its history.
What was the Cambrian explosion?

• the large increase in the diversity of prokaryotes about 600 million years ago
• the origin and adaptive radiation of numerous phyla of animals
• a large meteor that struck the Earth, resulting in mass extinctions (your response)
• the massive increase in volcanic activity on Earth at the end of the Precambrian era

the large increase in the diversity of prokaryotes about 600 million years ago
Which of the following was responsible for the initial accumulation of molecular oxygen in Earth's atmosphere about 2 billion years ago?

• production of O2 from the photosynthetic activity of early bacteria
• liberation of O2 from deep-sea volcanic vents
• production of O2 from the oxidation of iron in Earth's crust
• production of O2 by photosynthetic protists

production of O2 from the photosynthetic activity of early bacteria
If a 10-mile-wide comet hit Earth, how would this likely affect the history of life?

• Most species would become extinct, and the rest would remain more or less unchanged.
• A slow climate warming and drying would begin, decreasing the biological diversity on Earth.
• Continental drift would be reversed, and all the continents would slowly be pushed together again.
• A mass extinction would occur, followed by lots of evolutionary change among descendants of the survivors.

A mass extinction would occur, followed by lots of evolutionary change among descendants of the survivors.
The amniotic egg was important in the colonization of the land because it:

• was deposited in water.
• could hold multiple embryos.
• had a hard shell and membranes to prevent drying out.
• was easy to produce.

had a hard shell and membranes to prevent drying out.
Which of the following early adaptations was instrumental in allowing plants to leave the water and occupy the land environment?

• a cuticle on the surface of the leaves
• cones
• seeds
• flowers

a cuticle on the surface of the leaves
Which of the following is a correct sequence of events in the history of life on Earth?

• Cambrian explosion, multicellular organisms, photosynthesis, eukaryotes
• prokaryotes, photosynthesis, eukaryotes, land organisms
• prokaryotes, eukaryotes, land animals, land plants
• aquatic organisms, photosynthesis, RNA world, land organisms

prokaryotes, photosynthesis, eukaryotes, land organisms
Which of the following do matching strata and fossils on the eastern coast of South America and the western coast of Africa indicate?

• The extinct animals were very good swimmers.
• The two continents were once connected at this area.
• The Atlantic Ocean is shrinking.
• The continents were both a part of Laurasia.

The two continents were once connected at this area.
The research project of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey was important because it showed how __________.

• an asteroid could have wiped out the dinosaurs
• the molecular characteristics of life could have arisen spontaneously from nonliving matter.
• bacteria evolved from algae
• plants invaded the terrestrial environment

the molecular characteristics of life could have arisen spontaneously from nonliving matter.
Which important organic compounds did Harold Urey and Stanley Miller synthesize in a glass sphere?

• amino acids
• cholesterol
• lipids
• carbohydrates

amino acids
What were the first animals to move from water to land?

• tetrapods
• arthropods
• amphibians
• reptiles

arthropods
What do chloroplasts and mitochondria have in common?

• Both are all present in animal cells.
• Both are present in all eukaryotic cells.
• Both contain their own genetic material.
• Neither is present in plant cells.

Both contain their own genetic material.
Eukaryotes were able to adapt to an oxygen-rich environment through ______.

• the evolution of glycolysis
• a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that produced mitochondria
• the evolution and synthesis of mitochondria
• a fusion event that produced chloroplasts

the evolution and synthesis of mitochondria
Which of the following was responsible for the initial accumulation of molecular oxygen in Earth's atmosphere about 2 billion years ago?

• production of O2 from the photosynthetic activity of early bacteria
• liberation of O2 from deep-sea volcanic vents
• production of O2 from the oxidation of iron in Earth's crust
• production of O2 by photosynthetic protists

production of O2 from the photosynthetic activity of early bacteria
Early cyanobacteria are thought to be responsible for the liberation of molecular oxygen into Earth's primitive atmosphere. Which of these effects was achieved through the liberation of oxygen from cyanobacteria?

• It paved the way for the development of chlorophyll in green plants.
• It caused the mutations that resulted in the formation of aerobic cellular respiration.
• It provided the oxygen necessary for aerobic respiration.
• It caused the mutations that resulted in the formation of photosynthesis.

It provided the oxygen necessary for aerobic respiration.
The Cambrian explosion of life is most notable for the:

• appearance of multicellular animals, including nearly all phyla of the animal kingdom.
• appearance of the first photosynthetic organisms.
• movement of life from the oceans to the land masses, including all kingdoms.
• appearance of stromatolites.

appearance of multicellular animals, including nearly all phyla of the animal kingdom.
Which of the following would support a hypothesis that insects preceded amphibians on land and were flourishing when the first amphibians evolved?

• Amphibians and insects have many adaptations in common.
• Amphibians and insects share a recent common ancestor.
• Amphibians and insects both have lungs in their terrestrial stage.
• Many amphibians eat insects in their terrestrial stage

Many amphibians eat insects in their terrestrial stage
The Cambrian explosion of life is most notable for the:

• appearance of multicellular animals, including nearly all phyla of the animal kingdom.
• appearance of the first photosynthetic organisms.
• movement of life from the oceans to the land masses, including all kingdoms.
• appearance of stromatolites.

appearance of multicellular animals, including nearly all phyla of the animal kingdom.
Early cyanobacteria are thought to be responsible for the liberation of molecular oxygen into Earth's primitive atmosphere. Which of these effects was achieved through the liberation of oxygen from cyanobacteria?

• It paved the way for the development of chlorophyll in green plants.
• It caused the mutations that resulted in the formation of aerobic cellular respiration.
• It provided the oxygen necessary for aerobic respiration.
• It caused the mutations that resulted in the formation of photosynthesis.

It provided the oxygen necessary for aerobic respiration.
Eukaryotes were able to adapt to an oxygen-rich environment through ______.

• the evolution of glycolysis
• a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that produced mitochondria
• the evolution and synthesis of mitochondria
• a fusion event that produced chloroplasts

the evolution and synthesis of mitochondria
The geologic record provides much evidence that life originated on Earth about _________.

• 100,000 years ago
• 1 million years ago
• 1 billion years ago
• more than 3 billion years ago

more than 3 billion years ago
Which of the following statements best describes the history of life on Earth?

• The Earth had multicellular life-forms for most of its history.
• The Earth was lifeless far longer than it had living things.
• The Earth had photosynthetic organisms about 100 million years after it formed.
• The Earth had single-celled life-forms for most of its history.

The Earth had single-celled life-forms for most of its history.
The geologic timescale is divided into several eras or epochs of time. What are the major events that separate those eras?

• dominant animal forms
• major lunar events
• major extinction events
• major solar events

major extinction events
Continental drift has had profound effects on evolution

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