cog exam 1

Analytic introspection
A procedure used by early psychologists in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes elicited by stimuli presented under controlled conditions.
Artificial intelligence
The ability of a computer to perform tasks usually associated with human intelligence.
Behavioral approach
Studying the mind by measuring a persons behavior and explaining this behavior in behavioral terms.
Behaviorism
The approach to psychology, founded by John B. Watson, which states that observable behavior provides the only valid data for psychology. A consequence of this idea is that consciousness and unobservable mental processes are not considered worthy of study by psychologists.
Choice reaction time
Reacting to one of two or more stimuli. For example, in Donders experiment (see Chapter 1), participants had to make one response to one stimulus and a different response to another stimulus.
Classical conditioning
A procedure in which pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response causes the neutral stimulus to elicit that response.
We will write a custom essay sample on
Any topic specifically for you
For only $13.90/page
Order Now
Cognition
The mental processes involved in perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and making decisions.
Cognitive map
Mental conception of a spatial layout.
Cognitive psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mental processes involved in perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making. In short, cognitive psychology is concerned with the scientific study of the mind and mental processes.
Cognitive revolution
A shift in psychology, beginning in the 1950s, from the behaviorist approach to an approach in which the main thrust was to explain behavior in terms of the mind. One of the outcomes of the cognitive revolution was the introduction of the informationprocessing approach to studying the mind.
Informationprocessing approach
The approach to psychology, developed beginning in the 1950s, in which the mind is described as processing information through a sequence of stages.
Logic theorist
Computer program devised by Alan Newell and Herbert Simon that was able to solve logic problems.
Mind
System that creates and controls mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking, and reasoning, and that creates mental representations of the world.
Model
In cognitive psychology, a representation of the workings of the mind; often presented as interconnected boxes that each represent the operation of specific mental functions.
Operant conditioning & who
Type of conditioning championed by B. F. Skinner, which focuses on how behavior is strengthened by presentation of positive reinforcers, such as food or social approval, or withdrawal of negative reinforcers, such as a shock or social rejection.
Physiological approach
Studying the mind by measuring physiological and behavioral responses, and explaining behavior in physiological terms.
Reaction time
The time it takes for a person to react to a stimulus. This is usually determined by measuring the time between presentation of a stimulus and the persons response to the stimulus. Examples of responses are pushing a button, saying a word, moving the eyes, and the appearance of a particular brain wave.
Savings method
Method used to measure retention in Ebbinghauss memory experiments. He read lists of nonsense syllables and determined how many repetitions it took to repeat the lists with no errors. He then repeated this procedure after various intervals following initial learning and compared the number of repetitions needed to achieve no errors.
Simple reaction time
Reacting to the presence or absence of a single stimulus (as opposed to having to choose between a number of stimuli before making a response). See also Choice reaction time.
Structuralism
An approach to psychology that explained perception as the adding up of small elementary units called sensations.
Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology con-cerned
with the scientific study of the mind.
The mind creates and controls
mental capacities such as perception, attention, and memory, and creates represen- tations of the world that enable us to function.
The work of Donders
(simple vs. choice reaction time) and Ebbinghaus (the forgetting curve for nonsense syl-lables) are examples of early experimental research on the mind.
Because the operation of the mind cannot be observed
directly, its operation must be inferred from what we can measure, such as behavior or physiological respond-ing. This is one of the basic principles of cognitive psychology.
The first laboratory of scientific psychology,
founded by Wundt in 1879, was concerned largely with studying the mind. Structuralism was the dominant theoretical approach of this laboratory, and analytic introspection was one of the major methods used to collect data.
William James,
in the United States, used observations of his own behavior as the basis of his textbook, Principles of Psychology.
In the first decades of the 20th century, XXXX founded behaviorism, partly in reaction to structuralism and the method of analytic introspection.
WATSON His procedures were based on classical conditioning. Behaviorisms central tenet was that psychology was properly studied by mea- suring observable behavior, and that invisible mental pro- cesses were not valid topics for the study of psychology
Beginning in the 1930s and 40s, XXXXs work
SKINNER on operant conditioning assured that behaviorism would be the dominant force in psychology through the 1950s.
In the 1950s,
a number of events occurred that led to what has been called the cognitive revolutiona decline in the influence of behaviorism and the reemergence of the study of the mind. These events included the follow- ing: (a) Chomskys critique of Skinners book Verbal Behavior; (b) the introduction of the digital computer and the idea that the mind processes information in stages, like computers; (c) Cherrys attention experiments and Broadbents introduction of flow diagrams to depict the processes involved in attention; and (d) interdisci- plinary conferences at Dartmouth and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The phenomenon of XXXX was used to illustrate how answering one question can lead to many additional questions, and how cognitive psychologists study the mind by using both behavioral and physiologi- cal approaches. Using these two approaches together results in a more complete understanding of how the mind operates than using either one alone.
MEMORY CONSOLIDATION
Models XXX
play an essential role in cognitive psychol- ogy, by helping organize data from many experiments. Broadbents model of attention is an example of one of the early models in cognitive psychology. It is important to realize that models such as this one are constantly being revised in response to new data, and also that the boxes in these models often do not correspond to areas in the brain.
Analytic introspection
A procedure used by early psychologists in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes elicited by stimuli presented under controlled conditions.
Artificial intelligence
The ability of a computer to perform tasks usually associated with human intelligence.
Behavioral approach Studying the mind by
measuring a persons behavior and explaining this behavior in behavioral terms.
Behaviorism The approach to psychology, founded by XXXXXX which states that
Watson observable behavior provides the only valid data for psychology. A consequence of this idea is that consciousness and unobservable mental processes are not considered worthy of study by psychologists.
Classical conditioning
A procedure in which pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response causes the neutral stimulus to elicit that response.
Cognition
The mental processes involved in perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and making decisions.
Cognitive map
Mental conception of a spatial layout.
Cognitive psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mental processes involved in perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making. In short, cognitive psychology is concerned with the scientific study of the mind and mental processes.
Informationprocessing approach The approach to psychology, developed beginning in the 1950s, in which the mind is described as processing information through a sequence of stages.
A shift in psychology, beginning in the 1950s, from the behaviorist approach to an approach in which the main thrust was to explain behavior in terms of the mind. One of the outcomes of the cognitive revolution was the introduction of the informationprocessing approach to studying the mind.
Logic theorist
Computer program devised by Alan Newell and Herbert Simon that was able to solve logic problems.
Mind System
that creates and controls mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking, and reasoning, and that creates mental representations of the world.
Model In cognitive psychology,
a representation of the workings of the mind; often presented as interconnected boxes that each represent the operation of specific mental functions.
Operant conditioning T
ype of conditioning championed by B. F. Skinner, which focuses on how behavior is strengthened by presentation of positive reinforcers, such as food or social approval, or withdrawal of negative reinforcers, such as a shock or social rejection.
Physiological approach
Studying the mind by measuring physiological and behavioral responses, and explaining behavior in physiological terms.
Reaction time
The time it takes for a person to react to a stimulus. This is usually determined by measuring the time between presentation of a stimulus and the persons response to the stimulus. Examples of responses are pushing a button, saying a word, moving the eyes, and the appearance of a particular brain wave.
Savings method
Method used to measure retention in Ebbinghauss memory experiments. He read lists of nonsense syllables and determined how many repetitions it took to repeat the lists with no errors. He then repeated this procedure after various intervals following initial learning and compared the number of repetitions needed to achieve no errors.
Simple reaction time
Reacting to the presence or absence of a single stimulus (as opposed to having to choose between a number of stimuli before making a response). See also Choice reaction time.
Structuralism
An approach to psychology that explained perception as the adding up of small elementary units called sensations.
The main point of the Donders’ reaction time experiments was to:
measure the amount of time it takes to make a decision.
In Donders’ experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press a button upon presentation of a light, they were engaged in a:
simple reaction time task.
In Donders’ experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press one button if the light on the left was illuminated and another button if the light on the right was illuminated, they were engaged in a:
choice reaction time task.
Reaction time refers to the time between the ________ of a stimulus and a person’s response to it.
presentation
Which of the following is a criticism of analytic introspection
It produces variable results from person to person.
Behaviorists believe that the presentation of ________ increases the frequency of behavior.
positive reinforcers
Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?
Tolman
A mental conception of the layout of a physical space is known as:
a cognitive map.
Which of the following events is most closely associated with the decline of behaviorism as an approach to psychology?
Skinner’s publication of the book, Verbal Behavior
Your text describes the occurrence of a “cognitive revolution” during which dramatic changes took place in the way psychology was studied. This so-called “revolution” occurred parallel to (and, in part, because of) the introduction of:
computers.
According to your text, the behavioral approach to the study of the mind involves:
measuring the relation between stimuli and behavior
The process during which information is strengthened and transformed into a strong memory that is resistant to interference is known as
memory consolidation.
Gais et al.’s research on the impact of sleep on memory consolidation illustrates which type of approach to the study of the operations of the mind?
Physiological
Cognitive psychology is
the branch of psychology concerned with the scientif c study of the mind. coined 1967
although many studies were done in the 1800’s and prior to 67
Cognition:
Mental process involved with perception, attention, memory, problem solving, reasoning and decision making
1800’s thought
not possible to study mind
bc the mind can’t study itself and some of it’s properties just can’t be measured
Biggest contribution of behaviorist
get psychologist to focus on scientific method and use tried and true science. do aay with subjectivity
also likely a reaction to Freud. !800’s had freud watson and pavlove
JOHN WATSON proposed new approach called behaviorism
Biggest contribution of behaviorist
get psychologist to focus on scientific method and use tried and true science. do aay with subjectivity
name 3 things contribute to decline of behaviorism
Industrial age – measure thought process. Getting weird results by only studying behavior (thing factory line behavior changed when observed). So Attention became the catch all to explain weird stuff
Language debates
Skinner (language imiated and rewarded)
Chomsky (language aquistion)
name 4-6 things contribute to decline of behaviorism
misbehavior of organisim
Garcia bright noisy water
Tolman – rats (conceputal map not just turning right for food)
Cognitive Revolution
still measures mental events through behaviors
started studying the mind through what approach
“information-processing-approach”
cognitive revloution and the computer
developed in 40’s. IMB made available to public in 54

Simon and Newel create logic theorist (program that solves math theorms)
Miller presents paper on 7 + – 2

flow diagrams

flow diagram – apart of cog revolution
Flow diagrams for digital coms
psycholgost interested in how computers use inforamation in linear process. have input process, then memory unit, then arthmetic unit, then output
of the mind
Cherry’s experiment (pay attention to the attended message) ignore the unattended message
then broadben made flow diagram / filter model
MEmory Consolidatin from behavioral persepctive
memory for recent stuff is frageile (like get hit and forget what doing prior) didn’t have time to consolidate memory
muller and pilzecker – show list back to back not as likely to recall. show list wait and another list remember more
gias — sleeping right after learning better memory why? Not sure mambye consolidating then mabye not having interference stimuli
memory consolidation from phisological persepctive
Flexer found inject mice with chemical ihbit synethics proteins inhibit consolidation
memory consolidation
Models of the mind
often mke complicated system easier to understand
helps provide starting point by giving questions to ask
Artificial Intelligence
1965 marv vekensky (Father of AI) – computer see the world. Eyes and camera like the same. Both can output. Difference – understanding and differinating background stuff and shapes and meanings like chairs all diff shapes, sizes, functions. Computer can’t do it.
or is it Newell and Simon
created logic theorist
this program could create proofs of math theorms. It solved problems
John Mc Carthy – math professory talked about it at conference first time used term AI
Pavlov (1890_
dog salivate
Classical Conditioning take netural event (unconditioned stimuli) and pair with conditioned stimuli (produces unconditioned response). Eventually the unconditioned stimuli will elicit a conditioned response. Take bell (US) pair to food (CS). Ring bell after paired elecit (CR) salivation. Salvation to food = UR
Skinner (50’s)
Operant conditioning
behavior dictated by experience/outcome. I wear sweater bc you say you like it
wanted to know relationship between stimuli and response
shape bhevior by rewards/punishment. Rewarded behavior repeated. Punished behavior less ilkely to occur
Language
thought children learned through operant conditioning. Imitating what they hear and being rewarded/punished
Tolman – rats and maps
behaviorist but used cognitive stuff two
trained rats in maze.
behaviorist thought rats just learned to turn right for food
put them in different area they found the food. Thought rats have concpeutal map
Watson
thought introspection/mind difficult bc varied from person to person and difficulty to verify invisible inner mental process
eliminated mind as topic of study. Waste of time. just look at observable behaviors
Little Albert
classical conditioning
founder of behaviorism
Paper “Psychology as the bheaviorist views it”
intrspection is worthless
observable behavior (not consciouness) is the way to go
Breland
operant conditionin of racoon
showed need for biological predispostion
simillar to misbheavior of animals
Breland
operant conditionin of racoon
showed need for biological predispostion
simillar to misbheavior of animals
Cherry
Cherry Cocktail party effect (goes with information processing approach)
did study listen to story in one ear and another story in another ear. Trying to ignore second story. If you hear your name it’ll break though.
came from information processing idea
Chomsky (1959) – language
Children say things never heard
children show conceptual understanding for things even when not rewarded (he goed to the store)
father of modern linguistics
kids don’t learn language through imitation/refinorcemtn
thin lnauage inborn biological program)
think we have a lnaguage aquisition device but can’t show it anywhere
Donald Broad bent
first to develop flow charts for mental processsess
shows information processing in sequence
flow diagram: Filter model of attention. many messages enter the filter that selects the message to attend to for further processing by the dector then to storage/memory
Ebbinghaus (85) – memory
Found savings/forgetting curve function of rentention interval
found we forget most within 2 days
He’d learn a list of trigrams and see how long it took him to learn until perfection, and then when put away how long took to relearn
One of the first modern researchers to study memory by assessigng a behavior (inital reps, response right)
Savings or savings method = [(initial repetitions) – (relearning repetitions)] / (initial repetitions) * 100
used trigrams (3 words/ letters) THAT ARE MEANINGLESS (so prior knowledge doesn’t interfere)
used a memory drum to lern
ebinghaus Found savings/forgetting curve function of
rentention interval
found we forget most within 2 days
ebbinhuas forgetting occurs most within–
2 days (ebinghause)
Savings or savings method ebbinhaus
= [(initial repetitions) – (relearning repetitions)] / (initial repetitions) * 100
ebbinghuas used
He’d learn a list of trigrams and see how long it took him to learn until perfection, and then when put away how long took to relearn

used trigrams (3 words/ letters) THAT ARE MEANINGLESS (so prior knowledge doesn’t interfere)
used a memory drum to lern

Frances Donder 1868 (group is in flashcards not indvidual)
first experiment in cognitive psychology & taught us that we can’t observe directly but must infer mental processes

• Interest in how long to make decision- Measured through THE DIFFERENCE in REACTION TIME between simple and choice. TAKES 1/10 second to choose what button to push

Mental Chronometry
= measure the time course of mental events through subtractive methods. Like whats the difference between hard task and easy task in reaction time. This reflects mental events. Too much variability and can’t account for process exactly
o One of the most widely used experimental methods
first experiment in cognitive psychology & taught us that we can’t observe directly but must infer mental processes
donders
how long to make decision
• Interest in how long to make decision- Measured through THE DIFFERENCE in REACTION TIME between simple and choice. TAKES 1/10 second to choose what button to push
o Reaction time – time between presentation of stimuli and response. Reaction time is a BEHAVIOR. He wants to study mental process but can’t do it directly so you infer.
? Types
• Simple reaction time – respond to stimuli – Just 1 if see light
• Choice reaction time – decide type of response based upon stimulus – Did forced choices like hit button 1 if see blue or button 2 if see red
• Simple reaction time
– respond to stimuli – Just 1 if see light
• Choice reaction time
– decide type of response based upon stimulus – Did forced choices like hit button 1 if see blue or button 2 if see red
Gais 2006
students learn 24 english germ vocab words
sleep group studies words and sleeps 3 hours
awake studies words stay up 10 hours
both tested 24-36 hours after
students in the sleep group forgot less material
does something special happen while asleep or just preventin interferring stimuli mess with you?
also later did it again and found that hypothatlum activated more in sleeping group and not as much in group who didn’t get to sleep. so immediate sleep helps stregten the memory trace in hypothalum
gais 2006 found
also later did it again and found that hypothatlum activated more in sleeping group and not as much in group who didn’t get to sleep. so immediate sleep helps stregten the memory trace in hypothalum
Garcia – bright noisy water
Behaviorist thought anything could be paired with anything. Not true. External events seem to pair better with external events and internal events better with internal.
When they paired a loud noise and radiation rats acted if water made them sick.
When they paired shocking with light bulb they’d continue to drink wanter.
Helmholts – 1860
– assumptions/infer
some of our perceptions are result of assumptions we make about enviorment
we infer a lot and as a result the way we think we think and the way we really think are quite different
Miller
writes paper 7 + – 2 and presents it
Misbehavior of Organisims (61)
thought they were just being bad
tried to condition pig to put coin in slot. Didnt work. Built in instricts (rooting) prevailed
Muller and Pilzecker
immidate group = learn one list and then immedatiely a second list. Delay group. Learn one list wait 6 min lern 2nd list. delay remember 48% immediate 28. Showing hte second list immidately interupted forming of stable memory/memory consolidation
Neissser (67)
publishes Cognitive Psychology textbook. Coins the term cog psychology
empahsizes info processing approach
Newell and Simon
Artificial IQ
problem solving with coms and proving math theorms
created logic theorist
this program could create proofs of math theorms. It solved problems
Posner – conceputal recognition
took combos of letters AA Aa BB Bb Ab AB bA ba. found that it took like 60 milseconds for your brain to like AA to Aa. Basically when first presented with AA or BB you respond they are the same quickly. When you see Aa you don’t respond as quickly initally bc they look different but after hardly anytime you’ve got it and Aa is the same as AA or aa in your mind
Principes of Psychology 1890
William James
Principes of Psychology 1890 f – taught Harvards first psychology course
didn’t use experiments just introspections but covered quite a bredath of stuff
Stroop Effect J.R. STROOP 35
designed to study serial verbal reactions. Reaction time measured on two occasionas and compared
concluded that difference in reaction time due to peoples inability to ignore words
shows incongruent info is harder to process (and take longer) than congruent
with practice reaction times quicker but still occurs
word names interefere with naming ink color
Wundt (1897)
Approach: Structuralism -experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations – almost like recipe combine for cake
FIRST psychology Lab in lwepizig germany
MethodAnalytic introspection: participants trained to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli – could gain some insight (hemholtz did introspection) considered to subjective
Reaction times
Student of Fitt’s (who was former military)
Student of Fitt’s (who was former military)
Time to point can be estimated by distance and size of object ( distance and size of object accounts for speed. Accounting for data very well). (good model – accounts for the data, simple (fit’s accounts for like 90% of data – by adding more varriables and accounting for more data better? If your around 95% with less variables were happy)
Video games good bad – react for visual targets improves performance.
Very influential model, even for CS, AI (fitt’s . say want to get in game design consider game not so hard can’t click on obj to attack but not to challenging.
ilized the subtractive model — posner
(google… Posner website—Subtractive method exp. Your in mri monitor blood look at nothing then pic doc. Subtract 1 print from another. Here brain the 2nd part shows how brain look @ dog.
Research ranges from perception, attention and neuroscien
Cognitive science
includes linguistics (what’s appropriate and whats not why not big red balloon why red large ballon – study order, computer science, neuroscience, anthropology, artificial intelligence, and philosophy – whole tracks now not just psychology in some areas.. Big blue – 1st computer to beat someone at Chess – Big blue is stupid just goes through algorthism compute moves. No thought or inference.
Posner
Student of Fitt’s (who was former military)
Time to point can be estimated by distance and size of object ( distance and size of object accounts for speed. Accounting for data very well). (good model – accounts for the data, simple (fit’s accounts for like 90% of data – by adding more varriables and accounting for more data better? If your around 95% with less variables were happy)
Video games good bad – react for visual targets improves performance.
Very influential model, even for CS, AI (fitt’s . say want to get in game design consider game not so hard can’t click on obj to attack but not to challenging.
cognitive science per chapter
includes linguistics (what’s appropriate and whats not why not big red balloon why red large ballon – study order, computer science, neuroscience, anthropology, artificial intelligence, and philosophy – whole tracks now not just psychology in some areas.. Big blue – 1st computer to beat someone at Chess – Big blue is stupid just goes through algorthism compute moves. No thought or inference.
Biederman (1987)
view invariant- can be recognized almost regardless of the angle it is viewed from
Discriminability- geons can be differentiated from one another
Perceptual organization- organizing the elements of the environment into objects—BINDING PROBLEM.. how do you figure out what binds to what. –shadow tell you info how to tell a computer shadow isn’t you but yours helps tell you where you are relevant to object. Complex task
Attention* ( shows again bottom up model ) is not required in the model
Memory consolidation
Process by which experiences or information that has entered the memory system becomes strengthened so it is resistant to interference caused by trauma or other events. / Process by which experiences or information that has entered the memory system becomes strengthened so it is resistant to interference caused by trauma or other events.
perceptual organization
Old” view – structuralism
Perception involves adding up sensations
New” vie perceputal organization
w – Gestalt psychologists
The mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization – no wont add up.. whole more sum than it’s parts. Like eat cookie don’t think hmm tasty flour eggs etc. think yummy cookie
Play roll but not end all in perceputal organization
WERTHEIMER & KOHLER
(generalizability problem. Better in lab than real world. Isomorphisim occurs too.
PROXIMITY – close together time and space group them as being alike
SIMILARITY (lightness, orientation, size)
CLOSURE
GOOD CONTINUATION
FIGURE/GROUND ORIENTATION
PROBLEMS : GENERALIZABILITY & ISOMORPHISM!
OW DO OBJECTS DIFFER?
– proximity and simillarity occurs together which guides percpetion – no hard and fast rule. Can’t really use in structured factor. Like first similarity then proximity = not true so it’s not predicitive.
They differ in – how do objects differ
They facilitate initial visual processing. What elements impt. Not really maybe to differinate lemon from lime. Erv Biderman took line drawings objc colored or black and white. No time difference in recognization. Contrary to that if you put the wrong color it does mess you up a little.
COLOR
MOVEMENT
SHAPE
DEPTH
Template matching- pattern recognition
match to whole form to a template in memory
too much variance in the signa
Idea take simple stimuli like A the notion is you have like a stamp in your head and you compare this to the template. Match enough. To much variation in the signal. Like we all have different hand writing. So many fonts usually no trouble recognize A
Feature detection models- — pattern dedection
recognition is based upon element or features.
Features are present or absent like the 3 lines. Like a little better easier to put in computer. Doesn’t have to be template matching. Accounts for more variance.
pattern dection feature analysis models
Feature analysis models- detects fea tures
evaluates strong or weak evidence for the presence of a feature
Pattern Perception – Template Matching
Compare stimuli to exact template stored in memory
Not likely
Prototype matching – Pattern Perception
== we think it’s really more prototype matching and exemplar models!
Compare stimuli to abstract general representation stored in memory. Penguin bad prototype
Feature approach to object perception — Parallel distrupted processing model
Parallel distrupted processing model
Parallel done at same time or with each other
Distrubuted share work
Processing – goal process letter for word
Multiple people set up for party at same time. Someone cleaning someone inviting
Serieal model – do one thing at a time. A then B then C. like party. Clean house. Then buy stuff. Then set up. Then invite
How “word” analyized feature decteros that like lines of certain orientation like thats what letters are. Each send excitatory and inhibitory info. These feature levelse or input goes to letter level then world level. Example of parallel based on feature approach. Don’t need lots of storage for this bc based on features…basically whatever it is on each level that has the most activation wins out
a model of letter recognition
Feature-analysis stage
Feature (detection) units are activated by specific properties
Horizontal or slanted line
Visual system determines which letter unit is activated most strongly
Feature approach to object perception -Letter-analysis stage
a letter unit is activated when all the features present in it are available
Multiple letter units may be activated, but the strongest will respond the most – like A and V could be activated but – get A the most.
Features provide greater flexibility then strict template matching, but would still far very short of humans abilities
Better than template matching in terms of space storage
Evidence for feature detectors
Neural feature detectors have been found
Interactive Activation Model-Parallel Distributed Processing
Recognition occurs through facilitation and inhibition of units on the across and within levels of analysis
Evidence for- word superiority effect
Typical experiment present letter K and D byself and “word” or “work” or wolik. Is K present? Where recognize/process K fastest? You actually recognize work quicker. Measure reaction time. As quick and maybe slightly quicker with K then work but benefit doesn’t happen with non-word. Reaction time experiment. Why? Must be processiong the letters in parallel – meaning all at once not letter by letter. Facillation between the letters bc meaningful package each idnvidua letter aids recognition other letters. Top down feedback from word level. Phenomology does play role in lexical acess but WSE still occurs independent of phenmonology.
Really activation of cells through net gain of inhibitory and excitatory representations. You’ll have talking among cells across and up . F – see | yay but not /
Visual search experiments – Neisser (1964) –
1st book written cognitive psychology
search for a target amongst distracters
search time increases with increased similarity
Harder to find object if all objects look siillar to it.
Treisman(1986)
Search time is effected by both type and number of distracters
Couple variables at play search time, ability to detect target not based just on target simllarity but # of dstractors as well. Easier to find peron if 5 people instead of 500
treistman and pop out
Pop-out effect
targets with unique features have a flat reaction time
Search time flat – doesn’t t osome extent how many distractors with it. Like blue mohawk
Non-pop-out targets
show a linear reaction time – super cool with linear you can make straight forward predictions
Search time increases with # of distracters
Feature integration theory treisman preattentive illusory conejction
Treisman(1986) – basically if unique feature pops out. Otherwise stimuli without unique features but share features with other things around it- the features become conjoined it’s an illusion. Nothing unique to help identify == camoflouge look super simillar or opposite look super different and you’ll be noticed more.
Preattentive stage
doesn’t require any attention or effort by the perceiver
Bc pops out
Illusory conjuctions
combing features from separate stimulus together, provides evidence that the features are initially separate
Feature integration theory treisman focused attention stage
Treisman(1986)
Have preattentive stage and focused – autopiot just pops out
Focused attention stage
combines the features together
involves attention/effort by the perceiver
Preattentive-
first stage of perception according to tresisman
Pop out effect-happens to unique feature
Curvature, tilt, and color are basic features create pop out
ILLUSORY CONJUNCTION –
that we see simillar features that is bound…HER TERMINOLOGY IS WRONG ATTENTION IS MORE A SOLVENT GETS AWAY GLUE- IS IT EFFEORT TRYING TO FIND WHATS UNQIUE. PHYSICALLY ALREADY BOUND TOGETHER. FEATURES ARE ALREADY SHARED. IT’S YOUR ATTNETION THAT SEPRATES THEM OUT. YOUR NOT TRYING TO FLUE FEATURES TOGETHER BUT SEPERATE THEM OUT! EXAM
error triesman
She did not account for texture/ spatial density
Bad terminology
Like how many elements presented in given area influences. Like 1 object far left 5 objects far right can see.
context effect
Similar to word superiority effect – indvidual letters help you identify particular letter. The rest of the scene helps you idenitfy a partiuclar elemnt. There is an object superiority effect. See _ see it in a cube recognize it quicker.
Put floating couch – harder time recognize it out of context – why not pop out? Maybe bc same base elemtns?
.
Top down effects
First one yes fire hydrant. 2nd scene out of order takes longer.
Word superiority effect
Individuals can recognize letters presented in a word more quickly and accurately than when presented in a random letter strings and as good as letters by themselves
Faciliation with the letters.. letters facillate you in recognizing the letters and word itself. –process all letters as quick as indvidual letter—in terms of global principles shows us -2 sources of info we process ( top down and bottom up) so with the letters its top down – concepts preexisting knowledge of word helps you idneitfy letters faster. Strong evidence for top down processing.
Object superiority effect- same thing with lines and objects
Structuralism-
adding up the elementary units called sensations
Gestalt psychologists stated that the elements sum up to more then the individual components
how do we make sense
heuristic and algorthims
Heuristic
gestalt psychology provide more of a heuristic, sometimes was wrong
Aside from top down bottom up is with a heuristic or algorthim (heuristic doens’t guarantee rightanswer but more often than not right. Computers work on algorthiims while we like heuristic. Herustici. Go tomacys coupon 30% then an addition 20% off. Few caculate price are like hooray about 1/3 off then 1/5 off. Rough estimate. Guestimate. Good enough. Like when cooking not using meauring spoons etc. algotthim u follow it exactly. You can define it step by step procedure.
Algorithm
procedure guaranteed to produce the correct result – sometimes need exact answer sometimes don’t. In terms of problem solving how can you get algortihm to work on ill defined problem like world peach – can’t not well defined etc. heuristic would help.SEALS good pick a basketball good at shooting pick up other peoples signs etc. one of helicopters crashed had to imrpovise and work together
Producing AI doesn’t work with alorgorthi mbc people don’t work like that.
Intelligence of object perception
Why computers can’t see
The Stimulus on the receptors is ambiguous -like a rectangle could be a square a piece of paper a table. Need lots of top down processing to figure it out.
Inverse projection problem- many different objects can present the same image to the retina – Biderman all knowledge needed In visual enviorment is there not correct. Geon. Should be able to differinate componet parts. How differinate cow and horse. Largely same geons.
Binding problem – how do you figure out what is bound to what. Like nothing in world says you hand is still you hand even if in front of blackboard.
Lowe non-accidental properities – took maxwell can then threw razors in the can. So razors look different and all different ways when looking from the top. Whole bunch object diffferent lines and orientations he could get the computer to bind individual lies to indivudal razors- monumental task with power coms had in the 80’s. To understand some lines belong to a particular razor and not another even when all same lines is monumental task.
Hidden parts – not everything is exposed to you always. Like him walking in front of table you still know his legs are there. How do you do that?
Reasons for changes in lighting’ – ball and shadow task like shadows are seen as part of you but not. Like we get lots of info. Bounce or not. & brain corrects for differences in light automatically. Like characol is brighter in a room then white paper but our brain corrects for it and says white paper. Pretty cool checkerboard colors with shadow. You see light color squares as all light squares but really the ones in the shade are dark as darkest but color correct as goo.
No computer we have can really recognize/navigate like that’s a table and I know table is used to eat. It’d just know heres an object can’t go further.
Binding problem
– how do you figure out what is bound to what. Like nothing in world says you hand is still you hand even if in front of blackboard.
Lowe non-accidental properities – took maxwell can then threw razors in the can. So razors look different and all different ways when looking from the top. Whole bunch object diffferent lines and orientations he could get the computer to bind individual lies to indivudal razors- monumental task with power coms had in the 80’s. To understand some lines belong to a particular razor and not another even when all same lines is monumental task.
Occlusion heuristic
when a large object is partially covered by a smaller one, we see the larger one as continuing behind the occluder
Light-from-above heuristic- assume lighting sources are from above – like einsteins face.
Source of perceptual intelligence
Built in specialized circuits
Face perception
Specialization through evolution

Natural selection
neurons that provide most import information are likely to endure and be passed on
Yes there is still a level of plasticity interaction with enviorment

Specialization through experience
Experience-dependent plasticity
neurons develop based upon their exposure to stimuli
Fusiform face area (FFA)
rich patch of neurons that respond well to faces and other stimuli that have been studied extensively (cars for car experts)
George Miller
r = fiunder psycholingustics & word net (google) – lot of it based on psycholingustics

Miller = Magical # 7 + – 2. – channel capacity – We chunk info

Noam Chomsky =
Linguist – revolutionalized lingustic 3x
Bruner
A study of thinking – broke behaviorist taboo. Concept attainment. ==cool killed behaviorist bc sutdyied how people came up with categories which is different than behaviorist which thinks just ocnditioning. Here they have a strategy and you could watch them. =theory of mind=. *
Chomsky
– Three models for the description of language = we can produce sentences never heard shows we must have internalized rules and grammar not just refinorcment bc never heard it. Skinner thought just linera learning not. Chomsky showed how not linear and not constrained. **
Robert Teghtsoonian
and coworkers (1978) asked participants in a labo-
ratory situation to rate the odor intensity of different
odorants (chemical solutions with odors) and found
that their participants gave almost identical ratings
for weak sniffs and for strong sniffs

so even though you get more odor molecules you still smell it the same

hemholts theory of unconsicious inference
goes with likehood principes we preveice objts that are most likely to have caused pattern
gestalt laws of orgnaization
these laws are not really laws they are heuristics bc they don’t always 1000% work

things usually occur in the enviorment
law of good continuations : Points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly
curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the lines tend to be seen in such a way

The law of pragnanz, also called the law of good f gure
or the law of simplicity, states: Every stimulus pattern is seen in such
a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible

This perception illustrates the law of similarity:
Similar things appear to be grouped together.

law of familiarity, things that form
patterns that are familiar or meaningful are likely to be grouped together

psychologists have introduced the idea that perception is inf uenced
by our knowledge of regularities in the environment—
Physical regularities are regularly occurring physical properties
of the environment. For example, there are more vertical and horizontal orientations
in the environment than oblique (angled) orientations. This occurs in human-made
environments (for example, buildings contain lots of horizontals and verticals) and also
in natural environments (trees and plants are more likely to be vertical or horizontal
than slanted) (Coppola et al., 1998). It is therefore no coincidence that people can
perceive horizontals and verticals more easily than other orientations, an effect called
the oblique effect

The assumption that light is coming from above has
been called the light-from-above heuristic (Kleffner & Ramachandran, 1992). Apparently,
people make the light-from-above assumption because most light in our environment
comes from above.

Semantic
regularities are the characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different
types of scenes Most people who have grown up in modern society have little trouble visualizing
an off ce or the clothing section of a department store. What is important about this
ability, for our purposes, is that part of this visualization involves details within these
scenes. Most people see an off ce as having a desk with a computer on it, bookshelves,
and a chair. The department store scene contains racks of clothes, a changing room, and
perhaps a cash register.
What did you see when you visualized the microscope or the lion? Many people
report seeing not just a single object, but an object within a setting

Hollingworth (2005) had observers
ndrew Hollingworth (2005) had observers
study for 20 seconds a scene, such as the picture of the gym
in ● Figure 3.27, that contained a target object, such as the
barbell on the mat, or the same scene but without the target
object. Observers then saw a picture of the target object
alone in the center of the screen followed by a blank screen,
and were asked to move a cursor on the blank screen to the
place where the target object was in the scene they had just
seen (if they had seen the picture of the scene containing the
target object) or where they would expect to see the target
object in the scene (if they had seen the picture of the scene
but without the target object).
semantic knowledge on our ability to perceive was illustrated in an
experiment by Stephen Palmer (1975),
using stimuli like the picture in ● Figure 3.28. Palmer
f rst presented a context scene such as the one on the left and then brief y f ashed one of
the target pictures on the right. When Palmer asked observers to identify the object in the
target picture, they correctly identif ed an object like the loaf of bread (which is appropri-
ate to the kitchen scene) 80 percent of the time, but correctly identif ed the mailbox or the
drum (two objects that don’t f t into the scene) only 40 percent of the time. Apparently
Palmer’s observers were using their knowledge about kitchens to help them perceive the
brief y f ashed loaf of bread. The effect of semantic regularities is also illustrated by the
“multiple personalities of a blob” illustration in Figure 3.6, because our perception of
the blob depends on our knowledge of what is usually found in different types of scenes.
Blakemore and Graham Cooper (1970) f
Normally the kitten’s brain contains neurons
that respond to all orientations, ranging from horizontal to slanted to vertical, but Colin
Blakemore and Graham Cooper (1970) found that rearing a kitten in an environment
consisting only of verticals ( ● Figure 3.29a) reshaped the kitten’s visual cortex so it even-
tually contained neurons that responded mainly to verticals (Figure 3.29b). Similarly, kit-
tens reared in an environment consisting only of horizontals ended up with a visual cortex
that contained neurons that responded mainly to horizontals. Thus, the kitten’s brain had
been shaped to respond best to the environment to which the kitten had been exposed.
Experience-dependent plasticity has also been demonstrated in humans, using the
Gauthier and coworkers (
Gauthier and coworkers (1999) determined whether
this response to faces might be due to experience-dependent plasticity by measuring
the level of activity in the FFA in response to faces and to objects called Greebles
( ● Figure 3.30). Greebles are families of computer-generated “beings” that all have the
same basic conf guration but differ in the shapes of their parts (just like faces). The bars
and the brain scans in ● Figure 3.31a show that for “Greeble novices” (people who
have had little experience in perceiving Greebles), the faces cause more activity than the
Greebles in the FFA. This is also evident in the brain cross section, in which the white
areas indicate higher activity.

Gauthier then gave her participants extensive training over a 4-day period in
“Greeble recognition.” These training sessions, which required that each conf gura-
tion of Greeble be labeled with a specif c name, turned the participants into “Greeble
experts.” The bars and brain pictures in Figure 3.31b show that after the training, the
FFA responded almost as well to Greebles as to faces. Apparently, the FFA contains
neurons that respond not just to faces, but to other complex objects as well. The par-
ticular objects to which the neurons respond best are established by experience with
the objects. In fact, Gauthier has also shown that neurons in the FFA of people who are
experts in recognizing cars and birds respond well not only to human faces, but to cars
(for the car experts) and to birds (for the bird experts) (Gauthier et al., 2000).
These demonstrations of experience-dependent plasticity in kittens and humans
show that the brain’s functioning can be “tuned” to operate best within a specif c envi-
ronment. Thus, continued exposure to things that occur regularly in the environment
can cause neurons to become adapted to respond best to these regularities. Looked
at in this way, it is not unreasonable to say that neurons can ref ect knowledge about
properties of the environment.

Leslie Ungerleider and Mortimer
Mishkin (1982)
In a classic experiment, Leslie Ungerleider and Mortimer
Mishkin (1982) studied how removing part of a monkey’s brain affected its ability to
identify an object and to determine the object’s location. This experiment used a tech-
nique called brain ablation—removing part of the brain.
METHOD Brain Ablation
The goal of a brain ablation experiment is to determine the function of a particular area of the
brain. This is accomplished by f rst determining an animal’s capacity by testing it behaviorally.
Most ablation experiments studying perception have used monkeys because of the similarity of
its visual system to that of humans and because monkeys can be trained to determine percep-
tual capacities such as acuity, color vision, depth perception, and object perception.
Once the animal’s perception has been measured, a particular area of the brain is ablated
(removed or destroyed), either by surgery or by injecting a chemical in the area to be removed.
Ideally, one particular area is removed and the rest of the brain remains intact. After ablation,
the monkey is tested to determine which perceptual capacities remain and which have been
af ected by the ablation.Ungerleider and Mishkin presented monkeys with two tasks: (1) an object dis-
crimination problem and (2) a landmark discrimination problem. In the object dis-
crimination problem, a monkey was shown one object, such as a rectangular solid,
and was then presented with a two-choice task like the one shown in ● Figure 3.34a,
which included the “target” object (the rectangular solid) and another stimulus, such
as the triangular solid. If the monkey pushed aside the target object, it received the
food reward that was hidden in a well under the object. The landmark discrimination
problem is shown in ● Figure 3.34b. Here, the monkey’s task is to remove the food well
cover that is closer to the tall cylinder.
In the ablation part of the experiment, part of the temporal lobe was removed
in some monkeys. Behavioral testing showed that the object discrimination problem
was very diff cult for monkeys with their temporal lobes removed. This result indicates
that the pathway that reaches the temporal lobes is responsible for determining an
object’s identity. Ungerleider and Mishkin therefore called the path-
way leading from the striate cortex to the temporal lobe the what
pathway ( ● Figure 3.35).
Other monkeys, which had their parietal lobes removed, had
diff culty solving the landmark discrimination problem. This result
indicates that the pathway that leads to the parietal lobe is respon-
sible for determining an object’s location. Ungerleider and Mishkin
therefore called the pathway leading from the striate cortex to the
parietal lobe the where pathway.
Applying this idea of what and where pathways to our exam-
ple of a person picking up a cup of coffee, the what pathway
would be involved in the initial perception of the cup and the
where pathway in determining its location—important infor-
mation if we are going to carry out the action of reaching for
the cup. In the next section we consider another physiological
approach to studying perception and action, describing how the
study of the behavior of a person with brain damage provides
further insights into what is happening in the brain as a person
reaches for an object.
brain dmg alice
Alice, who has suf-
fered damage to her temporal lobe. She is shown an object, then asked to name the
object and indicate where it is on the table by pointing to it. When given this task,
Alice can’t name the object, but she can reach to where it is located on the table
( ● Figure 3.36a). Alice demonstrates a single dissociation—one function is absent
(naming objects) and another is present (locating objects). From a single dissociation such as
this, in which one function is lost while another function remains, we can conclude that the two
functions (in this example, naming and locating objects) involve dif erent mechanisms, although
they may not operate totally independently of one another.
We can illustrate a double dissociation by f nding another person who has one function pres-
ent and another absent, but in a way opposite to Alice. For example, Bert, who has parietal lobe
damage, can identify objects but can’t tell exactly where they are located (Figure 3.36b). The key
to understanding the cases of Alice and Bert is that they are both given the same two tasks, but
Alice can do one task (reaching) and not the other (naming) while the opposite result occurs for
Bert. The cases of Alice and Bert, taken together, represent a double dissociation. Establishing a
double dissociation enables us to conclude that two functions are served by dif erent mechanisms
and that these mechanisms operate independently of one another.
Milner and
Goodale (1995) to study D.F
dissociations was used by Milner and
Goodale (1995) to study D.F., a 34-year-old woman who suffered dam-
age to her temporal lobe from carbon monoxide poisoning caused by a
gas leak in her home. One result of the brain damage was revealed when
D.F. was asked to match the orientation of a card held in her hand to dif-
ferent orientations of a slot ( ● Figure 3.37a). She was unable to do this,
as shown in the left circle in Figure 3.37b. Each line in the circle indicates
how D.F. adjusted the card’s orientation. Perfect matching performance
would be indicated by a vertical line for each trial, but D.F.’s responses
are widely scattered. The right circle shows the accurate performance of
the normal controls.
Because D.F. had trouble orienting a card to match the orientation of
the slot, it would seem reasonable that she would also have trouble plac-
ing the card through the slot because to do this she would have to turn
the card so that it was lined up with the slot. But when D.F. was asked
to “mail” the card through the slot ( ● Figure 3.38a), she could do it, as
indicated by the results in Figure 3.38b. Even though D.F. could not turn
the card to match the slot’s orientation, once she started moving the card
toward the slot, she began rotating it to match the orientation of the slot.
Thus, D.F. performed poorly in the static orientation-matching task but
did well as soon as action was involved (Murphy, Racicot, & Goodale,
1996). Milner and Goodale interpreted D.F.’s behavior as showing that
there is one mechanism for judging orientation and another for coordi-
nating vision and actionThese results for D.F. demonstrate a single dissociation, which indi-
cates that judging orientation and coordinating vision and action
involve different mechanisms. To show that these two functions are not
only served by different mechanisms but are also independent of one
another, we have to demonstrate a double dissociation. As we saw in
the example of Alice and Bert, this involves f nding a person whose
symptoms are the opposite of D.F.’s, and such people do, in fact, exist.
These people can judge visual orientation, but they can’t accomplish
the task that combines vision and action. As we would expect, whereas
D.F.’s temporal lobe is damaged, these other people have damage to
their parietal lobe.
Based on these results, Milner and Goodale suggested that the path-
way from the visual cortex to the temporal lobe (which was damaged
in D.F.’s brain) be called the perception pathway and the pathway from
the visual cortex to the parietal lobe (which was intact in D.F.’s brain) be
called the action pathway. The perception pathway corresponds to the
what pathway we described in conjunction with the monkey experiments,
and the action pathway corresponds to the where pathway. Thus, some
researchers refer to what and where pathways and some to perception
and action pathways. But whatever the terminology, this research demon-
strates that perception and action are processed in two separate pathways
in the brain.
, Giacomo Rizzolatti and coworkers (2006;
also see di Pellegrino et al., 1992; Gallese et al., 1996)
In the early 1990s, Giacomo Rizzolatti and coworkers (2006;
also see di Pellegrino et al., 1992; Gallese et al., 1996) were inves-
tigating how neurons in the monkey’s premotor cortex f red as the
monkey performed actions such as picking up a toy or a piece of
food. Their goal was to determine how neurons f red as the monkey
carried out specif c actions, but they observed something they didn’t
expect. They found neurons in the monkey’s premotor cortex that f red not only when the
monkey picked up a piece of food, but also when the monkey observed the experimenter
picking up a piece of food.
This initial observation, followed by many additional experiments, led to the discov-
ery of mirror neurons—neurons that respond both when a monkey observes someone
else (usually the experimenter) grasping an object, such as food on a tray ( ● Figure 3.40a),
and when the monkey itself grasps the food (Figure 3.40b) (Rizzolatti et al., 1996).
These neurons are called mirror neurons because the neuron’s response to watching the
experimenter grasp an object is similar to the response that would occur if the monkey
were performing the action. Just looking at the food causes no response, and watch-
ing the experimenter grasp the food with a pair of pliers instead of his hands, as in
Figure 3.40c, causes only a small response (Gallese et al., 1996; Rizzolatti et al., 2000).
Most mirror neurons are specialized to respond to only one type of action, such as
grasping or placing an object somewhere. Although you might think that perhaps the
monkey was responding to the anticipation of receiving food, the type of object made
little difference. The neurons responded just as well when the monkey observed the
experimenter pick up an object that was not food.
The example of Crystal running on the beach and having
coffee later illustrates how perception can change based
on new information, that perception is a process, and
how perception and action are connected.
Perception starts with bottom-up processing, which
involves receptors. Signals from these receptors cause
neurons in the cortex to respond to specific types of
stimuli.
Perception starts with bottom-up processing, which
involves receptors. Signals from these receptors cause
neurons in the cortex to respond to specific types of
stimuli.
Recognition-by-components theory, which provides a
behavioral example of bottom-up processing, proposes
that recognizing objects is based on building blocks
called geons.
Recognition-by-components theory, which provides a
behavioral example of bottom-up processing, proposes
that recognizing objects is based on building blocks
called geons.
Examples of situations in which perception can’t be
explained only in terms of the information on the recep-
tors include 1 & 2
1) recognizing different arrangements of
geons; (2) recognizing a “blob” shape in different con-
texts;
An example of top-down processing is that knowledge
of a language makes it possible to perceive individual
words in a conversation even though the sound signal for
speech is often continuous.
An example of top-down processing is that knowledge
of a language makes it possible to perceive individual
words in a conversation even though the sound signal for
speech is often continuous.
v The idea that perception depends on knowledge was pro-
posed by Helmholtz’s theory of unconscious inference.
The idea that perception depends on knowledge was pro-
posed by Helmholtz’s theory of unconscious inference.
The Gestalt approach to perception proposed a number
of laws of perceptual organization, which were based on
xxxxxxxx. These laws
provide best-guess predictions of how we will perceive
stimuli in the environment. The laws are therefore best
described as xxxxxxxxxx
how stimuli usually occur in the environment. These laws
provide best-guess predictions of how we will perceive
stimuli in the environment. The laws are therefore best
described asxxxxx
Regularities in the environment are characteristics of the
environment that occur frequently. We take both physical
regularities and semantic regularities into account when
perceiving.
Regularities in the environment are characteristics of the
environment that occur frequently. We take both physical
regularities and semantic regularities into account when
perceiving.
One of the basic operating principles of the brain is that
it contains some neurons that respond best to things that
occur regularly in the environment.
One of the basic operating principles of the brain is that
it contains some neurons that respond best to things that
occur regularly in the environment.
Experience-dependent plasticity is one of the mecha-
nisms responsible for creating neurons that are tuned to
respond to specific things in the environment. — WHAT 2 EXPERIMENTS SUPPORT THIS IDEA
The exper-
iments in which kittens were reared in vertical or hori-
zontal environments and in which people’s brain activity
was measured as they learned about Greebles support
this idea.
Perceiving and taking action are linked. Movement of an
observer relative to an object provides information about
the object. Also, there is a constant coordination between
perceiving an object (such as a cup) and taking action
toward the object (such as picking up the cup).
Perceiving and taking action are linked. Movement of an
observer relative to an object provides information about
the object. Also, there is a constant coordination between
perceiving an object (such as a cup) and taking action
toward the object (such as picking up the cup).
Research involving brain ablation in monkeys and neuro-
psychological studies of the behavior of people with brain
damage have revealed two processing pathways in the
cortex: a pathway from the occipital lobe to the tempo-
ral lobe responsible for perceiving objects, and a pathway
from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe responsible for
controlling actions toward objects. These pathways work
together to coordinate perception and action.
Research involving brain ablation in monkeys and neuro-
psychological studies of the behavior of people with brain
damage have revealed two processing pathways in the
cortex: a pathway from the occipital lobe to the tempo-
ral lobe responsible for perceiving objects, and a pathway
from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe responsible for
controlling actions toward objects. These pathways work
together to coordinate perception and action.
xxxxxxxxx are neurons that respond both toxxxxxxxxxxut an action and toxxxxxxxx carry
out the same action. xxxxxxxxx may help people
understand other people’s actions; other functions have
also been proposed.
Mirror neurons are neurons that respond both to carry-
ing out an action and to observing someone else carry
out the same action. Mirror neurons may help people
understand other people’s actions; other functions have
also been proposed.
What pathway
Neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe, that is associated with perceiving or recognizing objects. Corresponds to the perception pathway.
Where pathway
Neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe, that is associated with neural processing that occurs when people locate objects in space. Roughly corresponds to the action pathway.
Action pathway
Neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe, that is associated with neural processing that occurs when people take action. Corresponds to the where pathway.
Algorithm
A procedure that is guaranteed to solve a problem.
Audiovisual mirror neuron
Neuron in the monkey premotor cortex that responds when a monkey performs a hand action and also when it hears the sound associated with this action (for example, the action associated with breaking a peanut, and the associated sound). Also see Mirror neuron.
Bottomup processing
Processing that starts with information received by the receptors. This type of processing can also be called databased processing.
Brain ablation
A procedure in which a specific area is removed from an animals brain. It is usually done to determine the function of this area by assessing the effect on the animals behavior.
Componential recovery, principle of
The principle associated with recognitionbycomponents theory that states that if we can recover (see) an objects geons, we can identify the object.
Dissociation
A situation in cases of brain damage, in which the damage causes a problem in one function while not affecting other functions. See also Double dissociation; Single dissociation.
Double dissociation
A situation in which a single dissociation can be demonstrated in one person, and the opposite type of single dissociation can be demonstrated in another person (i.e., Person 1: function A is present; function B is damaged; Person 2: function A is damaged; function B is present).
Experiencedependent plasticity
A mechanism that causes neurons to develop so they respond best to the type of stimulation that they experience.
Familiarity, law of
Law of perceptual organization that states that things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful.
Feedback signal
Neural signal that travels back from higher centers to influence incoming signals.
Geon
The basic feature unit of the recognitionbycomponents approach to object perception. Geons are basic threedimensional volumes.
Gestalt psychologists
A group of psychologists who proposed the laws of perceptual organization.
Good continuation, law of
Law of perceptual organization stating that points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together. In addition, lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path.
Good figure, law of
Law of perceptual organization that states that every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible. Also called the law of good figure and the law of simplicity.
Heuristic
A rule of thumb that provides a bestguess solution to a problem.
Landmark discrimination problem
Problem in which the task is to remember an objects location and to choose that location after a delay. Associated with research on the where processing stream.
Law of familiarity
See inverted entries (e.g., Familiarity, law of).
Law of perceptual organization
See inverted entries (e.g., Perceptual Organization, law of).
Law of similarity
See inverted entries (e.g., Similarity, law of).
Law of simplicity
See inverted entries (e.g., Simplicity, law of).
Lightfromabove heuristic
The assumption that light is coming from above. This heuristic can influence how we perceive three dimensional objects that are illuminated.
Likelihood principle
Part of Helmholtzs theory of unconscious inference that states that we perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have received.
Mirror neuron
Neuron in the premotor cortex, originally discovered in the monkey, that responds both when a monkey observes someone else (usually the experimenter) carrying out an action and when the monkey itself carries out the action. There is also evidence for mirror neurons in humans.
Natural selection, theory of
The idea, originating with Darwin, that genetically based characteristics that enhance an animals ability to survive, and therefore reproduce, will be passed on to future generations
Neuropsychology
The study of the behavioral effects of brain damage in humans.
Object discrimination problem
A problem in which the task is to remember an object based on its shape and choose it when presented with another object after a delay. Associated with research on the what processing stream.
Oblique effect
The finding that vertical and horizontal orientations can be perceived more easily that other (slanted) orientations.
Perception
Conscious experience that results from stimulation of the senses.
Perception pathway
Neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe, that is associated with perceiving or recognizing objects. Corresponds to the what pathway.
Perceptual organization
The process of organizing elements of the environment into separate objects.
Perceptual organization, laws of
Rules proposed by the Gestalt psychologists to explain how small elements of a scene or a display become perceptually grouped to form larger units. These laws are described as heuristics in this book.
Physical regularities
Regularly occurring physical properties of the environment. For example, there are more vertical and horizontal orientations in the environment than oblique (angled) orientations.
Pragnanz, law of
Law of perceptual organization that states that every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible. Also called the law of good figure and the law of simplicity.
Recognitionbycomponents (RBC) theory
A featurebased approach to object perception that proposes that the recognition of objects is based on threedimensional features called geons. See also Geon.
Regularities in the environment
Characteristics of the environment that occur frequently. For example, blue is associated with open sky, landscapes are often green and smooth, and verticals and horizontals are often associated with buildings.
Semantic regularities
Characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes. For example, food preparation, cooking, and perhaps eating occur in a kitchen.
Similarity, law of
Law of perceptual organization that states that similar things appear to be grouped together.
Simplicity, law of
Law of perceptual organization that states that every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible. Also called the law of good figure and the law of simplicity.
Single dissociation
A situation that occurs in cases of brain damage, in which the damage causes a problem in one function while not affecting other functions. A single dissociation occurs when one function is present and another is absent. See also Double dissociation.
Size constancy
The tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when they move to different distances. This leads to the conclusion that perception of an objects size does not depend solely on the size of its image on the receptors.
Speech segmentation
The process of perceiving individual words within the continuous flow of the speech signal.
Topdown processing
Processing that involves a persons knowledge or expectations. This type of processing has also been called knowledgebased processing.
Unconscious inference, theory of
Helmholtzs idea that some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment.
Which of the following statements is most consistent with recognition-by-components theory?
Humans can identify an object if sufficient information is available to enable us to identify an object’s basic features.
Perceiving machines” are used by the U.S. Postal service to “read” the addresses on letters and sort them quickly to their correct destinations. Sometimes, these machines cannot read an address, because the writing on the envelope is not sufficiently clear for the machine to match the writing to an example it has stored in memory. Human postal workers are much more successful at reading unclear addresses, most likely because of:
top-down processing.
Which of the following is an example of an effect of top-down processing?
Speech segmentation.
The theory of unconscious inference includes the:
The theory of unconscious inference includes the:
In the text’s “animal lurking behind a tree / two oddly shaped tree stumps” example, which Gestalt law did NOT contribute to the incorrect perception?
Simplicity
A difference between a heuristic and an algorithm is
heuristics do not result in a correct solution every time as algorithms do
The “indentations in the sand / bumps in the sand” example from your text illustrates
the light-from-above heuristic.
Gauthier and coworkers’ experiment on experience-dependent plasticity showed that after extensive “Greeble recognition” training sessions, FFA neurons had a(n) ________ response to faces and an ________ response to Greebles.
decreased; increased
Damage to the temporal lobe makes the ________ more difficult.
object discrimination problem
Some neurons respond when we watch someone else do something. These are known as
mirror neurons
Examples of situations in which perception can’t be
explained only in terms of the information on the recep-
tors include 3-5
(3) the effect of physiological feedback signals;
(4) size constancy; and (5) perceiving odors following
different intensities of sniffing.