CNSL 617 Multiple Choice

In explaining behavior, a useful theory must be:
a. inclusive and justifiable
b. inclusive, verifiable, and justifiable
c. verifiable, exclusive, and predictable
d. inclusive, verifiable, have predictive validity, and be parsimonious
d. inclusive, verifiable, have predictive validity, and be parsimonious
Information concerning a child’s brain damage:
a. can be useful in the teacher’s selection of behavior management techniques
b. helps teachers determine who should be in school and who should not
c. can cause teachers to have low expectations of students and give them excuses
not to teach
d. none of the above
A genuine scientific explanation must:
a. be inclusive of all behaviors
b. predict one behavior to the exclusion of all other behaviors
c. a and b
d. none of the above
A relationship among events in which the rate of a behavior’s occurrence increases when some environmental condition is removed is:
a. differential reinforcement
b. reinforcement
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
To the behaviorist, punishment occurs only when:
a. the preceding behavior decreases
b. the preceding behavior increases
c. both a and b
d. neither a or b
a. the preceding behavior decreases
The focus of the behavioral approach is:
a. observing and predicting
b. facilitating behavior change
c. recording and verifying aberrant behaviors
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which is NOT a contributor to the behavioral viewpoint?
a. functionalism
b. naturalism
c. animal psychology
d. positivism
Pairing stimuli so that an unconditioned stimulus elicits a response is known as all of
the following EXCEPT:
a. Pavlovian
b. classical
c. respondent conditioning
d. shaping
“Jack can’t learn because he has Down syndrome” is an example of what explanation of behavior?
a. biophysical explanation
b. developmental explanation
c. cognitive explanation
d. behavioral explanation
An antecedent stimulus is:
a. an event occurring before the behavior is performed
b. an event occurring after the behavior is performed
c. a and b
d. none of the above
a. an event occurring before the behavior is performed
To qualify as a behavior, something must be:
a. observable
b. quantifiable
c. a and b
d. none of the above
c. a and b
Behaviorists are LEAST concerned with the following:
a. functional relation
b. observable behaviors
c. present events
d. past events
d. past events
For an explanation of behavior to be “verifiable” it must
a. account for a substantial quantity of behavior
b. provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances
c. provide the simplest explanation
d. be testable
For an explanation of behavior to be “verifiable” it must
a. account for a substantial quantity of behavior
b. provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances
c. provide the simplest explanation
d. be testable
d. be testable
Operant conditioning deals with __________ behaviors.
a. emotional
b. trained
c. reflexive
d. voluntary
d. voluntary`
When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced and its rate of
occurrence decreases, what behavioral principle is being used?
a. Punishment
b. Positive Reinforcement
c. Positive Punishment
d. Extinction
When a pleasant consequence to a behavior results in an increase in the behavior’s rate of occurrence, what behavioral principle is being used?
a. Negative Reinforcement
b. Positive Reinforcement
c. Punishment
d. Stimulus control
b. Positive Reinforcement
An event is described as ________ if the rate of occurrence of a preceding behavior decreases.
a. Negative Reinforcement
b. Positive Reinforcement
c. Shaping
d. Punishment
What is known as a “demonstration of behavior”?
a. Modeling
b. Shaping
c. Positive Reinforcement
d. Operant Conditioning
a. Modeling
The behavior principle that describes a relationship between behavior and an
antecedent stimulus rather than behavior and its consequences are known as:
a. Stimulus control
b. Respondent conditioning
c. The Law of Effect
d. Principle of Parsimony
For an explanation of behavior to have predictive utility it must
a. account for a substantial quantity of behavior
b. be testable
c. provide the simplest explanation
d. provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances
d. provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances
The Law of Effect is associated with what behavioral principle?
a. Negative reinforcement
b. Positive reinforcement
c. Punishment
d. Antecedent prompting
For an explanation of behavior to be parsimonious, it must
a. account for a substantial quantity of behavior
b. be testable
c. provide the simplest explanation
d. provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances
c. provide the simplest explanation
Who is associated or responsible for the use of the term “behaviorism?”
a. Skinner
b. Watson
c. Darwin
d. Pavlov
_________ conditioning deals with behaviors that are voluntary rather than reflexive.
a. Operant
b. Respondent
c. Reflexive
d. Overactive
a. Operant
What is the major purpose of applied behavior analysis?
a. to provide a process of systematically applying specific principles to facilitate behavior change
b. to provide a systematic means of determining whether changes in behavior may be attributed to the application of behavioral principles.
c. none of the above
d. A and B
a. to provide a process of systematically applying specific principles to facilitate behavior change
Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria set forth by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) as the qualifications for research to be considered applied behavior analysis:
a. the behavior must be socially important
b. the behavior must be objectively defined
c. a functional relation must be demonstrated
d. must be an aberrant behavior
Which of the following influenced the behaviorist movement?
a. cognitivism
b. functionalism
c. constructivism
d. none of the above
1-43. John was scheduled to take a spelling test each Friday. His mother told him if he received 90% correct or better for three out of four spelling test he would get to buy a new video game. His mother was employing which of the following behavioral techniques?
a. punishment
b. negative reinforcement
c. shaping
d. positive reinforcement
d. positive reinforcement
1-44. Which of the following is attributed with the Stage Theory of Development?
a. Jean Piaget
b. Sigman Freud
c. Ivan Pavlov
d. B. F. Skinner
1-45. Ms. Sims was having difficulty getting Tia to sit during morning circle. She decided that she would reinforce Tia’s attempts to sit during circle time. She began by reinforcing Tia when she was standing next to her chair, then when she had one knee on her chair. She continued this process until Tia remained seated during morning circle time. Ms. Sims employed which the following behavioral techniques?
a. modeling
b. shaping
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
1-46. Operant behaviors are ______ voluntarily, whereas respondent behaviors are ________ by stimuli.
a. elicited, occasioned
b. emitted, elicited
c. occasioned, emitted
d. none of the above
1-47. Circumstances which temporarily alter the power of a reinforcer are known as _________.
a. models
b. negative reinforcers
c. setting events
d. positive reinforcers
c. setting events
1-48. Theorists who explain human behavior based on physical influences employ which of the following explanations?
a. cognitive
b. biophysical
c. cognitive
d. behavioral
b. biophysical
1-49. Which of the following theorists is credited with classical conditioning?
a. B.F. Skinner
b. Jean Piaget
c. Ivan Pavlov
d. none of the above
1-50. ____________ is the process of using successive approximations to teach a new behavior or skill.
a. stimulus control
b. shaping
c. modeling
d. generalization
b. shaping
2-16. The process of pinpointing behavior refines a broad generalization into:
a. generic, observable and measurable behavior
b. specific, observable and measurable behavior
c. schedule, specific and observable behavior
d. natural, measurable and specific behavior
b. specific, observable and measurable behavior
2-17. Directly observable behaviors include:
a. to know, to walk, to identify in writing
b. to underline, to draw, to discriminate
c. to see, to put on, to connect
d. to remove, to count orally, to circle
d. to remove, to count orally, to circle
2-18. Target behavior must be included in behavioral objectives because:
a. the precise definition of the behavior facilitates continuity of instruction
b. the statement allows our confirmation that a change has actually occurred
c. a and b
d. none of the above
c. a and b
2-19. A behavioral objective should be written such that its contents are:
a. observable
b. measurable
c. repeatable
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
2-20. Antecedent stimuli or conditions may be defined by the teacher to set up the appropriate response. They may include:
a. environmental setting, written instructions or verbal responses
b. demonstration, materials to be used and number of responses
c. identifiable behavior, amount of assistance and demonstration
d. demonstration, verbal instructions and manner of assistance
a. environmental setting, written instructions or verbal responses
2-21. Criteria for acceptable performance include statements addressing duration. Which of the following is NOT an acceptable duration statement?
a. will complete within one hour
b. for no more than 2 weeks
c. begin within five minutes
d. will return within 15 minutes
2-22. Generalization is the performance of a skill in an untrained situation. Generalization should occur across:
a. various instructions and instructors
b. various materials
c. various settings
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
2-23. A hierarchy of levels of learning is helpful in writing objectives because:
a. they are written for cognitive, affective, and psychomotor areas
b. focus on a knowledge base
c. they suggest observable, measurable behaviors that may occur as the result of both simple and complex learning
d. all of the above
2-24. Objectives on the IEP include:
a. short term objective, person responsible, criteria for mastery, and review date
b. person responsible, parent’s responsibility, and latency period
c. short term objective, student’s name, and review date
d. long term goals, short term objective, and criteria for mastery
2-25. To write effective objectives, the applied behavior analyst must
a. Broadly identify a target behavior for instruction
b. Define the instructional procedures to use for behavior change
c. Refine broad generalizations into specific, observable, measurable objectives
d. B & C only
d. B & C only
2-26. Educational goals are
a. Statements of actual instructional intent
b. Statements of annual program intent
c. Usually 3 to 4 months long
d. The length of a grading period for students with mild disabilities
2-27. Behavioral objectives are
a. Statements of annual program intent
b. Statements of actual instructional intent
c. Long term in nature
d. Generically defined
2-28. Which component is missing from the following objective? “Jason will fill
the ice cube tray independently during 4 out of 5 sessions.”
a. Learner
b. Target behavior
c. Condition
d. Criteria for acceptable performance
b. Target behavior
2-29. An appropriate behavioral objective must be
a. Understandable and broadly defined
b. Observable, measurable and repeatable
c. Recognized as age-appropriate
d. Modifiable for the numerous environmental settings in which students participate
b. Observable, measurable and repeatable
2-30. _____________ refers to repeated practice after an objective has been
initially accomplished.
a. Response Prompting
b. Fluency
c. Overlearning
d. Distributed practice
2-31. An optimum number of overlearning opportunities is approximately
_____% of the number of trials required for acquisition of the behavior.
a. 50%
b. 25%
c. 33%
d. 75%
2-32. Requiring a student to use a method, concept, or theory in various concrete
situations require what level of learning?
a. Comprehension
b. Synthesis
c. Application
d. Evaluation
2-33. Refining broad generalizations into specific, observable, measurable
behaviors is known as
a. Pinpointing
b. Specification
c. Individualization
d. Modification
b. Specification
2-34. Educational goals for individual students must be developed on the basis of
evaluation data and consider
a. The student’s past and projected rate of development
b. Inappropriate behaviors
c. Prerequisites necessary for acquiring new skills
d. All of the above
2-35. Which component is missing from the following objective? “When
presented with a textbook and the verbal directive to read a specific page,
Allison will open her book and begin reading.”
a. Learner
b. Target behavior
c. Criteria for acceptable performance
d. Conditions under which the behavior is to be displayed
2-36. “Point to the correct answer” is an example of which component of a
behavioral objective?
a. Target behavior
b. Learner
c. Conditions
d. Criteria for acceptable performance
d. Criteria for acceptable performance
2-37. It is important for a behavior to be operationally defined because
a. It ensures that the teacher is consistently observing the same behavior
b. It allows for confirmation by a third party
c. It facilitates continuity of instruction
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
2-38. Which of the following is not an appropriate target behavior for an
objective?
a. Understand the value of coins
b. Point to the correct algebraic formula
c. Increase the number of times student raises her hand during a 30-minute lesson
d. Independently operate a microwave oven
2-39. When presented with a fast food menu at Burger Barn, Brooke will place her order within 30 seconds, 8 out of 10 trials over 3 consecutive weeks. This objective represents the _____________ level of response competence.
a. Generalization
b. Fluency
c. Acquisition
d. Maintenance
2-40. ____________ is the ability to perform a behavior under conditions different from those in place during acquisition.
a. Generalization
b. Fluency
c. Overlearning
d. Distributed Practice
a. Generalization
2-41. During the third grade, John learned his multiplication facts. Upon returning to school after the summer break, his fourth grade teacher tested his ability to recite his multiplication facts. John’s fourth grade teacher was assessing which skill level?
a. maintenance
b. generalization
c. fluency
d. overlearning
a. maintenance
2-42. Mike’s job coach was concerned with his production on the job site. Mike had mastered the assembly skills but was having difficulty keeping up with the competitive job production of his coworkers. Mike’s job coach should work on which of the following?
a. acquisition
b. fluency
c. generalization
d. none of the above
2-43. All of the following are reasons for identifying the target behavior in the behavioral objective EXCEPT:
a. consistency in behavior observation
b. required by law
c. facilitates continuity of instruction
d. confirmation by a third party
2-44. Educational goals should consider:
a. students past and projected rate of development
b. prerequisite skills necessary for acquiring new skills
c. amount of instructional time available
d. all of the above
2-45. Which of the following would be an example of a long-term educational goal for a student with a severe disability?
a. demonstrate knowledge of how to solve an algebraic equation
b. decrease out-of-seat behavior
c. point to the largest item in an array for three consecutive sessions
d. b and c
a. demonstrate knowledge of how to solve an algebraic equation
2-46. When selecting a criterion for mastery, the teacher should consider:
a. nature of the content
b. ability of the student
c. number of learning opportunities to be provided
d. all of the above
2-47. Which of the following is NOT one of Bloom’s levels of learning?
a. analysis
b. generalization
c. synthesis
d. comprehension
2-48. This level of learning requires students to use a concept in various settings or situations.
a. generalization
b. application
c. acquisition
d. analysis
a. generalization
2-49. A behavioral intervention plan includes:
a. operation definition of the target behavior
b. intervention strategies
c. results of a functional assessment
d. all of the above
2-50. Which of the following components are required for an individual transition plan (ITP)?
a. list of specific transition services to employed
b. measurable post secondary goals
c. A and B
d. none of the above
3-19. When using time sampling the teacher notes occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior:
a. any time during the interval
b. at the end of the interval
c. each time the behavior occurs within the interval
d. any of the above
b. at the end of the interval
3-20. Duration data are collected:
a. from the time the teacher gives a performance direction until the student begins
to perform the response
b. from the time the student begins the response until he or she completes the
response
c. from the time the teacher gives a performance direction until the student
completes the response
d. none of the above
b. from the time the student begins the response until he or she completes the
response
3-21. To provide the broadest possible description of events occurring within a time period one would use:
a. anecdotal recording
b. observational recording
c. permanent product recording
d. topography recording
a. anecdotal recording
3-22. A teacher giving a written test is using:
a. written data recording
b. interval recording
c. permanent product recording
d. anecdotal recording
c. permanent product recording
3-23. Mr. Garcia checked at five-minute intervals to see if Jane was playing appropriately in a small group. He was using:
a. interval recording
b. time sampling
c. event recording
d. duration recording
b. time sampling
3-24. Jessie is learning traffic signs in driver’s education. His teacher holds up the sign and immediately records if Jessie names it correctly. This type of data collection is known as:
a. event recording
b. time sampling
c. latency recording
d. permanent product recording
d. permanent product recording
3-25. Mrs. Golden wanted to collect baseline data on how often Lauren speaks to her neighbor during silent reading. She divided the 15 minutes into equal 30-second intervals and made a notation of Lauren’s talking during each. The method of data collection she used was:
a. event recording
b. time sampling
c. interval recording
d. anecdotal recording
c. interval recording
3-26. At the end of each play period, Mr. Carey counted the number of toys that Mary, Louise, and Anita did not put back on the shelves. He was using:
a. event recording
b. interval recording
c. time sampling
d. permanent product recording
a. event recording
3-27. The data collection technique that notes every time a behavior occurs within an observation period is:
a. event recording
b. interval recording
c. time sampling
d. permanent product recording
a. event recording
3-28. “Linda typed an average of 55 words per minute” is an example of what behavioral dimension?
a. Frequency
b. Rate
c. Latency
d. Locus
b. Rate
3-29. “Brooke was out of her seat for 16 minutes during lunch period” is an example of what behavioral dimension?
a. Latency
b. Frequency
c. Duration
d. Rate
c. Duration
3-30. When determining ________ of a behavior, we count the number of times the behavior occurs within an observation period.
a. Frequency
b. Rate
c. Latency
d. Duration
a. Frequency
3-31. ____________ is calculated by dividing the number of times a behavior occurred by the length of the observation period.
a. Frequency
b. Latency
c. Duration
d. Rate
d. Rate
3-32. __________ is a measurement of how long a student engages in a behavior.
a. Duration
b. Latency
c. Frequency
d. Locus
a. Duration
3-33. _______________ is important when we are concerned not with the number of times a student engages in it, but how long.
a. Duration
b. Latency
c. Rate
d. Topography
a. Duration
3-34. The behavioral dimension determined when you measure the length of time between instructions to perform it and the occurrence of the behavior is known as:
a. Latency
a. Duration
c. Frequency
d. Rate
a. Latency
3-35. “When the bell rang, it took Blake 11 minutes to get to his next class” is an example of what behavioral dimension?
a. Duration
b. Frequency
c. Latency
d. Rate
c. Latency
3-36. ______________ describes a behavior’s complexity or its motor components.
a. Latency
b. Locus
c. Topography
d. Force
c. Topography
3-37. The _________ of behavior is its intensity.
a. Rate
b. Locus
c. Latency
d. Force
d. Force
3-38. The __________ of behavior describes where it occurs.
a. Force
b. Locus
c. Latency
d. Topography
b. Locus
3-39. __________ produces a written description of nearly everything that occurred in a specific time period or setting.
a. Latency recording
b. Anecdotal reports
c. Event recording
d. Permanent product recording
b. Anecdotal reports
3-40. ______________ are useful primarily for analysis, not for evaluation.
a. Event recording
b. Permanent product recording
c. Anecdotal reports
d. Latency recording
c. Anecdotal reports
3-41. Which of the following is NOT considered to be an observational recording system?
a. Anecdotal recording
b. Event recording
c. Duration recording
d. Latency recording
a. Anecdotal recording
3-42. A teacher who counts the number of times a student raises her hand is using what type of recording system?
a. Event recording
b. Interval recording
c. Latency recording
d. Time Sampling recording
a. Event recording
3-43. Ms. Lee wants to increase the amount of time her kindergarten students remain on task. What recording system would be most appropriate for Ms. Lee to use?
a. Latency recording
b. Duration recording
c. Interval recording
d. Event recording
c. Interval recording (Even better = Time Sampling)
3-44. Rate and/or frequency of a behavior may be determined through
a. Interval recording
b. Event recording
c. Latency recording
d. Time Sampling recording
b. Event recording
3-45. Event recording must be used with behaviors that are
a. Continuous
b. Vague
c. Discrete
d. Open-ended
c. Discrete
3-46. While in the community, Miss Nelson records whether or not Ethan is able to independently perform each step of the shopping task analysis. This is an example of what recording procedure?
a. Interval recording
b. Anecdotal recording
c. Permanent product recording
d. Event recording
d. Event recording
3-47. What recording procedure should a teacher use if he wanted to be as exact as possible in recording frequently occurring aggressive behaviors (such as hitting, kicking, and biting) during a 20-minute activity period?
a. Time Sampling
b. Event Recording
c. Interval recording
d. Duration recording
b. Event Recording
3-48. Time sampling would be the most appropriate method for recording which behavior?
a. Hitting others
b. A student raising his hand
c. Wandering around classroom/out-of-seat
d. Answering a ringing telephone
c. Wandering around classroom/out-of-seat
3-49. __________ and _________ recording focus on a temporal rather than a numerical dimension of behavior.
a. Duration and latency
b. Interval and time sampling
c. Event and Interval
d. None of the above
a. Duration and latency
3-50. Cole has difficulty making it to the bus stop on time each school morning. His parents purchased him a new alarm clock that sounds promptly at 6:15 a.m.. Cole has yet to fail to get out of bed once his alarm has sounded. However, 45 minutes does not seem to be enough time for Cole to eat breakfast and get ready for school. Cole’s parents have decided that he probably needs to get up earlier. What recording procedure could his parents use to determine how much earlier to set the alarm clock?
a. Time sampling
b. Interval recording
c. Event recording
d. Latency recording
d. Latency recording
3-51. What is considered the aim for a “reliable” percent of agreement for data collection?
a. 75%
b. 70%
c. 90%
d. 80%
c. 90%
3-52. All of the following are examples of data systems for observing behavior EXCEPT:
a. anecdotal reports
b. event recording
c. interval recording
d. time sampling
a. anecdotal reports
3-53. With permanent product recording all of the following are behavioral dimensions which can be used to examine the product EXCEPT:
a. force
b. rate
c. duration
d. interval
a. force
4-16. The abscissa is indicated by what letter?
a. E
b. C
c. D
d. A
d.A
4-17. The ordinate is indicated by what letter?
a. A
b. C
c. E
d. D
b. C
4-18. The letter “D” indicates
a. A continuous data path
b. A continuity break
c. The abscissa
d. The beginning point of the ordinate scale
b. a continuity break
4-19. The “x” axis is indicated by what letter?
a. B
b. C
c. F
d. A
d. A
4-20. The “y” axis is indicated by what letter?
a. C
b. E
c. A
d. F
a. C
4-21. When drawing a graph, the axes is drawn in a ratio of:
a. 1:3
b. 1:1
c. 2:4
d. 2:3
d. 2:3
4-22. ____________ data are reported as a number of items or a percent of items resulting from behavior.
a. Rate
b. Duration
c. Latency
d. Permanent product
d. Permanent Product
4-23. Conversion to rate data is required when the teacher is concerned with
a. topography
b. averaging performance scores
c. both accuracy and speed
d. percent of intervals
c. both accuracy and speed
4-24. The following data can be reported on a graph as the number or percent of total behavioral occurrence
a. Interval and time sampling
b. Event
c. Permanent product
d. All of the above
d. all of the above
4-25. _______________ are phases of an intervention during which different approaches or techniques are used.
a. Conditions
b. Intervals
c. Sessions
d. Time Samples
a. conditions
4-26. Miss Curry records some initial data (without interceding) on the number of times Rico uses inappropriate language in her class. This data condition is known as:
a. Performance
b. Baseline
c. Interval
d. Intervention
b. baseline
4-27. Miss Curry decides to decrease Rico’s use of inappropriate language by requiring him to lose a behavior point for every inappropriate word he uses each day. Once implemented, she again gathers data on the number of times he uses inappropriate language in her class. This data condition is known as:
a. Intervention
b. Baseline
c. Event recording
d. Performance
a. intervention
4-28. Mrs. Jakes wanted to address Murray’s reading comprehension using a new instructional program. For baseline, she measured:
a. Murray’s ability to read and understand new passages
b. Murray’s current reading comprehension level using the instructional program already in place
c. Murray’s ability to understand material that is read to him
d. Murray’s reading comprehension using the new instructional program.
b. Murray’s current reading comprehension level using the instructional program already in place
4-29. When reporting percent on the ordinate scale:
a. the scale always goes from 0 to 100%
b. the scale ranges from 0 to the highest percent obtained
c. there is no scale rule
d. it’s better to convert the ordinate to number
a. the scale always goes from 0 to 100%
4-30 A histogram is a form of:
a. line graph
b. cumulative graph
c. bar graph
d. none of the above
c. bar graph
4-31. When constructing a graph, behavior is plotted along the:
a. x axis
b. horizontal axis
c. vertical axis
d. abscissa
c. vertical axis
4-32. When you graph the number of occurrences of a behavior in a given session after adding if to the number of occurrences of a prior session you are employing a:
a. cumulative graph
b. bar graph
c. line graph
d. histogram
a. cumulative graph
4-33. When data are converted to the seconds/minutes/hours for which a behavior occurred, the type of recording used to collect the data was:
a. latency recording
b. time sampling
c. interval recording
d. duration recording
d. duration recording
4-34. When constructing a graph, the axes are drawn in a ratio of:
a. 3:4
b. 2:3
c. 1:2
d. 3:2
b. 2:3
4-35. Which of the following would be found on the ordinate?
a. number of behaviors
b. rate of behaviors
c. percentage of behaviors
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
4-36. A scale break indicates:
a. that 50% of the data points are above a certain number.
b. that data points fall at zero.
c. that the ordinate scale is not continuous.
d. that the ordinate scale is continuous
c. that the ordinate scale is not continuous
4-37. Interval and time sampling data may be reported as:
a. number and rate
b. percent and number
c. only rate
d. only percent
b. percent and number
4-38. A vertical dashed line is used to:
a. connect data points
b. separate conditions
c. draw the axes
d. all of the above
b. separate conditions
4-39. This type of graph is known as a:
a. cumulative graph
b. latency graph
c. histogram
d. multiple behavior graph
c. histogram
4-40. Data illustrated in this graph indicate
a. instructional methods are equally effective
b. the effectiveness of instructional methods cannot be determined
c. one instructional method is superior over another
d. over time, both methods will prove to be equally effective
c. one instructional method is superior over another
4-41. ______ are phases of an intervention in which different approaches or techniques are used.
a. phase changes
b. conditions
c. baseline sessions
d. interventions
b. conditions
4-42. In this type of graph, each data point represents the number of occurrences of a behavior in previous trial plus any additional occurrences during the current trial.
a. changing criterion graph
b. bar graph
c. cumulative graph
d. changing conditions graph
c. cumulative graph
4-43. Which of the following provides an illustration of a rapid rate of responding using a cumulative graph?
a. A only
4-44. Which of the following components would be represented on the abscissa?
a. number of sessions
b. number of inappropriate behaviors
c. percentage of call outs
d. none of the above
a. number of sessions
4-45. A continuity break could be present on a graph for any of the following except:
a. student was sick
b. winter break
c. student was not responding well during the instructional session
d. teacher had a meeting
c. student was not responding well during instructional session
4-46. Event recording can be reported as all of the following except:
a. percentage
b. rate
c. percent of intervals
d. number
c. percent of intervals
4-47. John has been learning to write his name. During each presentation the teacher has him write each letter in his name once. Which of the following would his teacher use to report his data?
a. number of items
b. percentage of items
c. rate of items
d. none of the above
d. none of the above
4-48. During which of the following does the teacher evaluate the occurrence of the behavior at the end of the interval?
a. event recording
b. duration
c. time sampling
d. latency
c. time sampling
4-49. Based on the graph, what type of data collection system was employed?
a. event recording
b. interval recording
c. time sampling
d. duration
a. event recording
4-50. Which of the following is missing from the following graph?
a. student identification
b. ordinate label
c. data paths
d. abscissa
b. ordinate label
5-24. An example of an independent variable is:
a. numbers of minutes it takes to complete 20 math problems
b. use of a number line for addition problems
c. how long it takes a student to return from the bathroom
d. how often a student asks for teacher assistance.
b. use of a number line for addition problems
5-25. The measurement of a behavior before intervention begins is called:
a. preliminary data
b. variable data
c. baseline data
d. confounding data
c. baseline data
5-26. A teacher measured Jane’s out of seat behavior during reading, music, and math periods. The appropriate design for use in this instance was:
a. multiple baseline design
b. alternating treatments design
c. reversal design
d. changing criterion design
a. multiple baseline design
5-27. Ms. Markham is concerned about Peter’s arithmetic computation and work completion behaviors. The appropriate design for use in this instance is:
a. changing criterion design
b. changing conditions design
c. reversal design
d. multiple baseline design
d. multiple baseline design
5-28. The experimental design which would be most appropriate for systematically increasing the number of workbook pages completed by a student is:
a. alternating treatments design
b. changing criterion design
c. AB design
d. changing conditions design
b. changing criterion design
5-29. It takes Karen 30 minutes to complete 20 multiplication examples. Her teacher wants this reduced to 15 minutes. The most appropriate design for this example is:
a. reversal design
b. multiple baseline design
c. changing criterion design
d. AB design
c. changing criterion design
5-30. Michael counts on his fingers in order to answer arithmetic computation problems. The teacher wants to wean him off this crutch. She gives him, consecutively, various assistance strategies of lessening the concrete nature of his prompt. The most appropriate design for this example is:
a. changing criterion design
b. AB design
c. reversal design
d. changing conditions design
d. changing conditions design
5-31. The single subject design which allows comparison of more than one treatment or intervention is the:
a. multiple baseline design
b. reversal design
c. alternating treatments design
d. none of the above
c. alternating treatments design
5-32. Mr. Williams wants to know if using a number line or counting chips would be more effective when teaching addition to James. The most appropriate design to use is:
a. alternating treatments design
b. multiple baseline design
c. changing criterion design
d. none of the above
a. alternating treatments design
5-33. Fractionation is used to evaluate performance change when using:
a. a reversal design
b. a multiple baseline design
c. a changing conditions design
d. an alternating treatments design
d. an alternating treatments design
5-34. A reversal design has:
a. two phases
b. three phases
c. four phases
d. five phases
c. four phases
5-35. One disadvantage of an AB design is:
a. it cannot evaluate performance over time
b. it does not require a baseline
c. it has only a nondescriptive function
d. it does not allow for determining a functional relation
d. it does not allow for determining a functional relation
An interim criterion used in a changing criterion design is determined by:
a. the highest performance level of baseline
b. the lowest performance level of baseline
c. the mean level of performance of baseline
d. any of the above
c. the mean level of performance of baseline
5-37. Replication effect can be seen in a reversal design in the:
a. first and second phases
b. third and fourth phases
c. first and third phases
d. second and fourth phases
b. third and fourth phases
5-38. David can currently read 12 sight words. The curriculum criterion states that he must be able to read 50 sight words. His teacher plans to systematically introduce 4 new sight words at a time as David masters each new set. David’s teacher should employ a:
a. multiple baseline design
b. ABAB design
c. reversal design
d. none of the above
d. none of the above
5-39. _________ refers to any number of factors involved in research.
a. Condition
b. Intervention
c. Variable
d. Functional relationship
c. Variable
5-40. The intervention being used to facilitate a behavior change is known as
a. Dependent variable
b. Independent variable
c. Confounding variable
d. Intervention variable
b. Independent Variable
5-41. In most cases, the first phase of a single-subject design is:
a. Implementing the independent variable
b. Collecting and recording baseline data
c. Graphic visual analysis of the dependent variable
d. None of the above
b. Collecting and recording baseline data
5-42. __________ refers to the researcher’s efforts to ensure that changes in the dependent variable are directly related to manipulations of the independent variable.
a. Baseline
b. Experimental control
c. Repeated measurement
d. None of the above
b. or c.
5-43. The basic single-subject design is the
a. AB Design
b. Multiple Baseline Design
c. Reversal Design
d. Changing Criterion Design
a. AB Design
5-44. ABAB design is a variation of what design?
a. reversal
b. alternating treatment
c. changing criterion
d. multiple baseline
a. reversal
5-45. The _______________ design evaluates the effectiveness of an independent variable by demonstrating that a behavior can be incrementally increased or decreased toward a terminal performance goal.
a. alternating treatment
b. changing condition
c. changing criterion
d. multiple baseline
b or c pg. 160
5-46. When two or more behaviors associated with one student in a single setting are examined, what design is being used?
a. multiple baseline across settings
b. multiple baseline across behaviors
c. multiple baseline across individuals
d. alternating treatment design
b. multiple baseline across behaviors
5-47. The design of choice when the teacher is interested in applying an intervention procedure to more than one individual, setting, or behavior is the:
a. multiple baseline design
b. alternating treatment design
c. reversal design
d. changing criterion design
a. multiple baseline design
5-48. Every time Andres raises his hand, he receives one point. “Raising his hand” is considered the:
a. Independent variable
b. Dependent variable
c. Uncontrolled variable
d. Confounding variable
b. Dependent variable
5-49. When Dolores screams, her mother picks her up and holds her close. “Picking up and holding Dolores close is considered the:
a. Independent variable
b. Dependent variable
c. Uncontrolled variable
d. Confounding variable
a. Independent variable
5-50. The student who follows the rules each day earns 5 extra minutes at recess. Following the rules is considered the:
a. Independent variable
b. Dependent variable
c. Uncontrolled variable
d. Confounding variable
a or b
5-51. Which is considered a common component of single-subject designs?
a. Measure of baseline performance
b. Measure of performance under an intervention condition
c. Replication of the use of the intervention within the design
d. All of the above
d. all of the above
5-52. Ana consistently increases the number of baskets she makes each game. If the number of baskets she made over the last seven games were plotted on a graph, a _____ trend would be evident.
a. Descending
b. Variable
c. Ascending
d. None of the above
c. ascending
5-53. The ABAB design is also known as the
a. Multiple Baseline Design
b. Changing Criterion Design
c. Alternating Treatment Design
d. Reversal Design
d. Reversal Design
5-54. What do researchers need before they can say that a functional relation is demonstrated?
a. Prediction
b. Verification of prediction
c. Replication of effect
d. All of the above
d. all of the above
5-55. Mr. Mason is working to Jacy to increase the number of pizza boxes she folds during her first thirty minutes at the pizza shop during her vocational instruction. She currently folds an average of 15 boxes during a 30-minute period. Mr. Mason would like to increase this number to 100. What would be the most appropriate research design to use?
a. Changing Criterion Design
b. Multiple Baseline Design
c. Alternating Treatment Design
d. Changing Conditions Design
a. changing criterion design
5-56. The design depicted here is known as:
a. Changing criterion design
b. Alternating Treatments design
c. Changing conditions design
d. Reversal design
c. changing conditions design
5-57. _______________ refers to the magnitude and direction of the change in data from the end of one phase to the beginning of the next phase.
a. Change in mean
b. Level of performance
c. Trend in performance
d. Percentage of overlap
b. level of performance
5-58. Which design examines an intervention across settings?
a. reversal
b. multielement
c. AB
d. multiple baseline
d. multiple baseline
6-16. The MAS is:
a. Model/Analyze/Structure, a systematic method for teaching equivalent behaviors.
b. Multi-element Analysis of Stimuli, a method of verifying hypotheses about behavioral functions
c. Motivation Assessment Scale, a structured questionnaire used for informant interviews
d. Manipulation of Antecedent Stimuli, a way to avoid presenting events that occasion inappropriate behavior
c. Motivation Assessment Scale, a structured questionnaire used for informant interviews
6-17. All of the following are useful generalizations from the emerging literature on functional assessment analysis EXCEPT:
a. for many students, inappropriate behavior leads to escape from aversive tasks or situations
b. all inappropriate behavior can be decreased or eliminated by teaching a functionally
equivalent, appropriate behavior
c. much inappropriate behavior serves a communicative function
d. much inappropriate behavior is occasioned by high demand situations
b. all inappropriate behavior can be decreased or eliminated by teaching a functionally
6-18. The primary purpose of scatter plot assessment is to:
a. determine the cause of behaviors that occur in bursts
b. present data in an easily readable format
c. specifically identify potential controlling variables
d. identify time related patterns of behavior
d. identify time related patterns of behavior
6-19. Approaches to functional analysis reported in the literature have included all EXCEPT:
a. extinction of competing responses
b. within session manipulation of variables
c. use of the reversal design
d. use of the multi element design
a. extinction of competing responses
6-20. When students escape from a task or environment by performing an inappropriate behavior, that behavior is likely to be maintained by:
a. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
c. extinction
d. punishment
b. negative reinforcement
6-21. When an intervention like a token system works for all but one or two students in a group, it is likely that:
a. those students are too seriously disturbed to respond
b. there is powerful competing reinforcers available outside the token system
c. the students’ home situation is so poor that their behavior is essentially unchangeable
d. those students will respond only to punishment
b. there is powerful competing reinforcers available outside the token system
6-22. Quantitative measures of topography include all EXCEPT:
a. frequency
b. duration
c. percentage of intervals during which a behavior occurs
d. degree of malice involved
d. degree of malice involved
6-23. When parents or teachers react to inappropriate behavior by offering a student various items or activities until the inappropriate behavior stops, they risk maintaining the inappropriate behavior with:
a. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
c. extinction
d. punishment
a. positive reinforcement
6-24. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of informant assessment?
a. informant’s memory
b. informant’s potential bias
c. informant’s ability to analyze behavior
d. informant’s ability to verbalize what was seen
c. informant’s ability to analyze behavior
6-25. Factors affecting the efficiency of a response do NOT include:
a. physical effort required to perform the response
b. schedule of reinforcement
c. delay between discriminative stimulus and delivery of reinforcer
d. degree of student’s disability
d. degree of student’s disability
6-26. Teachers often miss the function of a behavior because they are preoccupied with a behavior’s ____________.
a. Frequency
b. Topography
c. Latency
d. Rate
b. topography
6-27. Every time the teacher asks a question, an overly eager student raises and waves his hands in front of her. In order to get him to stop this behavior, the teacher calls on him for the answer. The probability of the student raising and waving his hands again is:
a. Increased
b. Decreased
c. Not likely
d. A or B
a. increased`
6-28. The stimuli that occasion or signal the opportunity to perform a behavior are known as:
a. Antecedents
b. Behaviors
c. Consequences
d. Preceding variables
a. antecedents
6-29. To determine the most effective intervention for a behavior, it is necessary to analyze:
a. Antecedents and Behaviors
b. Behaviors and Consequences
c. Consequences and Antecedents
d. Antecedents only
a. antecedents and behaviors
6-30. Which of the following would NOT be considered a communicative function of inappropriate behavior?
a. Lying in the floor instead of sitting in the desk
b. Refusing to answer when called upon
c. Painting finger nails during English class
d. Feeling angry as the result of a request
d. feeling angry as the result of a request
6-31. Which of the following is NOT considered a behavior rating scale?
a. A-B-C Descriptive Analysis
b. Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST)
c. Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS)
d. Problem Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ)
d. Problem Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ)
6-32. Which behavior may serve to gain a teacher’s attention?
a. reading quietly
b. banging a pencil
c. taking notes
d. all of the above
b. banging a pencil
6-33. Which behavior may serve to gain a tangible object?
a. Reading quietly
b. Banging a pencil
c. Taking notes
d. All of the above
b. banging a pencil
6-34. A child who wants more juice interrupts her mother who is talking on the phone. As the child’s interruptions become louder and more insistent, the mother abruptly ends her call and immediately attends to the child. More than likely, the next time the mother is on the phone and her child wants something…
a. The mother will ignore the child
b. The child will take care of her own needs because her mother taught her how to do so
c. The child will interrupt the mother
d. All of the above
c. the child will interrupt the mother
6-35. Students frequently engage in inappropriate behaviors when
a. Their schedule is interrupted
b. They lack the ability to communicate effectively
c. They are disciplined
d. They are internally stimulated
b. they lack the ability to communicate effectively
6-36. Which of the following is considered a setting event?
a. Classroom noise or temperature level
b. Hunger
c. A & B
d. None of the above
c. A&B
6-37. Which is NOT considered an occasion in which IDEA requires the development of a behavior support plan?
a. when a student causes disruption in school and community-based educational environments
b. when a student’s behavior is such that it may result in a suspension up to ten days
c. when a student’s behavior is such that it may result in a change of educational placement
d. when a pattern of behavior impedes the learning of the student or of another student
a. when a student causes disruption in school and community-based educational environments
6-38. An “operational definition”
a. Clearly states the form of the behavior
b. Identifies the criterion of a behavior
c. Defines the condition for behavioral occurrence
d. Describes the setting events
a. clearly states the form of the behavior
6-39. Indirect strategies for gathering functional assessment information on a student include:
a. Anecdotal reports
b. Scatter plot analysis
c. Interview forms, scales and questionnaires
d. ABC descriptive analysis
c. Interview forms, scales and questionnaires
6-40. Generally, how many conditions are used when the function of a behavior is initially to be identified through a functional analysis?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
d. Four
6-41. Which of the following is not a condition examined during a functional analysis?
a. attention
b. sleep
c. demand
d. play
b. sleep
6-42. A functional analysis is conducted in order to:
a. verify a hypothesis form a functional hypothesis
b. clarify uncertain results from a functional assessment
c. serves as an initial step in developing a hypothesis of a function
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
6-43. During a functional analysis condition a student is presented with a difficult task and begins to scream. The teacher quickly removes the task and the student stops screaming. Which of the following might be the function of his behavior?
a. self-stimulation
b. attention
c. escape
d. none of the above
c. escape
6-44. Which of the following designs is often used during a functional analysis?
a. ABAB design
b. multielement design
c. A & B
d. none of the above
b. multielement design
6-45. Direct observation strategies used during a functional assessment include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. scatter plot
b. anecdotal reports
c. A-B-C data analysis
d. behavior rating scales
d. behavior rating scales
6-46. During A-B-C descriptive analysis, data should be collected for a minimum of
a. 3 days
b. 5 days
c. 9 days
d. 10 days
a. 3 days
6-47. The process of systematically manipulating antecedents and consequences to determine their effect on occasioning and maintaining the target behavior is _____.
a. setting events
b. enhanced functioning
c. functional analysis
d. intervention
c. functional analysis
6-48. After completing a functional assessment, Ms. Jones hypothesizes that Chris’ behavior functions as a means of escaping disliked tasks. Which of the following conditions should Ms. Jones test during the functional analysis?
a. attention
b. demand
c. play
d. alone
a. attention
6-49. Willis Middle School participates in a school wide positive behavior supports program. Several students have been identified with repeated office referrals and suspensions. These students would fall into which level of the three-tiered model of intervention?
a. universal
b. intensive
c. targeted
d. none of the above
c. targeted
6-50. Mr. Williams has noticed that student in his fourth period class has been exhibiting some inappropriate behaviors. Mr. Williams has attempted to correct the behavior using evidence based behavior management programs, but Joseph continues to exhibit the behaviors. Mr. Williams and the IEP committee have decided to develop a Behavior Support Plan for Joseph. What is the next step in developing a Behavior Support Plan?
a. conduct a functional assessment
b. screening
c. conduct a functional analysis
d. identify the target behavior
b. screening
7-27. Primary reinforcers include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. juice
b. stickers
c. raisins
d. cookies
b. stickers
7-28. A positive reinforcer is a consequence stimulus which:
a. increases the future rate, is delivered contingently and immediately following a desired behavior
b. maintains constant rates, and is delivered consequently
c. decreases a behavior, is delivered contingently and immediately following a
behavior.
d. maintains rate of a behavior, is delivered contingently and immediately
following a desired behavior
a. increases the future rate, is delivered contingently and immediately following a desired behavior
7-29. An example of a constructive feedback reinforcer is:
a. That’s right.
b. Good try! You almost finished on time.
c. Keep working!
d. You’re doing much better!
b. Good try! You almost finished on time.
7-30. All basic reinforcement systems have the following elements:
a. the teacher presents the antecedent discriminative stimulus
b. the student performs the requested response
c. the appropriate reinforcer is presented to the student
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
7-31. Confirmation of the reinforcing properties of a stimulus lies in:
a. the stimulus
b. the effect on behavior
c. the schedule
d. the teacher
b. the effect on behavior
7-32. A “learned” reinforcer is also known as:
a. natural reinforcer
b. deprived reinforcer
c. aversive reinforcer
d. conditional reinforcer
d. conditional reinforcer
7-33. The term used to designate the situation in which some, but not all, instances of a particular response result in reinforcement is:
a. scheduled reinforcement
b. unpredictable reinforcement
c. intermittent reinforcement
d. predicted reinforcement
c. intermittent reinforcement
7-34. Individuals are LEAST likely to satiate on:
a. CRF schedules
b. FR schedules
c. FI schedules
d. VR schedules
d. VR schedules
7-35. Individuals are MOST likely to satiate on:
a. CRF schedules
b. FR schedules
c. FI schedules
d. VR schedules
a. CRF schedules
7-36. The Premack Principle is the reinforcement system used most often by teachers. Which of the following is an example of the Premack Principle?
a. If you stay outside for 10 more minutes, then you must do your entire math
problems
b. If you finish all your work, then you may have free time for 10 minutes
c. If you are the line leader for today, then you must be quiet during study period
d. If you get a drink of water, then you must stay in your seat the rest of the day
b. If you finish all your work, then you may have free time for 10 minutes
7-37. A contract should NOT:
a. reinforce small approximations
b. reinforce the performance after it occurs
c. be stated negatively: “if you do not…, then I will…”
d. reinforce frequently with small amounts
c. be stated negatively: “if you do not…, then I will…”
7-38. _____________ is a naturally occurring phenomenon.
a. Time out
b. Reinforcement
c. Contingency contracting
d. Response cost
b. reinforcement
7-39. The symbol for positive reinforcement is
a. SR-
b. SR+
c. SD
d. SR
b. SR+
7-40. Which of the following terms is NOT associated with positive reinforcement?
a. Increases
b. Presentation
c. Decreases
d. Contingent
c. decreases
7-41. What is reinforcing to a student depends on
a. Reinforcement history
b. Temperament on an intervention day
c. Age appropriateness of the reinforcer
d. A & C only
d. A&C only
7-42. The best way to determine whether something is reinforcing to a student is to use
a. Reinforcer sampling
b. Systematic predicting
c. Caregiver guesses
d. Selective sampling
a. Reinforcer sampling
7-43. Immediacy of reinforcement delivery is necessary
a. To avoid the hazard of inadvertently reinforcing an intervening behavior
b. To establish a connection between a particular behavior and its consequences
c. To convince the student of the veracity of the contingency
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
7-44. _________ reinforcers are natural, unlearned, or unconditioned.
a. Tertiary
b. Secondary
c. Primary
d. Variable
c. Primary
7-45. Which of the following is NOT considered a secondary reinforcer?
a. Paycheck
b. A gold star
c. Verbal praise
d. Music
d. music
7-46. Which is considered a proprioceptive primary reinforcer?
a. Colored lights twinkling
b. The smell of cinnamon rolls baking
c. Music playing softly
d. Swinging in a swing
7-47. Reinforcers that are exchangeable for some reinforcer of value to students is known as:
a. Activity reinforcers
b. Proprioceptive reinforcers
c. Token reinforcers
d. Tactile reinforcers
c. token reinforcers
7-48. Effective use of teacher praise requires that:
a. Praise be delivered contingent on performance of the target behavior
b. Praise should specify the behavior being reinforced
c. Praise should be sincere with the teacher varying tone and content
d. All of the above
d. all of the above
7-49. The reinforcement delivery system that enables teachers to tailor the system based on the unique characteristics of students in a classroom is:
a. Independent group-oriented
b. Dependent group-oriented
c. Interdependent group-oriented
d. None of the above
d. none of the above
7-50. The schedule of reinforcement having a one-to-one ratio is:
a. Intermittent
b. Variable
c. Interval
d. Continuous
d. continuous
7-51. Continuous reinforcement schedules are most useful during which phase of learning?
a. Acquisition
b. Fluency
c. Generalization
d. All of the above
a. acquisition
7-52. Which of the following IS a characteristic of a FR schedule of reinforcement?
a. The length of intervals affects the rate of responding
b. As the schedule ratio increases, the student will often stop responding for a period of time following delivery of the reinforcer.
c. Behaviors occur at a relatively low rate
d. All of the above
b. as the schedule ratio increases, the student will stop responding for a period of time following delivery of the reinforcer
7-53. Each time George puts a quarter in the gumball machine, he receives a gumball. George is on what schedule of reinforcement?
a. CRF
b. FI
c. VR
d. VRD
a. CRF
7-54. The schedule of reinforcement that is least resistant to extinction is:
a. CRF
b. FI
c. VR
d. VRD
d. VRD
7-55. Negative reinforcement is abbreviated as:
a. SR2
b. SR-
c. NR
d. NR-
b. SR-
7-56. A discriminative stimulus is represented by the symbol:
a. SR+
b. SR-
c. SD
d. none of the above
d. none of the above
7-57. After lunch Mrs. Davis began to work with Marquis on acquisition of his sight words. Marquis was reinforced on a CRF schedule with primary reinforcers (popcorn). However, Mrs. Davis notices that the popcorn was not serving as a reinforcer. What behavioral term describes the phenomenon that Mrs. Davis was observing?
a. deprivation
b. satiation
c. pairing
d. reinforcer sampling
b. satiation
7-58. Joe was on a CRF schedule to reinforce the behavior of raising his hand before speaking out. His teacher decided she needed to thin his schedule of reinforcement from a CRF to VI 10 schedule. Joe’s use of handing raising decreased and he began to call out without raising his hand. The behavioral principle that explains this situation is __________.
a. ratio strain
b. thinning
c. Premack Principle
d. pairing
a. ratio strain
7-59. Thinning a schedule of reinforcement should result in all of the following EXCEPT:
a. lower, more variable levels of responding
b. decreasing expectation of reinforcement
c. removal of teacher as a necessary behavior monitor
d. maintenance of the behavior over longer periods of time
d. maintenance of the behavior over long periods of time
7-60. For every third response correct, Scott received reinforcement. What schedule of reinforcement was Scott on?
a. FI3
b. FR3
c. VI3
d. VR3
b. FR3
7-61. Paige is learning her multiplication facts. During instruction her teacher reinforces an average of every third correct response. Paige is on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a. FI3
b. FR3
c. VI3
d. VR3
7-62. A student who is at the maintenance level of a new skill should be on a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
a. continuous
b. intermittent
c. natural reinforcement
d. none of the above
8-27. Ignoring disruptive behavior is a procedure known as:
a. overcorrection
b. response cost
c. time out
d. extinction
d. extinction
8-28. At the initiation of an extinction procedure one should expect the behavior will:
a. decrease
b. increase
c. remain stable
d. disappear
b. increase
8-29. A class of stimuli which result in physical pain or discomfort to the student is termed:
a. unconditioned aversive stimuli
b. conditioned aversive stimuli
c. controlled aversive stimuli
d. correctional aversive stimuli
a. unconditioned aversive stimuli
8-30. When a student has been placed in time out:
a. he should remain there as long as it takes for him to quiet down
b. she should remain for a period of time equal to the amount of time she was
disrupting the class
c. one to five minutes is generally sufficient, but no longer than 15 minutes.
d. any of the above criteria is appropriate.
c. one to five minutes is generally sufficient, but no longer than 15 minutes.
8-31. A procedure that uses a reinforcement strategy to reduce a behavior is:
a. overcorrection
b. response cost
c. time out
d. DRA
d. DRA
8-32. Use of an extinction procedure may result in:
a. induced aggression
b. initial increase in behavior
c. spontaneous recovery
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
8-33. The characteristic by which behavior continues for an undeterminate amount of time once reinforcement is withheld is known as:
a. resistance to extinction
b. orneriness
c. behavioral continuity
d. all of the above
a. resistance to extinction
8-34. When using a planned ignoring procedure, the teacher should:
a. reinforce other students’ appropriate behaviors
b. comment on the inappropriate behavior
c. place a dunce cap on the student’s head
d. none of the above
a. reinforce other students’ appropriate behaviors
8-35. Spontaneous recovery refers to:
a. the possible reappearance of an extinguished behavior
b. a student’s return to the classroom after time out
c. getting well after a serious illness
d. none of the above
a. the possible reappearance of an extinguished behavior
8-36. Successful approaches to controlling reinforcing consequences delivered by peers include:
a. reinforcing peers for withholding attention
b. training high status peers in reinforcing appropriate behaviors
c. attending to peer being aggressed while ignoring aggressor
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
8-37. When selecting an incompatible or alternative behavior to use in a differential reinforcement procedure:
a. it is better if the behavior is already in the student’s repertoire
b. the functional intent of the behavior should be analyzed
c. the alternative behavior should be one that can be reinforced frequently
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
8-38. _____________ is a naturally occurring phenomenon.
a. Time out
b. Reinforcement
c. Contingency contracting
d. Response cost
b. reinforcement
8-39. Mrs. Jones has repeatedly attempted to reduce Jonathon’s behavior of rushing through his daily worksheets. His behavior results in increased errors as well as illegible handwriting on his worksheets. Mrs. Jones decided to reinforce Jonathon every time he turns in a neatly printed worksheet. Which of the following procedures has Mrs. Jones employed?
a. DRO
b. positive reinforcement
c. extinction
d. DRL
8-40. Which of the following statements is true of DRO schedules?
a. requires students receive reinforcement if he/she does not perform the target behavior
b. reinforces absence of the behavior
c. effectiveness depends on the reinforcer selected
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
8-41. During a ______ schedule, if inappropriate behavior is attempted the performance of the inappropriate behavior is ignored and an alternative behavior reinforced or performance of an inappropriate behavior is interrupted and redirected toward the appropriate behavior.
a. DRL
b. DRI
c. DRO
d. DRA
d. DRA
8-42. Functional communication training (FCT) is the teaching of an appropriate communication form to reduce an inappropriate behavior that serves a communicative intent. This is an example of which behavior reduction procedure?
a. DRA
b. DRO
c. DRL
d. DRI
8-43. All of the following are procedures designed to reduce inappropriate behaviors EXCEPT:
a. noncontingent reinforcement
b. DRO
c. negative reinforcement
d. none of the above
8-44. Which of the following provides reinforcement of an alternative behavior?
a. DRO
b. DRL
c. DRI
d. none of the above
8-45. Mr. Henderson wanted to stop Elijah’s hand flapping. He consulted with the IEP committee and they decided to use hand weight to make the hand flapping more difficult in order to reduce the behavior. The behavioral procedure employed is _______.
a. DRI
b. sensory extinction
c. positive reinforcement
d. none of the above
8-46. A punisher is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
a. decrease in the future rate or probability of occurrence of the behavior
b. administered contingently on the production of the inappropriate behavior
c. administered immediately following the inappropriate behavior
d. administered immediately following the appropriate behavior
8-47. ___________ is a form of time out in which the student is moved to the edge of the activity so that he or she can still observe other students engage in appropriate behavior and receive reinforcement.
a. time-out ribbon
b. contingent observation
c. nonexclusion time-out
d. all of the above
8-48. Physical restraint is considered a(n) ___________.
a. conditioned aversive stimulus
b. unconditioned aversive stimulus
c. overcorrection
d. exclusion timeout
8-49. Justin often attempts to jump off classroom chairs. His teacher decided to reduce the behavior by having him repeatedly jump off the classroom chair, while under close supervision. This is an example of ___________.
a. restitutional overcorrection
b. positive-practice overcorrection
c. negative practice
d. response cost
8-50. After finishing lunch Jose left his trash on the table, his teacher responded by having him pick up the trash left behind at each table. This procedure is known as __________.
a. restitutional overcorrection
b. positive practice
c. negative practice
d. response cost
8-51. Julie’s teacher was concerned with her repeated attempts to dominant class discussion periods. Which of the following would be appropriate for reducing this behavior?
a. negative reinforcement
b. DRO
c. DRI
d. DRL
8-52. All of the following reduce behavior by removing a desired stimulus EXCEPT:
a. time out
b. response cost
c. contingent observation
d. noncontingent reinforcement
8-53. Which of the following is considered a form of an aversive stimulus?
a. overcorrection
b. time-out ribbon
c. response cost
d. noncontingent reinforcement
8-54. The Principle of the Least Intrusive Alternative suggests
a. that positive interventions are always more effective than aversive
b. when determining which intervention to choose, an important consideration is the intervention’s level of intrusiveness.
c. that when selecting a procedure, a teacher should begin at Level IV and move up the hierarchy toward less intrusive procedures
d. that the least intrusive procedure, regardless of effectiveness, should be selected.
8-55. John is sent to time-out for refusing to sit quietly during circle time. Here, the teacher is using what level option for reducing inappropriate behaviors?
a. Level I
b. Level II
c. Level III
d. Level IV
8-56. On average, students in science Group A ask for assistance 8-12 times per 20-minute period. The teacher wants to decrease this behavior. She tells the group that if they are able to complete their 20-minute lab assignment with no more than three requests for assistance, they will receive 5 bonus points for their work. This is an example of:
a. Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior
b. Differential reinforcement of other behaviors
c. Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
d. Noncontingent reinforcement
8-57. Reinforcing on-task behavior to decrease off-task behavior is an example of:
a. Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior
b. Noncontingent Reinforcement
c. Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors
d. Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
8-58. What schedule of reinforcement should be used when initially using DRA with a new behavior?
a. Continuous reinforcement schedule (CRF)
b. Fixed interval: 2 (FI: 2)
c. Variable ratio: 1 (VR: 1)
d. Fixed ratio: 2 (FR: 2)
8-59. What is most often used in the classroom to decrease behaviors that are being maintained by teacher attention?
a. Positive reinforcement
b. Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors
c. Noncontingent reinforcement
d. Extinction
8-60: Which is considered the least intrusive strategy for reducing behavior?
a. Sam is sent to the corner to “think about his inappropriate behavior” for 5 minutes.
b. Jerry is taught to point to a picture to tell his teacher he is hungry instead of pushing materials off of his desk.
c. Sherri loses her free time for not turning in her homework
d. Melissa is required to clean all of the desks in the classroom after writing on her own desk.
8-61. The time-out procedure in which the student is not removed from the instructional setting and instead, the teacher temporarily manipulates the environment to deny a student access to reinforcers is known as:
a. Exclusionary time-out
b. Seclusionary time-out
c. Nonseclusionary time-out
d. Nonexclusionary time-out
8-62. Mr. Hughes was stopped by the police for emptying his ashtray on the roadway while he was driving at 35 m.p.h. The judge sentenced Mr. Hughes to an entire weekend of picking up trash on the side of the road. This is an example of:
a. A conditioned aversive stimulus
b. Positive-practice overcorrection
c. Restitutional overcorrection
d. Response-cost
8-63. During basketball practice, Coach Reeves’ team continually forgot his directive to pass the ball at center court. For 15-minutes, the coach had is players practice passing the ball at center court. The educational procedure Coach Reeves used is called:
a. Negative practice overcorrection
b. A conditioned aversive stimulus
c. Restitutional overcorrection
d. Positive-practice overcorrection
9-16. A stimulus, or group of stimuli, that may reliably set the occasion for a response is:
a. positive reinforcement
b. discriminative stimuli
c. an S delta
d. respondent conditioning
b. discriminative stimuli
9-17. When a discriminative stimulus has been presented and a response has failed to occur, a teacher may use:
a. a prompt
b. an instruction
c. modeling
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
9-18. When prompting is used by the teacher:
a. reinforcers are not to be used
b. the “heaviest” prompt is always used
c. reinforcement occurs as if prompts had not been used
d. the prompt is delivered following a ten second interval
c. reinforcement occurs as if prompts had not been used
9-19. A model’s effectiveness may be positively influenced by:
a. high status
b. differences between model and students
c. behavior modeled without reinforcement
d. none of the above
a. high status
9-20. Graduated guidance is a fading procedure that:
a. begins with whatever prompt level is necessary for performance of behavior
b. is used to fade physical prompts
c. is concerned with the time the prompt is given
d. increases the amount of assistance within a trial
b. is used to fade physical prompts
9-21. By making prompts used as “weak” as possible, the teacher has:
a. increased the power of S deltas present
b. increased the amount of time a prompt will be needed
c. guarded against delay of development of stimulus control
d. done nothing to affect the instructional program
c. guarded against delay of development of stimulus control
9-22. A student acquires a sequence of behaviors, all of which must be done in order to gain a reinforcer. He has learned:
a. a fading procedure
b. a backward chain
c. a behavioral chain
d. a forward chain
c. a behavioral chain
9-23. A backwards chaining procedure is used to teach a student to remover her coat. Instruction has involved:
a. presenting the whole task on each occasion
b. beginning with the last step first for instruction
c. beginning with the first step only for instruction
d. using a combination of the above three methods
b. beginning with the last step first for instruction
9-24. A procedure described as the use of differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior is called:
a. modeling
b. fading
c. chaining
d. shaping
d. shaping
9-25. Shaping should be used when:
a. combinations of reinforcement, prompting, or chaining have failed
b. students are highly resistant to behavioral change
c. the correct discriminative stimuli have been identified
d. a shaping procedure is always the first choice
a. combinations of reinforcement, prompting, or chaining have failed
9-26. Which symbol is associated with a lack of reinforcement?
a. SΔ
b. SD
c. SR+
d. SR-
a. SΔ
9-27. What kind of prompt is being used in the following example: Miss Elkhart physically demonstrates for Brandon how to open the microwave oven.
a. Visual Prompt
b. Modeling
c. Verbal Prompt
d. Physical Guidance
b. Modeling
9-28. Gradual removing of prompts is known as __________.
a. Fading
b. Backward chaining
c. Shaping
d. All of the above
a. Fading
9-29. When using ___________ for fading prompts, the teacher begins with a level of prompting that virtually assures that the student will produce the appropriate response.
a. Increasing assistance
b. Graduated guidance
c. Time delay
d. Decreasing assistance
a. Increasing assistance
9-30. Systematically fading a combination of prompts is an example of:
a. Increasing assistance
b. Time delay
c. Decreasing assistance
d. Graduated guidance
d. Graduated guidance
9-31. A form of decreasing assistance called errorless learning is also known as:
a. Time Delay
b. Graduated Guidance
c. Backward Chaining
d. Stimulus shaping
d. Stimulus shaping
9-32. A task analysis should be used when
a. The needs exists to systematically introduce various prompts
b. A teacher wants to decrease a student’s inappropriate behaviors
c. A teacher wants a student to acquire a complex behavioral chain
d. All of the above
c. A teacher wants a student to acquire a complex behavioral chain
9-33. Components of a chain are acquired in reverse order. This is known as:
a. Backward chaining
b. Forward chaining
c. Total task presentation
d. Behavioral chaining
a. Backward chaining
9-34. When a teacher requires a student to perform all the steps in sequence until the entire task is mastered, she is using what instructional technique?
a. Backward chaining
b. Forward chaining
c. Total task presentation
d. Behavioral chaining
c. Total task presentation
9-35. ____________ is defined as differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a specific target behavior.
a. Shaping
b. Modeling
c. Behavioral chaining
d. SD
a. Shaping
9-36. Which of the following is an example of an SΔ?
a. Whenever Mrs. Marcott is in the room, she ignores James when he yells out answers.
b. Amanda knows that Mr. Stevens will pay attention to her if she uses profanity.
c. Coly learned that when he answers his ringing phone, he more than likely gets to talk to one of his friends.
d. All of the above.
b. Amanda knows that Mr. Stevens will pay attention to her if she uses profanity.
9-37. The principle of discrimination associated with positive reinforcement is
a. SΔ
b. SD
c. SR+
d. SR-
b. SD
9-38. A ______ is a class of stimuli that have characteristics in common.
a. Prompt hierarchy
b. Shape
c. SD
d. Concept
d. concept
9-39. A _____ is an additional stimulus that increases the probability that an SD will occasion the desired response.
a. Concept
b. Reinforcer
c. Consequence
d. Prompt
d. prompt
9-40. What kind of prompt is being used in the following example: Mr. Kelly posts the homework assignment directions on the board for his math class.
a. Modeling
b. Physical Guidance
c. Visual prompt
d. Verbal Prompt
c. visual prompt
9-41. What kind of prompt is being used in the following example: Miss Clark holds Melissa’s hand to cross the street.
a. Modeling
b. Physical Guidance
c. Verbal Prompt
d. Visual Prompt
b. physical guidance
9-42. Which of the following is considered a prompt fading procedure?
a. Graduated Guidance
b. Most-to-Least prompts
c. Time Delay
d. All of the above
d. all of the above
9-43. Systematically waiting before delivering a prompt allowing a student to respond before prompting is a procedure known as
a. Time Delay
b. Stimulus shaping
c. Graduated Guidance
d. Forward Chaining
a. time delay
9-44. The following is an example of the system of least prompts.
a. Miss Simon waits three seconds before providing Luis physical guidance.
b. After Mr. Gibson asks Tia to hang up her coat, her verbally reminds her again.
c. Yesterday, Ms. Shafer provided hand-over-hand assistance to Jerome to tie his shoes. Today, she is holding his wrists.
d. a & b only.
d. a&b only
9-45. When a teacher starts with the first link in a chain, teaches it until it is mastered, and then goes on to the next link, he is using what instructional technique?
a. Backward chaining
b. Forward chaining
c. Total task presentation
d. Behavioral chaining
b. forward chaining
9-46. Which of the following is an example of a prompt that increases assistance?
a. graduated guidance
b. time delay
c. least-to-most prompts
d. most-to-least prompts
c. least-to-most prompts
9-47. Kip is learning to drink from a cup. His teacher begins providing hand-over-hand assistance to grasp the cup. The teacher then moves to providing Kip support at his wrist to guide the cup. This is an example of which prompting strategy?
a. most-to-least
b. time delay
c. graduated guidance
d. none of the above
c. graduated guidance
9-48. Nancy is learning to brush her teeth. Her teacher provides her with task analysis for brushing her teeth. The task analysis is presented by pictures of each step. This is an example of which prompt?
a. auditory prompt
b. visual prompt
c. least-to-most
d. time delay
b. visual prompt
9-49. The following criteria are examples associated with which behavioral procedure?
Richard will remain in his seat for three minutes.
Richard will remain in his seat for five minutes.
Richard will remain in his seat for ten minutes.
a. shaping
b. chaining
c. fading
d. none of the above
a. shaping
9-50. During this procedure the prompt is presented in combination with the discriminative stimulus.
a. time delay
b. least-to-most
c. simultaneous prompting
d. all of the above
c. simultaneous prompting
10-16. Facilitation of transfer and maintenance of behaviors to reinforcement contingencies in the natural environment may be facilitated by:
a. training students to avoid interfering reinforcers available
b. avoiding behaviors that are subject to trapping
c. teaching students to recognize reinforcement when given
d. training in a single natural environment
c. teaching students to recognize reinforcement when given
10-17. In using general case programming:
a. single instances of stimuli are identified and used in training
b. multiple instances of stimuli are identified and used in training
c. a range of stimuli showing sameness and difference are identified and used in training
d. a range of stimuli showing difference only are identified and used in training
c. a range of stimuli showing sameness and difference are identified and used in training
10-18. A student learns the concept of “red” through training on a continuum of red-colored items as well as blue and green items. The teacher has used:
a. general case programming
b. training loosely methodology
c. train and hope methodology
d. indiscriminable contingencies
a. general case programming
10-19. Training loosely can sometimes be advantageous to generalization because:
a. tight control may limit teaching efficiency
b. the process leads to quick and effective skill generalization
c. less teacher time is consumed in planning
d. natural reinforcers in the environment are always available
a. tight control may limit teaching efficiency
10-20. The use of indiscriminable contingencies takes advantage of:
a. sameness and difference in discriminative stimuli
b. naturally occurring reinforcers
c. continuous reinforcement to maintain behaviors
d. intermittent reinforcement to maintain behaviors
d. intermittent reinforcement to maintain behaviors
10-21. Training of stimuli observed in both training and generalization settings is best described as:
a. use of indiscriminable contingencies
b. common stimuli programming
c. training loosely
d. train and hope methodology
b. common stimuli programming
10-22. Students may be trained to be reinforced by generalization as a response class. This is described as:
a. programming common stimuli
b. general case programming
c. training to generalize
d. training sufficient exemplars
c. training to generalize
10-23. In mediating generalization, students may be taught to:
a. recognize reinforcers in the environment
b. monitor and report on their own behavior generalization
c. recruits reinforcers which may be available
d. responds to specific discriminative stimuli in multiple environments
b. monitor and report on their own behavior generalization
10-24. ___________ occurs when a response that has been trained in a specific setting with a specific instructor occurs in a different setting or with a different instructor.
a. Response maintenance
b. Stimulus generalization
c. Acquisition
d. Response Generalization
b. stimulus generalization
10-25. A driver is taught to push the accelerator when the traffic light turns green. While at work, she opens the dishwasher door, only when the light turns green. This is an example of:
a. Stimulus generalization
b. Response maintenance
c. Behavioral persistence
d. Response generalization
a. stimulus generalization
10-26. Ms. Coulter was successful using a token reinforcement system with Jordan to decrease his inappropriate behaviors in her class. Mr. Johnson is now going to implement the same token system in his class in hopes that Jordan’s behavior will improve. This is an example of what generalization technique?
a. Train loosely
b. Sequentially modify
c. Introduce to naturally maintaining contingencies
d. Mediate generalization
b. sequentially modify
10-27. The Relevance of Behavior Rule states that:
a. If teachers can generate behaviors that are reinforced by the natural environment, a situation equivalent to catching a mouse in a trap will be created.
b. The more relevant the behavior, the more likely the student will be to acquire the behavioral skill.
c. There is seldom a behavior that is performed exactly the same way in exactly the same place.
d. It is not always necessary to employ identical procedures to obtain stimulus generalization or maintenance.
a. If teachers can generate behaviors that are reinforced by the natural environment, a situation equivalent to catching a mouse in a trap will be created.
10-28. Mr. Hawkins wants Abel to learn to purchase a newspaper from a newspaper vending machine. Over two weeks, Abel purchases newspapers from four different newspaper machines. This is an example of what generalization technique?
a. Train loosely
b. Train sufficient exemplars
c. Sequentially modify
d. Train to generalize
b. Train sufficient exemplars
10-29. Which of the following is another term for “training loosely?”
a. Naturalistic teaching
b. Minimal intervention
c. Incidental teaching
d. All of the above.
d. All of the above.
10-30. Which procedure is NOT necessarily the best to use for promoting generalization?
a. Delaying the delivery of reinforcers
b. Intermittent reinforcement
c. Use of a thin schedule of reinforcement
d. A continuous schedule of reinforcement
b. Intermittent reinforcement
10-31. How do generalization objectives differ from acquisition objectives?
a. The conditions under which the behavior to be performed differs.
b. Differences in the criteria defined for performance
c. Differences in behavior targeted for change
d. A & B only
d. A & B only
10-32. __________ refers to the tendency of a learned behavior to occur after programmed contingencies have been withdrawn.
a. Response maintenance
b. Stimulus generalization
c. Acquisition
d. Response generalization
a. Response maintenance
10-33. Jennifer learns to discriminate between hot and cold by operating the sink controls in the science lab. She has maintained 100% accuracy on this skill over several weeks. When she has to wash her hands in the restroom at Burger Barn next week, it is anticipated that she will independently use the water controls. The generalization technique being used here is:
a. Train Loosely
b. Train and Hope
c. Use Indiscriminable Contingencies
d. Program Common Stimuli
b. Train and Hope
10-34. Applying the same technique that successfully changed behavior in one setting to all settings where the target behavior is desirable is known as what generalization technique?
a. Train and Hope
b. Program Common Stimuli
c. Sequentially modify
d. Train to Generalize
c. Sequentially modify
10-35. The design associated with sequential modification is:
a. Multiple baseline design
b. Reversal design
c. Changing conditions design
d. Alternating treatment design
a. Multiple baseline design
10-36. Initially, Isabel is taught to use her augmentative communication system to indicate it’s time for lunch when prompted by the teacher and when she feels hunger. Through instruction over time and withdrawal of the teacher’s verbal prompt, Isabel now independently indicates it’s time for lunch when her stomach begins growling. This is an example of what generalization technique?
a. Sequentially modify
b. Train loosely
c. Mediate generalization
d. Introduce to naturally maintaining contingencies
d. Introduce to naturally maintaining contingencies
10-37. A behavior that lends itself to trapping includes:
a. Grooming skills
b. Social skills
c. Communication skills
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
10-38. The maintenance or transfer of behaviors to reinforcement contingencies in the natural environment may be facilitated by:
a. Teaching students to recruit reinforcers from the environment
b. Observing peers and their interactions with the target student
c. Monitoring the use of artificial reinforcement
d. All of the above
a. Teaching students to recruit reinforcers from the environment
10-39. “Using Sufficient Exemplars” differs from “Sequential modification” in that:
a. Change is targeted and assessed with settings, individuals, or activities in which NO intervention has taken place.
b. Change is targeted and assessed with settings, individuals or activities in which intervention HAS taken place.
c. The same techniques that successfully changed behavior in one setting are applied to all settings where the target behavior is desirable.
d. None of the above
d. None of the above
10-40. Miss Kennedy wants Oliver to learn the skills necessary to successfully participate in a job interview. She provides simulated training opportunities with Oliver that incorporate the same questions an interviewer would ask and the same environmental configuration. In addition, she has Oliver wear the outfit he will wear to his interview. Which technique for promoting generalization is Miss Kennedy using with Oliver?
a. Program common stimuli
b. Train loosely
c. Train sufficient exemplars
d. Use indiscriminable contingencies
a. Program common stimuli
10-41. All of the following refer to the process of generalization EXCEPT:
a. transfer of learning
b. stimulus generalization
c. behavioral perspective
d. a and c only
d. a and c only
10-42. This procedure of generalization requires that the procedure successfully used to change a behavior in one setting be applied to all the settings in which the desired behavior change should occur.
a. train and hope
b. sequential modification
c. introduce to natural maintaining contingencies
d. train sufficient exemplars
b. sequential modification
10-43. All of the following refer to maintenance EXCEPT:
a. resistance to extinction
b. behavioral perspective
c. durability
d. transfer of training
d. transfer of training
10-44. When teaching students to generalize, this procedure provides that the teacher delivers reinforcement only for responses that are different from previous responses to the cue.
a. stimulus generalization
b. lag schedule of reinforcement
c. differential reinforcement
d. response generalization
b. lag schedule of reinforcement
10-45. The process of trapping a behavior is used when teaching generalization under conditions of ____________________.
a. sequential modification
b. train and hope
c. natural maintaining contingencies
d. none of the above
c. natural maintaining contingencies
10-46. Cheryl was learning to place a food order when at a local restaurant. During her training period, Cheryl was taught to make her selection when asked, “May I take your order.” However, when at the local restaurant Cheryl did not respond with her food order when asked, “What can I get you.” Cheryl demonstrated a lack of ______________________.
a. response generalization
b. stimulus generalization
c. response maintenance
d. a and b only
b. stimulus generalization
10-47. This schedule of reinforcement leads to increased maintenance of the behavior.
a. CRF
b. intermittent
c. noncontingent
d. none of the above
b. intermittent
10-48. Ms. Wilson’s class went two days a week to work at a local grocery store. To assist with generalization, such as sorting, she created a simulation of the grocery store in their classroom. This is an example of teaching generalization using:
a. indiscriminable contingencies
b. programming common stimuli
c. training loosely
d. general case programming
b. programming common stimuli
11-16. Self instruction is a strategy of providing oneself verbal prompts for:
a. academic content
b. answer correction
c. task completion
d. reinforcer selection
c. task completion
11-17. For students to learn self instructional strategies effectively and completely, during the modeling of the strategies the teacher should include skills of:
a. problem definition
b. focusing attention
c. self reinforcement
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-18. While both self reinforcement and self punishment strategies have been successfully used, self reinforcement may be preferred because:
a. reinforcement is only for increasing behaviors
b. reinforcement is an easier concept for children to understand
c. punishment may concentrate children’s’ awareness on their failure and may
maximize fear of failure
d. all of the above
c. punishment may concentrate children’s’ awareness on their failure and may
maximize fear of failure
11-19. The necessity for continued teacher support can be minimized through the use of:
a. self reinforcement
b. self recording
c. self instruction
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-20. Reasons for preferring self management to control by external change agents include:
a. increased consistency
b. ability to carry out a program in any setting
c. commitment of a student to a program through involvement
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-21. When preparing students to take the responsibility for managing their own behaviors, teachers should:
a. make no verbal comments when delivering reinforcement
b. always choose the reinforcer themselves
c. ask the student to restate contingencies
d. all of the above
c. ask the student to restate contingencies
11-22. A reactive effect is:
a. a behavior change in the desired direction simply as a result of self recording
b. an allergic reaction to a stimulus
c. a behavior change in the opposite direction
d. none of the above
a. a behavior change in the desired direction simply as a result of self recording
11-23. Types of data collection procedures that have been successfully used by students as means for self recording are:
a. event
b. latency
c. anecdotal records
d. all of the above
a. event
Components needed for teaching students to self record include:
a. operationally defining the target behavior
b. instructing the student in the use of the data collection system
c. monitoring at least one practice session
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-25. Self reinforcement procedures can include:
a. students choosing reinforcers
b. students determining the cost of reinforcers
c. students choosing behaviors to be modified
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-26. Student selected performance standards are often:
a. more lenient than teacher selected
b. more stringent than teacher selected
c. totally unreasonable
d. none of the above
a. more lenient than teacher selected
11-27. Teaching students to engage in self instruction:
a. helps them in problem solving
b. may facilitate generalization to other settings
c. may facilitate generalization to other tasks
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-28. Differential effects of self instruction may be due to:
a. age
b. cognitive style
c. attributional style
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-29. The person who knows best what kind of reinforcement a student desires at any one time is:
a. the teacher
b. the student’s parent
c. the student
d. none of the above
c. the student
11-30. The change agent who is available across all times and settings is:
a. the teacher
b. the student’s parent
c. the student
d. none of the above
c. the student
11-31. The best person to manage a student’s behavior is:
a. The teacher
b. The student
c. A school administrator
d. A peer
b. The student
11-32. Which of the following is NOT a reason for teaching students to self-manage?
a. Teachers may miss certain instances of behavior
b. External change agents are not always available
c. Teachers may inadvertently become an environmental cue for the performance or lack of performance of a behavior.
d. Allows students to teach themselves thus providing teachers the time to work with others.
d. Allows students to teach themselves thus providing teachers the time to work with others.
11-33. Which of the following is NOT true? When setting goals, students…
a. Should set goals that are long-term
b. Should set goals that are specific
c. Should set goals that are short-term
d. Should set goals that are challenging
a. Should set goals that are long-term
11-34. Self-recording appears to be most effective in:
a. identifying necessary variations in intervention
b. maintaining behavior changes resulting from traditional, teacher-managed strategies
c. determining antecedents to behavior change
d. increasing task fluency and the rate at which reinforcers are delivered
b. maintaining behavior changes resulting from traditional, teacher-managed strategie
11-35. Following the practice spelling test, students are asked to check their own results. This is a form of:
a. Self-monitoring
b. Self-evaluation
c. Self-instruction
d. Self-punishment
b. Self-evaluation
11-36. Which is NOT a way in which students may be involved in contingency management?
a. Choosing reinforcers
b. Determining the cost of reinforcers in relation to behavior
c. Choose behaviors to be modified
d. Evaluating peer behaviors
d. Evaluating peer behaviors
11-37. In science lab, students are provided with a list of questions to answer as well as a detailed lab manual outlining the step-by-step experimental procedures to be completed. In this class, what self-management procedure is the teacher using?
a. Self-monitoring
b. Self-evaluation
c. Self-instruction
d. Self-reinforcement
c. Self-instruction
11-38. John has a tendency to yell at his classmates when he doesn’t get his way during recess. Mrs. Cobb taught John that when he demonstrates inappropriate behavior during recess, he must sit on the playground bench for five minutes. Over time, John has begun to independently sit on the bench without being prompted by his teacher, when he yells at his peers during recess. What self-management procedure is John using?
a. Self-instruction
b. Self-monitoring
c. Self-evaluation
d. Self-punishment
d. Self-punishment
11-39. Using a homework assignment check list, Dakota checks off each homework assignment he completes. What self-management procedure is Dakota using?
a. Self-recording
b. Self-instruction
c. Self-evaluation
d. Self-reinforcement
a. Self-recording
11-40. Each day Sharon completes 30-minutes of working out at the gym, she places an “X” for that day on her calendar. What self-management procedure is Sharon using?
a. Self-recording
b. Self- evaluation
c. Self-reinforcement
d. Self-recording
a. Self-recording
11-41. When teaching students to self-record you should include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. selection of target behavior
b. operational definition of target behavior
c. selection of appropriate data collection system
d. teacher recording of target behavior
d. teacher recording of target behavior
11-42. Self-management strategies have been used with which of the following students:
a. students with severe disabilities
b. students with mild disabilities
c. students at risk
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-43. Dara was self-talking through each step of her math problem. She was engaged in ________.
a. self-recording
b. self-punishment
c. self-instruction
d. self-reinforcement
c. self-instruction
11-44. Ms. Kirkland set up a picture schedule to transition students between activities. Once a student completed an activity they compared their work to a picture of the task completed. Ms. Kirkland’s students were engaged in _______________.
a. self-monitoring
b. self-instruction
c. self-reinforcement
d. none of the above
a. self-monitoring
11-45. Self-management is made up of many components. Which of the following is a component of self-management?
a. goal setting
b. self-reinforcement
c. self-punishment
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-46. When teaching students to set goals, they should be:
a. specific
b. achievable
c. challenging
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
11-47. In ____________, students compare their work against some standard of performance.
a. self-recording
b. self-evaluation
c. self-reinforcement
d. self-instruction
b. self-evaluation
11-48. In _____________, students report an occurrence of their behavior.
a. self-recording
b. self-evaluation
c. self-reinforcement
d. self-instruction
a. self-recording
11-49. One of the most common forms of self-punishment includes _______________.
a. response cost with a token reinforcement systems
b. self-injurious behavior
c. stereotypic behavior
d. none of the above
a. response cost with a token reinforcement systems
11-50. The first step in self-instruction involves:
a. an adult modeling the procedure while overtly talking through each step
b. a student completing the steps following an adults directions
c. a student completes the steps following picture prompts
d. none of the above
a. an adult modeling the procedure while overtly talking through each step
12-16. __________ refers only to procedures derived from experimental analysis of human behavior.
a. cognitive modification
b. behavior modification
c. systematic analysis
d. all of the above
b. behavior modification
12-17. Aversive or exclusionary procedures may create problems in ALL BUT ONE of the following ways:
a. their misuse is common and often defined by the users as behavior modification
b. their use is always appropriate when administered by professionals
c. their use causes more concern than other behavioral procedures
d. all of the above
b. their use is always appropriate when administered by professionals
12-18. The goal of behavior analysts is to __________ the number of options available to people.
a. decrease
b. neutralize
c. increase
d. limit
c. increase
12-19. Which of the following is NOT important to the consumers of education (students, parents, community)?
a. goals
b. procedures
c. outcomes
d. standardized assessment instruments
d. standardized assessment instruments
12-20. Voluntary participation is facilitated by:
a. avoiding threats and incentives that are too powerful
b. involving the subjects of the program in selecting as few aspects of the program as possible
c. both a and b
d. none of the above
a. avoiding threats and incentives that are too powerful
12-21. The following procedures should be administered only under the supervision of a qualified instructor:
a. shaping
b. aversives
c. exclusion
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
12-22. In learning applied behavior analysis procedures, good supervision includes:
a. training and observation
b. training and evaluation
c. training and implementation
d. a and b
d. a and b
12-23. For those students with maladaptive behaviors and limited adaptive behaviors in their repertoire, the teacher may need to:
a. just ignore the maladaptive behaviors
b. eliminate the maladaptive behaviors first
c. teach adaptive behaviors as soon as possible.
d. b and c
d. b and c
12-24. The relationship between behavior and the environment is:
a. unilateral
b. reciprocal
c. parallel
d. linear
b. reciprocal
12-25. Teachers are accountable to:
a. administrative supervisors
b. parents of their students
c. the community
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
12-26. A primary consideration that guides teachers in designing a program to change a student’s behavior is:
a. proven effectiveness of a technique
b. administrative desires
c. availability of materials
d. student’s mental age
a. proven effectiveness of a technique
12-27. The laws of behavior operate:
a. only for the mentally handicapped
b. for students with mental ages between 2 7 years
c. for all but gifted students
d. for all of us
d. for all of us
12-28. Forms of applied behavior analysis include:
a. hypnosis
b. drug therapy
c. electroconvlusive shock therapy
d. none of the above
d. none of the above
12-29. Which factors must be considered when attempting to determine whether a proposed intervention is ethical?
a. community standards
b. individual freedom and responsibility of the student
c. laws
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
12-30. The primary reason to behave ethically is to:
a. act within the law
b. act consistently with what one believes is right
c. act in a professional manner
d. all of the above
b. act consistently with what one believes is right
12-31. Which of the following would be a procedure used by an applied behavior
analyst?
a. Shock therapy
b. Gestalt therapy
c. Contingency contracting
d. Drug therapy
c. Contingency contracting
12-32. A _________ position holds that human behavior is lawful and its causes can be identified in environmental events.
a. Deterministic
b. Constructivist
c. Positivist
d. Gestalt
a. Deterministic
12-33. In order for a practice to be considered “socially valid” it must:
a. Meet the acceptability requirements of its consumers
b. Meet the social acceptability requirements of the environment
c. Use techniques considered ethical by professionals
d. All of the above
a. Meet the acceptability requirements of its consumers
12-34. Which of the following is NOT an appropriate means for assessing social validity?
a. Questionnaires
b. Interviews
c. Behavioral observations
d. Surveys
c. Behavioral observations
12-35. A “therapeutic environment” is always:
a. Safe, humane, and responsive to individual needs
b. The general education classroom
c. The setting providing the fewest distractions thus providing greater effectiveness of behavioral strategies
d. All of the above
a. Safe, humane, and responsive to individual needs
12-36. Excited about her classroom visitors, Ms. Phillips points to Olivia and explains that although she has a learning disability, she has made progress in math over the past two weeks. Which ethical rule has Ms. Phillips broken?
a. The right to services whose overriding goal is personal welfare
b. The right to treatment by a competent behavior analyst
c. The right to the most effective treatment procedures available
d. The right to a therapeutic environment
d. The right to a therapeutic environment
12-37. Jay is allowed to use his augmentative communication device only during break, lunch, and leisure time. According to his teacher, when his device is used during instructional time, it is distracting to other students. Which ethical rule has Jay’s teacher ignored?
a. The right to a therapeutic environment
b. The right to treatment by a competent behavior analyst
c. The right to the most effective treatment procedures available
d. The right to services whose overriding goal is personal welfare
d. The right to services whose overriding goal is personal welfare
12-38. In an attempt to keep ahead with his paperwork, Mr. Martin goes ahead and writes Frankie’s IEP goals, objectives, and behavior management plan for the next year before the IEP meeting. Which ethical rule is Mr. Martin ignoring?
a. The right to the most effective treatment procedures available
b. The right to services whose overriding goal is personal welfare
c. The right to treatment by a competent behavior analyst
d. The right to a therapeutic environment
c. The right to treatment by a competent behavior analyst
12-39. Voluntary participation in a behavior-change program must be:
a. Informed
b. Voluntary
c. Both a and b
d. None of the above
c. Both a and b
12-40. Which of the following statements is true?
a. It is unethical to believe that any child is not capable of learning academic and preacademic skills.
b. It is unethical to waste the time of students for whom there is clear evidence that they are not capable of mastering traditional academics.
c. It is unethical not to consider the particular environment in which an individual lives when making decisions about the skills to be taught.
d. All of the above.
d. All of the above.
13-11. When structuring the physical arrangement of the classroom one must consider:
a. observation of all students
b. physical spacing of students
c. delineation of work areas
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
13-12. When structuring classroom time which of the following is appropriate:
a. picture schedule
b. use of timer
c. both a and b
d. none of the above
c. both a and b
13-13. To establish effective instructional practices the following should be present:
a. clear lesson plans
b. brisk instruction
c. engaging teacher characteristics
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
13-14. Verbal structure should include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. specificity
b. economy
c. consequences
d. reinforcement
d. reinforcement
13-15. Which of the following would be a good example of a rule with specificity?
a. Be a good citizen
b. Keep your hands to yourself
c. Raise your hand before speaking
d. all of the above
c. Raise your hand before speaking
13-16. Mrs. Jones had her students help establish a list of classroom rules, when they finished there were 35 rules for the class. This addresses which component of verbal structure?
a. specificity
b. economy
c. consequences
d. none of the above
a. specificity
Ms. Harper wants to increase John’s behavior of sharing during circle time. Each time Ms. Harper observes John sharing she provides him with a token and his behavior increased.

13-17. What type of reinforcement is Ms. Harper using?
a. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
c. differential reinforcement of other behavior
d. differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior

a. positive reinforcement
Ms. Harper wants to increase John’s behavior of sharing during circle time. Each time Ms. Harper observes John sharing she provides him with a token and his behavior increased.

13-18. Ms. Harper provided a token as a reinforcer for John’s behavior. The token was what type of reinforcer?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. sensory
d. none of the above

b. secondary
Ms. Harper wants to increase John’s behavior of sharing during circle time. Each time Ms. Harper observes John sharing she provides him with a token and his behavior increased.

13-19. What type of data collection system should Ms. Harper use to record the number of occurrences of John’s sharing behavior?
a. event recording
b. time sampling
c. duration
d. latency

a. event recording
13-20. Cedric, a student in Mr. Washington’s class, was repeatedly out of his seat during instructional time. Mr. Washington decided to reinforce Cedric when he was exhibiting in-seat behavior. What behavioral concept was Mr. Washington employing?
a. differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
b. differential reinforcement of other behavior
c. negative reinforcement
d. positive reinforcement
b. differential reinforcement of other behavior
13-21. Derrick, a student in Mr. Davis’ class repeatedly exhibited tantruming behavior including, screaming, crying, and hitting. Mr. Davis’ is unsure of the cause of the behavior. What steps should Mr. Davis take to determine the function of the behavior?
a. trial and error methods
b. conduct a functional assessment
c. ignore the behavior
d. none of the above
b. conduct a functional assessment
Ms. Tammy’s self-contained class was working on a hygiene regiment, including brushing teeth. Three of the five students required significant instructions for brushing teeth. Ms. Tammy created a step-by-step breakdown of the procedures and decided to start off providing physical guidance and gradually reduce the prompt level.

13-22. The step-by-step breakdown of brushing teeth is an example of:
a. task analysis
b. s-delta
c. setting event
d. permanent product

a. task analysis
Ms. Tammy’s self-contained class was working on a hygiene regiment, including brushing teeth. Three of the five students required significant instructions for brushing teeth. Ms. Tammy created a step-by-step breakdown of the procedures and decided to start off providing physical guidance and gradually reduce the prompt level.

13-23. The instructional procedure used was ____________________.
a. least-to-most prompts
b. time delay
c. most-to-least prompts
d. graduated guidance

d. graduated guidance