CMN010Y: Computer Mediated Communication: 1,2,3,4

What is Computer Mediated Communication?
Communication:
Shannon-Weaver Model:
1)Sender: originator of the message; source of the information
2)Encoder: transmitter, converts the message into signals
3)Channel: (MEDIUM) EX: email message, converted into binary data; travels through the internet
4)Decoder: reception place of the signal; reverses the encoding process; converts signals into a regular message (Reception)
5) Receiver: destination of the message from the sender; based on decoded message, gives feedback to the sender
-if distracted by noise, will effect communication btwn sender and receiver
-CMC–computer or digital devices is the channel or medium; broadly refers to digital devices
Define CMC: atoms? bits?
-defined as human communication that happens through the use of digital devices
-atoms: physical representation of information (newspapers), have to wait your turn to read it
-bits: easily reproducible with no cost at all; everyone can access online NY times at the same time
Types of CMC:
Internet Relay Chat (IRC):
-early application that facilitates messages in the form of text
-IRC clients are computer programs that a user can install on their system; these clients can communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients
-mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums called channels
-also allows private messaging
Types of CMC:
Multi-User Dungeon:
-multi-player, real-time, virtual world
-combines elements of role playing games, interactive fiction and online chat
-objective: slay monsters, explore fantasy world, complete quests, go on adventures, create a story by role-playing and advance the character
Types of CMC:
Email:
-one of the earliest forms of CMC
-immensely popular
-text based and pictorial representation (emoticon)
-additionally, video conferencing has become widely available (skype, google hangout)
Types of CMC:
Social Network Sites:
-web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile; articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection; view and traverse list of connections and those made by others using the system
-offer more functionalities than stand-alone IM software email; most integrate IM or email functions
Type of CMC:
Mobile Devices:
-heavily integrated into work and social lives
-ubiquitous
-Google glass
-predicted that we will see explosive growth in market of wearable technology: Google glass, Apple watch
Types of CMC:
Immersive Virtual Environments:
-Massively Multi-player online games (MMOs)
-players interact with environment and each other
-Virtual reality can simulate physical presence in places that are in the real world or imagined world; can recreate sensory experiences; can be through head mounted display
-also CAVE (Computer Assisted Virtual Environment): projecters are directed to walls of a room-sized cube
Types of CMC:
The Virtual Reality Cave, Verge Video:
-allows you to do science faster, in a completely diff way
-want to use VR to enable it as a tool for scientific research
-combination of three very big screens and a big floor, wear stereo glasses
Computer Supported Cooperative Work:
-designed for group or collaborative purposes
-address how collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by means of computer systems
-early forms: email, calendar, to-do list, contact management, team rooms, discussion forums, filesharing, microblogging, etc.; similar to contemporary collaborative software, like Microsoft outlook
Type of CSCW:
Wiki
-web application which allows people to add, modify or delete content in collaboration with others
-differs from a blog
-has little implicit structure allowing the structure to emerge according to the needs of the users
-Wikipedia
Cues-filtered out approach:
Social Presence Theory:
-Social presence is the awareness of others
-Media differ in their capacity to transmit nonverbal communication
-the fewer the number of cues, the less social presence
-Communication is effective if the medium provides the appropriate social presence for the task
-Face to face>written/text based CMC; face to face provides the most social presence
Cues-filtered out approach:
Media Richness Theory: (R)ichness, (R)eproduce
-Media richness describes a medium’s ability to reproduce the information sent over it
–Ability to handle multiple information cues simultaneously
–Ability to facilitate rapid feedback
–Ability to establish a personal focus
–Ability to utilize natural language
-Messages: low to high equivocality (multiple and conflicting interpretations of the information), and low to high uncertainty; so: low equivocality and low uncertainty typically means a clear, well-defined situation
-A richer medium is needed for equivocal and uncertain messages
Cues-Filtered Out Approach:
Media Richness Theory:
Diagram:
-Richest Medium to Leaner Medium (top to bottom); More effective to Least Effective
1)Face-to-Face
2)Video conferencing
3)Telephone
4)2-way radio
5)Written, addressed documents (letters, emails)
6)Unaddressed documents: (Bulk mail, posters)
Cues-Filtered Out Approach:
Reduced Social Context Cues:
-CMC lacks cues to status, social norms, and etiquette in comparison to Face to face
-Lack of cues make people more self-focused and increases perceived anonymity
-Lack of norms, self-focus and anonymity can lead to hostile, uninhibited behavior (e.g. flaming)
EX: all caps, considered as shouting (texting)
Cues-Filtered Out Approach:
Support for this view:
-People meeting through email rated senders as more logical, analytical and structured in comparison to sender’s self perception and the perception of friends
-CMC group discussions were less social-emotional and more task oriented than face to face group discussions
Cues-Filtered Out Approach:
Criticism:
-technology deterministic (social presence or media richness is considered a property of the media itself, it does not vary according to the users or the communication situations)
-Many other factors may influence media choice (EX: social pressure could play a significant role
-Social presence or media richness may not capture new media’s expanded capabilities
Cues-Filtered Out Approach: Theories:
1)
2)
3)
1)Social Presence Theory
2)Media Richness Theory
3)Reduced Social Context cues
Social Information Processing Theory:
-People are motivated to relate to one another
-CMC offers less cues than Face to Face. In CMC, people will employ any available cue to form impressions (e.g. text)
-transmitting social information through text based CMC takes more time than in Face to Face. Thus forming impressions takes more time in text based CMC
Hypothesis: Forming impressions takes longer in CMC. Over time, as people get to know one another through text messages, CMC impressions will approximate face to face impressions
Social Information Processing Theory:
Hypothesis:
Hypothesis: Forming impressions takes longer in CMC. Over time, as people get to know one another through text messages, CMC impressions will approximate face to face impressions
EX:
-media channels=pipes; information travels from one end to the other
-media richness (amount of available cues for each medium)=diameter of the pipe
-fat pipes=Ftf, can transmit more information than thin pipes (textual CMC); given enough time, thin pipes will transmit the same amount of information as fat pipes; difference=SPEED
Social Information Processing Theory:
Empirical Support:
-one study asked participants using CMC or FtF to rate how much they felt they knew their partners
-Week 1: large gap between CMC and FtF (knew partners much better than CMC), however by Week 3, CMC caught up with FtF, gap shrank
-difference is in the speed
Cues-Filtered out theory explains how….
CMC is leaner or inferior to FtF communication
Social Information Processing Theory argues that….
CMC could be as effective as FtF if given enough time
Hyperpersonal Communication Theory:
-CMC exceeds FtF interaction
-CMC allows people to strategically present the self
-CMC allows people to reallocate cognitive resources to composing messages; EX: send email, can’t expect people to reply immediately, they can take their time in composing a response
-CMC fosters behavioral confirmation processes (self-fulfilling prophecy); we behave based on expectation of the other, social data is selectively sent
Hypothesis: CMC use can lead to more exaggerated impressions in comparison to FtF encounters
Summary: CMC Theory:
1)Cues-Filtered Out Perspective (CFO):
Hypothesis: Lack of cues in CMC promotes more neutral, undeveloped or even more negative impressions compared to FtF
Summary: CMC Theory:
2)Social Information Processing (SIP):
Hypothesis: Impression formation is slower in CMC, but over time impressions become more developed
Summary: CMC Theory:
3)Hyperpersonal Model:
Hypothesis: CMC interactions can lead to exaggerated, overinflated, stereotyped impressions
EX: girl in library gushing over hot fraternity guy (who was actually a girl pretending to be a guy)
Can You Use CMC theories to better understand online dating?
-Hyperpersonal communication
-Impression Management:
–What motivates individuals to engage in self-presentation behaviors?
–What strategies do people employ to manage impressions?
-Online Deception:
“I am not a fraud, but I embellish the truth”
Cues-filtered out describes a group of theories that share:
the premise that CMC has no verbal cues and therefore obstructs the accomplishment of social functions that typically involve cues
Cues-filtered out: Social Presence Theory:
-various communication media differ in capacity to transmit classes of NVC in addition to verbal content
-the fewer number of cues a system supported, the less warmth and involvement users experienced with one another
-experiments supported the theory that CMC rendered less socio-emotional content than other multi-modal forms of communication
Cues-filtered out: Social Presence Theory:
Optimal level for anthropomorphism for avatars?
-compared research participants responses to lifelike, cartoonish or abstract avatars on measures of presence, copresence, social presence
-presence variables reflected the same result: Abstract rather than lifelike avatars stimulated the greatest presence responses