Classification, Plants, and Brain EOC Practice Test

One reason common names are not useful to biologists is that they…?
can apply to more than one animal
Linnaean classification involves…?
both large, and small categories of organisms
One goal of scientists is to assign every organism a universally accepted name according name according to the system known as
binomial nomenclature
For many species, there are often regional differences in their
common names
At any level of organization, groups that have biological meaning are referred to as
taxa
To be usefull a scientific name has to refer to
a single species
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According to the rules of binomial nomenclature which of the terms is capitalized?
The genus name only
Based on their names, you know that baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same
species
How to binomial, or two part names compare with early versions of scientific names?
they tend to be shorter
The second part of a scientific name is
a dscription of a trait or habitat
Often the second part of a scientific name is
a description of a trait or habitat
Systematics is
The science od naming and grouping organisms
In Linnaeu’s system of classification how many levels are there
seven
A genus is composed of a number of similar
species
Several different classes make up a
phylum
Which are the two highest level taxa in Linnaean system
phylum and kingdom
Animals that are warm blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young are grouped as the class
Mammalia
The only natural taxa in Linnaeus ‘s system is the
species
Traditional classifications tended to take into account primarily
visible similarities and differences
In evolutionary classification, a monophyletic group includes one
species and all its ancestors
The grouping of organisms based in their common descent is called
evolutionary classification
In an evolutionary classification scheme species within one genus should be
be more closely related to one another that they are to species in other genera
What kind of analysis focuses on the order in which deriveed characters appeared in organisms
cladistic analysis
In biology a trait that arose in an ancestor and is passed along to its desendants is referred to as a
derived character
Which of the following is a correct explanation of a derived character
the presence of hair is a derived character of mammals because all mammals have hair and no animal other than mammals have it.
Each node on a cladogram represents
the last point at which two groups shared a common ancestor
what doesa cladogram represent
the last point at which two groups shared a common ancestor
Similar DNA sequences in genes can be evidence of?
common ancestory
What do all organisms have in common
they all use DNA to pass on information
What is true about dissimilar organisms such a cow and a yeast?
Their degree of relatedness can be estimated from their genes
which of the following techniques can sientists use to determine how the DNA of several species might indicate the species are related
cladistic analysis
DNA evidence
is not reliable as physical characteristics or behaviorrs when used to classify organisms and to determine evolutionary relationships
What cell structures in eukaryotic cells contain DNA that can be used to determine evolutionary relationships
nuclei and mitochondria
All organisms in the kingdom Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are
eukaryotes
Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell wlls of chitin
Fungi
In Linnaeus time all life was divided into which two kingdoms
animals and plants
In linnaeus ‘s time all living thins were grouped into two kingdoma. Later there were five kingdoms, and now sciientists have six kingdoms. What is the main reason for this increase in the number of kingdoms?
As scientists learned more about genetics and biochemistry, some organisms were moved out of existing kinggsoms and into new ones
Why is the kingdom Protista not valid under evolutionary classification
Protista contains groups that share closest common ancestors with other groups, rather than with each other
Organisms in the kingdom Eubacteria and Archabacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom callled
Monera
The domain that corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria is
Bacteria
The domain that contains the unicellular organisms that live in extreme enviorments is
Archae
The two domains composed of only unicellular organisms are
Archaea and Bacteria
The three domain systtem arose when scientists found that Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were more
dissimilar than scientists thought
which of the following gymnosperm reproductive structures is haploid
pollen grains
Angiosperms produce seeds inside protective sturcutures called
ovaries
the specialized reproductive strusture that evloved most recently is
ovary
Which of the following correctly related an angiosperm structure and what it develops into
ovary –> fruit
The number of seed leaves distingushes
two groups of angiosperms
Unlike a dicot a monocot has
parallel leaft veins
Flowering plants grow faster , flower, produse seeds, and die in one year called
annuals
Which types of plant lives the longest
perennial
A new plant is discovered. This plant has leaves with branched veins, a taproot, and stems mad primarily of cells with thick cell walls, which means its
a woody plant
A seed plant is held in the ground by irs
roots
Ground tissue is found in a plants
roots, stems, and leaves
In most plants hich organ are adapted to capture sunlight for photosynthesis
leaves
If some of the xylem of a young oak tree were destroyed, it would most likely interfere with the trees ability
to conduct water to the leaves
Unlike tracheids some vessel elements
form a continuous tube
Vascular tissue in plants consist of
xylem and phloem
the outer covering of a plant consists of
dermal tissue
To observe mitosis which of the following should a student examine under a compound microscope
tip of shoot
which of the following are areas of unspecialized cells in which mitosis produces new cells that are ready for differntation
meristems
The kayer of cells that enclose the cascular tissue in the centerl egion of a root is the
endodermis
The root cap is a tough structure that protects the
meristem
Mineral nutrients from the soil move into roots by
active transport
Root pressure
is produced in the vascular cylinder by active transport
One of the three main functions of stems is to
carry water and nutrients between roots and leaves
In a plant ‘s stem the vascular tissue
is continuous from the roots to the leaves
Unlike roots, stems
may play a part in photosynthesis
Many cacti, such as saguaros and barrel cacti, have large stems and no leaves.What function of leaves is taken on by the stems of such cacti
they produce food by photosynthesis
During primary growt, a stem
increases in length
in dicots secondary growth
produces bark and wood
what might a thin tree ring indicate
a year of drought
Which og the following describes the heartwood of a tree
old xylem that is no longer conducting water
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of a leaf through the
stomata
Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in the
mesophyll
The flat structure of a leaf blade enable its function as a photosynthetic organ by
exposing a greater surface area to capture energy from the sunlight
In many plants stomata are found only on the lower surface of the leaf. The most likely explanation for this is the fact
water loss would be less on the shaded lower surface than in direct sunlight
The attraction of water molecules to other kinds of molecules is called
adhesion
In angiosperms, flowers are adaptations for reproduction. Which of the following does NOT usually describe flowers that are pollinated by animals
they are tiny
In angiosperms the ovary surronds seeds in a structure called the…?
fruit
Which of the following correctly lists the terms in order from smallest to largest? seed, embryo, fruit
embryo , seed , fruit
A seed that is dispersed in an area far away from the parent plant will always face less
competition with parent plants
Seeds that are spread by wind and water usually are
lightweight
Seeds that are soread by animals usually are contained in
fleshy, nutrious fruits
A period off dormancy can allow seeds to germinate
under ideal conditions
The plant embryo in a seed begins to grow again during
germination
A plant’s cotyledons
store nutrients and transfers them to the embryo during germination
Which system coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external enviornment
nervous system
Which system enables you to understand the words you read in a book
nervous system
The peripheral nervous system collects information about changes in internal body temperature using…?
nerves and supporting cells
What is the function of the centeral nervous system?
to process information and form a response
Cells of the nervous system that transmit electrical signals to various organs in the body are called
neurons
Neurons are classified by the
direction in which they carry impulses
Your alarm clock wakes you up and reminds you to get ready for school. which types of neuron receives the sound of the alarm?
sensory neurons
It’s 2:00 in the afternoon and you havent eaten anything since breakfast. what part of your brain is telling you that your hungry?
hypothalamus
Which receptors respond to a scrapped knee?
pain receptors
Which organ does not have tiny pain receptors?
brain