CJ Realities and Challenges : Ch. 1

mala in se
behavior categorized as wrong or “evil in itself”
mala prohibita
statutory crime that reflects public opinion at a moment in time
statutory crime
an act the is criminal because it is prohibited by law
consensus prospective
view that crime sees law as the product of social agreement or consensus about what criminal behavior is
conflict prospective
view of crime as one outcome of a struggle among different groups competing for resources in their society
sanctions
prescribed consequences intended to reinforce peoples conformity to norms
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criminal justice system
the interdependent actors and agencies — law enforcement, the courts , the correctional system and victim services — at the local,state, and federal that deal with the problems of crime
state courts
the system in which state crimes are prosecuted; it includes both trial and appellate courts
federal courts
the system in which federal crimes are prosecuted consisting of district, appellate,circuit, and US Supreme Courts
appellate courts
courts that hear the appeals from trial courts and other lower courts
corrections
the systematic organized effort by society to punish offenders, protect the public, and change an offenders behavior
alternative sentence
a sentence that is served in a treatment facility or in community service
Goals of sentencing
retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, reintegration, and restitution
probation
an alternative to jail or prison in which the offender remains in the community under court supervision usually within the caseload of a probation officer
parole
an early release from prison conditional on complying with certain standards while free
victims services
a range of resources — such as shelters, transitional housing, counseling, and 24-hour hotlines — aimed at reducing the suffering and facilitating the recovery of victims, especially those who participate in the criminal justice process
victim advocate
a professional who assist the victim during the postvictimization period
victim impact statement
a victim written statement, usually in the Presentence Report, about how the experience with the crime affect him or her. Sometimes judges ask victims to read this statement in open court prior to sentencing
secondary victims
family and friends of an individual who has been victimized
elocution
process in which a victim impact statement is read in open court prior to sentencing
criminal justice funnel
the results of decisions by criminal justice professionals, suspects and others. Large number of people get arrested many fewer of whom are prosecuted and imprisoned
wedding cake model
an explanations of the workings of the criminal justice system that shows how cases get filtered according to the seriousness of the case. [infractions -> misdemeanor -> felony cases -> serious felonies -> celebrated cases ]
crime control model
a model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes the efficient arrest and processing of alleged criminal offenders
due process model
a model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of the justice process
moral panic
the reaction by a group of people based on exaggerated or false perceptions about crime and criminal behavior
recidivism
relapse into criminal activity