Civil War

Robert E. Lee
A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
George B. McClellan
Was a general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; loved his army too much to lose them, so he was too slow to react and lost the battle of Antietam to Gen. Lee; Lincoln fired him.
Antietam
The first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil in Maryland. Initiated by the Confederates in hope of winning aid from Great Britain and France. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this “win” for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation.
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War for its entire history from 1861 to 1865.
Constitutional Unionist
A supporter for the North during the Civil War. This is a Civil War-era term given to people of Border and Confederate states who remained loyal to the United States.
Fort Sumter
April 12, 1861. Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. Lincoln ordered unarmed men to help restock supplies in the fort, but was still attacked by the Confederates.
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Billy Yanks
This name was used to talk about the Northerner combatants coming from “Yankees” which was a nicknames for New Englanders. He is usually shown as wearing a regulation Yankee wool uniform with a wool coat four bass buttons, a forage cap, a flat top and leather visor. A nickname for the north.
Johnny Rebs
This is what the Patriots used to symbolize those fighting for the Confederates during the Civil War. The name came from “rebellion”. He is usually depicted as a young poor uneducated young boy wearing a gray wool uniform with the Confederate flag.
Stonewall Jackson
General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall. Died in Battle of Chancellorsville from friendly fire.
Winfield Scott
Devised the Anaconda Plan and was looked to for strategic advice.
Anaconda Plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south. To cut off all supplies going to South.
Gideon Welles
US secretary of the Navy. Executed the Southern blockades. Built up the navy to successfully block the southern ports and was a major factor in winning the war.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War. Fought in: Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Vicksburg, Appomattox Court House, Shiloh, Chattanooga, Wilderness
Merrimack
A Confederate iron-clad warship. The Confederates plated it with iron railroad rails. They renamed it the Virginia. The Virginia easily wrecked Union Navy ships and threatened to destroy the whole Navy. The Confederates later destroy the ship to keep it from the Union. This marks the end of wooden ships.
Monitor
An iron-clad vessel built by Federal forces to do battle with the Merrimack.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres in the west of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Greenbacks
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war. Named for its color. Textbook definition: a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
Ex Parte Merryman
A Supreme Court case that Chief Justice Taney’s ruled that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress. Lincoln openly defied the ruling by suspending it for the arrest of anti-Unionists during the Civil War, arguing that the Constitution allowed this suspension in a time of rebellion. Shows how a president can sometimes overstep their power.
Confiscation Act
An act that declared that all rebel property used in war, including slaves, could be confiscated and declared that confiscated slaves were free forever.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe. Issued on September 22, 1862.
Conscription Act
A Confederate law enacted in April of 1862, it subjected all white males between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five to military service for three years. It was repealed in 1863.
Copperheads
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War.
Gettysburg
40k casualties. Lee is defeated. Pickett’s charge = 15k men in one wave. Charge was a disaster, 10k die in the wave. Meade did NOT pursue. Led by Meade in North, Lee in South. Located in Pennsylvania. Date: July 1st-3rd, 1863
Vicksburg
May 22nd-July 4th, 1863. Located in Mississippi. North had Grant, South had Pemberton. 47 days of siege, Grant attacked rear, 2nd goal achieved, yielded command of the Mississippi Rive to the Union Forces.
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West, he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two from Atlanta to Savannah.
Total War
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields. All-out attacks aimed at destroying not only an enemy’s army but also its resources and its people’s will to fight. Textbook definition: War on all aspects of the enemy’s life.
Clara Barton
A nurse in the Civil War. Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An “angel” in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
border state
the states between the North and the South that were divided over whether to stay in the Union or join the Confederacy.
blockade
cut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out; to close off a country’s ports.
offensive
position of attacking or the attack itself
Rebel
Confederate soldier, so called because of opposition to the established government
Yankee
Union Soldier
blockade runner
ship that sails into and out of a blockaded area
ironclad
armored naval vessel
casualty
a military person killed, wounded, or captured
emancipate
to free from slavery
ratify
to give official approval to
bounty
money given as a reward, such as to encourage enlistment in the army
habeas corpus
a legal order for an inquiry to determine whether a person has been lawfully imprisoned
draft
the selection of persons for required military service
inflation
a continuous rise in the price of goods and services
entrenched
occupying a strong defensive position

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