Civil Rights Era

13th Amendment
1865, Banned slavery
Civil Rights Act
All people born in the US (except Indians) were citizens & had equal rights
14th Amendment
Prohibited states from infringing on rights of citizens (vote)
15th Amendment
States could not discriminate against voters based on race
US vs. Cruikshank
1876, Only states (not federal government) could punish people who violated civil rights of African Americans
US vs Reese
1876, States cannot deny votes because of race
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Plessy vs. Ferguson
S.Ct. upheld state law segregating blacks from whites in railroad cars
Jim Crow Laws
Segregated but equal facilities (never actually equal)
Intended to intimidate blacks
Great Migration
1916 – 1919, over 500,000 African Americans moved North
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
1909, formed by black leaders & white activists
Brought attention to discrimination
Rosa Parks
December 1, 1955, Montgomery, Alabama
Got on bus ride home
Told to move to back of bus for whites Parks refused (other blacks listened)
Where did Rosa Parks attend school after being home-schooled until she was eleven?
A private school Montgomery Industrial School for Girls
What did Rosa fear when she was a child?
Prejudice and insults from people
What did Rosa do for a living, and how did she get to work?
Seamstress and got to work on bus
What were the rules for white and black bus passengers before 1956?
Asked blacks to move back if more whites got on bus
Why did the civil rights leaders choose to make an example of Rosa Parks’ case?
She was innocent and had no criminal record
Name some ways Rosa Parks was honored during her lifetime.
Rosa Parks Peace Prize in 1994, Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1996, & Congressional Gold Medal in 1999 – -Library and museum is dedicated to her in Montgomery, Alabama
What special honor did she receive after her death, and what was unusual about the honor?
Casket was placed in the rotunda of the United States capitol for two days (normally only for presidents)
What was the Supreme Court ruling on November 13, 1956?
Almost year after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to sit in the back of a National City Lines bus in Montgomery, Alabama, the United States Supreme Court upheld a ruling which struck down local and state laws allowing segregation on November 13, 1956.
Grassroots Movement
Locally organized by ordinary citizens & helped expand civil rights
Mix black and whites (blacks sewed)
Thurgood Marshall
NAACP lawyer who led the fight against segregation in courts
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topecka
1950s, Court overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson (violated 14th Amendment)
Court said because facilities are separate, they can never be equal
Montgomery Bus Boycott
NAACP & churches asked blacks to boycott riding buses
13 Months (381 days)
Direct action taken to support or oppose a social or political goal
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Baptist minister from Georgia who said “we’re tired of being segregated & humiliated”
Court made bus segregation illegal
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Coordinated nonviolent civil rights protest all over South
Ku Klux Klan
Use beatings, arson, murder to threaten blacks
White Citizens Council
Prevent of integration (want to stay segregated)
Massive Resistance
Little Rock Nine
9 black kids go to Central High School
Governor ordered National Guard to prevent the kids from going to school (3 weeks)
September 24, Eisenhower ordered 101st Airborne Division into Little Rock
Troops protected kids as they went into school
protest where people sit & refuse to move until demands met
Sit-in Greensboro, NC
1960, 4 black college students order coffee waitress refused because they are black
Freedom Rides
Protests against segregation on interstate buses in South
Jim Zwerg joined 1961
Blacks sitting in front of bus and using white facilities
Movement Gains Strength
Ordinary people all over world joining movement
John F. Kennedy
Senator from Massachusetts
Democrat President Candidate
Won a close election
Richard Nixon
Vice President from California
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
May 1961, staged freedom rides
4 months later federal govt. integrated all interstate buses