Special Field No. 15
Jan 16 1865, Union general William T. Sherman confiscated 400,000 coastal land from South Carolina to Florida and declared it Union Property and redistributed it to freedmen that served in the Union Army.
Laws passed in 1865 & 1866 that limited the freedoms of freedmen, enforced by Pres. Andrew Johnson.
Amendment passed in 1868 that broadly defined and expanded the rights of American citizens and to also include freedmen.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Act passed in 1882 by Pres. Arthur that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers to the United States.
Compromise of 1877
Last of the troops were pulled from the South, white democrats gained power back in the southern states and black republicans were harassed and silenced.
Dawes Severalty Act
A huge blow to tribal sovereignty. Made all Native Americans and tribal land subject to the federal government, yet divided and distributed some tribal land to individual natives.
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Croik Shank v. Unit
June 30 1892 – Union steel mill workers went on strike in order to 1) petition higher wages and 2) continue a threatened-decease of the workers union. The owner of the mill, Frick, hired 300+ detectives and law enforcement to open fire on the protesting laborers blocking the entrance to the mill.
Leader of a sect of the Nez Perce, Native American tribe from Northeastern Oregon. The Nez Perce were driven from their land by the Fed Gov and forced to move to Idaho. A series of events lead to many battles that eventually ended in the slaughter of 150 of Natives and the surrender of Chief Joseph.
An influx of immigration from 1880-1920 of Eastern European people groups–countries allied with the US.
Direct Democracy Reforms
Plessy v. Ferguson
Case held in 1896 where a black man, Plessy, refused to sit in a Jim Crow train car due to the color of his skin. The judge of the supreme court, Ferguson, upheld the 13th and 14th amendments and said racial discrimination laws are still legal in states that honor “separate but equal” legislation.
An agreement in 1895 that stated Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law.
Principles for peace, in order to stop WWI, in a speech by President Wilson to congress in 1918.
17,000 U.S. World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. President Hoover denied their request and sent military officials to disperse the protestors with deadly force.
Social Security Act
Signed August 14th 1935 by Roosevelt, the Social Security Act was established to help elderly, unemployed, and children at the height of the industrial boom with city expansions in the US, which left many migrants from rural areas and Europe in unhealthy living conditions.
New Deal Coalition
Roosevelt set up his New Deal in 1933 and forged a coalition of labor unions, liberals, religious, ethnic and racial minorities (Catholics, Jews and Blacks), Southern whites, poor people and those on relief. These voting blocs together formed a majority of voters and handed the Democratic Party seven victories out of nine presidential elections, as well as control of both houses of Congress during all but four years between the years 1932-1980
Immigrant Act of 1924
A United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States as of the 1890 census, down from the 3% cap set in 1921, which used the Census of 1910.