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Chemistry Lab Write-Up

The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of the Reaction Between Calcium Carbonate and 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid Josue Montoya IB Chemistry SL Mr. Pham Due Date: 07 March 2013 Dates Experiment Was Conducted: 27, 28, 29 February 2013 INTRODUCTION Research Question: How does altering the temperature at which calcium carbonate and 1.

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0 M hydrochloric acid react, affect the rate of reaction? Aim: The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate how changing the temperature at which a reaction takes place, either by lowering the temperature or making the temperature rise, affects the rate at which the reaction proceeds.

To demonstrate how changing the temperature at which a reaction takes place affects the rate of the reaction, the reaction between calcium carbonate and 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid will be observed at 5 various temperature readings. The 5 varying temperatures are targeted towards being at 10? C, 20? C, 30? C, 40? C, and 50? C. It is highly improbable that each trial for each of the 5 different temperatures will be the exact temperature that was targeted, so it’s just important that you end up having a temperature fairly close to the targeted temperatures so that the rates of reactions that you do receive are as correct as possible.

The rates of reaction will be obtained using an apparatus that will guide the carbon dioxide gas being produced from the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate from a reaction chamber into a flask containing water. This experiment will be performed by placing about 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate chips into a flask containing 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at one of the targeted temperatures. This flask is called the reaction chamber because it is the flask that contains the actual occurring reaction. The reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid creates carbon dioxide as one of its products.

When the carbon dioxide goes through the tube connected to the plug that seals the reaction chamber it enters the flask containing the water the water will be pushed up a different tube and will displaced into a 50 mL graduated cylinder where you can measure how long it takes for the water to be displaced up to a certain mark on the graduated cylinder using a stopwatch. In this specific experiment you will measure how long it takes for 15 mL of water to be displaced by the carbon dioxide gas being produced from the actual reaction. Background:

The rate of a chemical reaction is inversely related to time. This means that the longer a reaction takes, the lower its rate. Rate can either be measured by the increase of product concentration divided by the time taken to achieve that concentration or by the decrease of reactant concentration divided by the time taken to reach that concentration of reactant (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). The collision theory states that a chemical reaction is dependent on the collisions between reacting molecules (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction).

But, for a reaction to occur, these molecules must collide in the correct orientation and they must collide with sufficient energy to be able to overcome the activation energy needed for a reaction to take place (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). Factors that have an effect on the rate of a reaction include the concentration of reactants at the beginning of a reaction, the surface area of the reactants, pressure at which the reaction held, the use of a catalyst, and the temperature at which a reaction is held(An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction).

Increasing the concentration of the reactants at the initiation of a reaction increases the rate of the reaction because as the concentration increases, the frequency of successful collisions between reacting particles increases as well (Ford 123). Therefore, lowering the concentration of the reactants decreases the rate of the reaction. Decreasing the particle size, or increasing the surface area of the reactants increases the rate of the reaction because by subdividing the reactants you allow for more of the reactant to be exposed and that will lead to higher probability that the reactants will collide and react(Ford 124).

Increasing the pressure will increase the rate of reaction, only if the reactants are in a gaseous form because increasing the pressure will decrease the volume which will then increase the concentration of the gases and lead to more successful collisions(Ford 124). The use of a catalyst will always increase the rate of a reaction because it provides a lower activation energy for a reaction to undergo successfully (Ford 124-25). Temperature affects the rate of a reaction immensely.

Increasing the temperature will increase the rate of all reactions because temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles and so the higher temperature represents an increase in their average kinetic energy (Ford 123). This also means that there will be a larger amount of particles exceeding the activation energy needed to collide successfully and react; this translates into an increase in the rate of the reaction (Ford 123). Many reactions tend to double their reaction for every 10?

C increase in their temperature (The Effect of Temperature on the Rates of Reaction). But, by lowering the temperature at which a reaction takes place you lower the rate of reaction just as much as you increase the rate when you increase the temperature. Being able to control the temperature at which a reaction takes place is important because by being able to control the temperature you are also able to control the rate at which reactions happen, but most importantly you are able to control how fast you yield the product from the reaction.

Practice test: answer key

For example, in the Haber Process the product that is being produced is ammonia (The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia). By using a low temperature the equilibrium of the solution shifts to the right and yields more product, but using too much of a low temperature and the reaction will take an extraordinarily long time to create ammonia as a product. To solve this problem pressure and concentration of reactants are increased in order to be able to use a higher temperature so that the rate of the reaction is high, yet still produces a good amount of ammonia (The Haber Process for the

Manufacture of Ammonia). In this experiment the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate will be studied. The equation for the reaction between these two substances is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) > CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) The calcium carbonate reacts with the hydrochloric acid in order to produce calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water. In this experiment the rate of the production of the carbon dioxide will be indirectly measured through the timing of how long it takes for 15 mL of water to be displaced.

But, if we are measuring how long it takes for 15 mL of water to get displaced into the 50 mL graduated cylinder we are also measuring how long it takes for 15 mL of carbon dioxide gas to displace the 15 mL water into the 50 mL graduated cylinder. Hypothesis: If the temperature at which the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate increases, then the rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate will increase as well.

According to the collision theory, if the temperature at which any reaction is held is increased then the rate of that reaction will always increase (An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction). Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles and so a higher temperature represents an increase in their average kinetic energy (Ford 123). This also means that there will be a larger amount of particles exceeding the activation energy needed to collide successfully and react; this translates into an increase in the rate of the reaction (Ford 123).

But, temperature and the rate of a reaction are directly proportional. If you increase the temperature of a reaction the rate will increase as well, but if you decrease the temperature the rate will decrease too. Variables: Independent Variable: The temperature at which the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate is held is the independent variable because it is the only variable that is being altered during the experiment. In the experiment we change the temperature of the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid before the calcium carbonate is added for the reaction to proceed to 5 different temperatures.

The 5 varying temperatures are to be approximately: 10? C, 20? C, 30? C, 40? C, and 50? C. We are able to change the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid by emerging the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 35 mL of hydrochloric acid into cold or hot water baths. By changing the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid, the temperature at which the calcium carbonate and the hydrochloric acid react is able to be changed and we are able to observe how the temperature at which a reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate affects the rate of the reaction.

Dependent Variable: The rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate is the dependent variable because it is the variable that is being affected by the changes in the independent variable, which in this experiment is the temperature at which the reaction is held. By changing the temperature at which the reaction is held you will either increase or decrease the rate, depending on whether you increased or decreased the temperature at which the reaction is held. To measure the rate of the reaction between the 1. M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate, we will time how long it takes for the CO2 gas that is produced from the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate to displace 15 mL of water. To displace the water and measure the amount of time it takes to displace it we will use a water displacement apparatus that will allow us to take the carbon dioxide gas produced to enter a water chamber and displace the water from that chamber into a 25 mL graduated cylinder, and we will use a stopwatch to time how long it takes for 15 mL of water to be displaced.

Controlled Variables: 1) The concentration and amount of hydrochloric acid used should remain consistent throughout the entire experiment. Therefore you should only use 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and only use 35 mL of it when conducting a reaction with calcium carbonate. To make sure your hydrochloric acid is of the same concentration every time you conduct a reaction, use the hydrochloric acid from the same source every time, and to make sure you use 35 mL for every trial use a 50 mL graduated cylinder to measure the amount of hydrochloric acid before you place it into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask.

It is important to use hydrochloric acid with the same concentration throughout the entire experiment so that the rate of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate isn’t affected by anything other than the temperature. If hydrochloric acid is of a higher concentration than 1. 0 M,  then the rate of the reaction will be faster than it should be, but if you use a hydrochloric acid with a concentration lower than 1. M then the rate of the reaction will be slower than it should be. 2) The amount of water being displaced should be consistent throughout the entire experiment, therefore you should time only how long it takes to displace 15 mL of water. To measure that you are timing how long it takes to displace 15 mL of water, use a 25 mL graduated cylinder. To get the most accurate rates as possible, start the stopwatch after you place the calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing the 1. M hydrochloric acid at one of the 5 targeted temperatures and you have sealed the flask with the cork, then stop the stopwatch as soon as you see the water being displaced reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. 3) The amount of calcium carbonate used throughout the experiment should remain constant, so you should use 3. 0 grams every time you perform a reaction between the calcium carbonate and the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. To make sure that you are using approximately 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate in every experiment performed use a weighing balance to measure out the calcium carbonate.

It is important to use 3. 0 grams of the calcium carbonate in every experiment because if you use more than 3. 0 grams then more carbon dioxide gas will be produced and the rate will increase because water is being displaced faster because of the excess amount of calcium carbonate. But, if you use less than 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate then the rate will be slower than it should be. METHOD Materials: 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flask 2 corks (plugs for that fit the 500 mL and 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flasks) Rubber Tubing 25 mL Graduated Cylinder 50 mL Graduated Cylinder

Weighing Balance Weighing Paper Stopwatch Calcium Carbonate Chips 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid 2 Glass Bowls Thermometer Heating Plate 400 mL Beaker Water Ice Procedure: Setup: Using the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask, 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flask, the rubber tubing, the 2 corks, and the 25 mL graduated cylinder make a water displacement apparatus like the one displayed in the diagram below. [pic] 2. Fill up the 300 mL Erlenmeyer Flask up to the 250 mL with water before each trial of the experiment is conducted. The larger 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask is the reaction chamber in which the 1. M hydrochloric acid will be placed to react with the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate chips. The 25 mL graduated cylinder is where the water will be displaced into as the carbon dioxide gas enters the water chamber from the reaction chamber and displaced the water. Make sure to dispose of the water displaced into the 25 mL graduated cylinder after each trial. Experiment: Reaction at 10? C Set up an ice bath by putting ice and water into the glass bowl and set it aside so you can cool the hydrochloric acid later in the experiment. Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the ice bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid drops to about 10? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to drop, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate.

Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the ice bath until it reaches 10? C. If your temperature goes below 10? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the ice bath and wait for the temperature to go up to 10? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 10? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 10? C and cork it and start the timer.

Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 2-7 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 10? C. Reaction at 20? C Set up an ice bath by putting ice and water into the glass bowl and set it aside so you can cool the hydrochloric acid later in the experiment.

Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the ice bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid drops to about 20? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to drop, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tarred the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the ice bath until it reaches 20? C. If your temperature goes below 20? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the ice bath and wait for the temperature to go up to 20? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 20? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 20?

C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 10-15 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 20? C. Reaction at 30? C Fill up a 400 mL beaker of water and heat it up until boiling on a hot plate. After it starts boiling place the water into the glass bowl.

Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the water bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases to about 30? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to increase, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the water bath until it reaches 30? C. If your temperature goes above 30? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the water bath and wait for the temperature to go down to 30? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 30? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 30?

C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 17-23 4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 30? C. Reaction at 40? C Fill up a 400 mL beaker of water and heat it up until boiling on a hot plate. After it starts boiling place the water into the glass bowl.

Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the water bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases to about 40? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to increase, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the water bath until it reaches 40? C. If your temperature goes above 40? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the water bath and wait for the temperature to go down to 40? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 40? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid at 40?

C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 25-31  4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 40? C. Reaction at 50? C Fill up a 400 mL beaker of water and heat it up until boiling on a hot plate. After it starts boiling place the water into the glass bowl.

Using a clean 50 mL graduated cylinder, measure out 35 mL of 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and then place the measured out hydrochloric acid into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask and set the flask with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid into the water bath. Stick the thermometer into the hydrochloric acid and wait until the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases to about 50? C. While waiting for the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid to increase, use the weighing balance to measure out 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate. First, place a piece of weighing paper on the balance and tare it. After you have tared the weighing paper, measure out the 3. grams of calcium carbonate. Put the calcium carbonate aside until you are ready to react it with the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid. Swirl the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid in the water bath until it reaches 50? C. If your temperature goes above 50? C, take the Erlenmeyer Flask with the hydrochloric acid out of the water bath and wait for the temperature to go down to 50? C. Record the exact temperature of the hydrochloric acid in the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask. Once the temperature of the 1. 0 hydrochloric acid is about 50? C, place the 3. 0 grams of calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. M hydrochloric acid at 50? C and cork it and start the timer. Stop the timer once 15 mL of water is displaced from the water chamber into the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Record the amount of time it took for the water being displaced to reach the 15 mL mark on the 25 mL graduated cylinder. Set up the water displacement apparatus for the next trial. Repeat steps 33-39  4 more times until you have done a total of 5 trials for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at 50? C. DATA COLLECTING AND PROCESSING Qualitative Data and Observations: Observations of the Reaction between 1. Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate At Varying Temperatures |Temperatures At Which the Reaction Was Held |What Occurred to the Reaction (Observations) | |(Varying Temperatures) | | |10? C |The calcium carbonate did not cause much of a reaction in the chamber, it took a long time | | |for the water to travel up the tubes and reach the 15 mL mark on the graduated cylinder. |20? C |Reacted way quicker than the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate | | |at 10? C. | |30? C |Reacted quicker than the 20? C, and the water was displaced a lot quicker than in the | | |reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate at 20? C. | |40?

C |The reaction was quicker than the reaction of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at | | |30? C. The water was displaced fairly quickly. | |50? C |Most vigorous of all the reactions performed. The water started traveling up the tube | | |almost instantaneously. | The most vigorous reaction was the reaction that was held at 50? C.

From this we can conclude that as the temperature at which a reaction is held is increased the rate of that reaction is increased as well. This leads us to understand that the relationship between the temperature of a reaction and the rate of the reaction are proportionally related. Raw Data: How the Temperature at Which the Reaction between 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate is Held Affects the Time It Takes to Displace 15 mL of Water |Targeted Temperatures |Trial # |Temperature At Which the Reaction Was Held |Time It Took For 15 mL of Water To Be | | | |(?

C ±0. 5) |Displaced | | | | |(seconds ±. 0. 01) | |10 ? C |1 |10. 7 |94. 2 | | |2 |10. 1 |94. 1 | | |3 |10. 2 |94. | | |4 |10. 5 |94. 6 | | |5 |10. 5 |94. 1 | |20 ? C |1 |20. 4 |52. 4 | | |2 |20. 4 |52. | | |3 |20. 4 |52. 5 | | |4 |20. 3 |52. 1 | | |5 |20. 2 |52. 1 | |30 ? C |1 |30. 2 |22. | | |2 |30. 1 |22. 2 | | |3 |30. 2 |22. 4 | | |4 |30. 3 |22. 2 | | |5 |30. 4 |22. 2 | |40 ?

C |1 |40. 3 |18. 5 | | |2 |40. 6 |18. 2 | | |3 |40. 5 |18. 3 | | |4 |40. 6 |18. 4 | | |5 |40. |18. 4 | |50 ? C |1 |50. 6 |13. 5 | | |2 |50. 5 |13. 7 | | |3 |50. 0 |13. 4 | | |4 |50. 1 |13. | | |5 |50. 2 |13. 4 | Processed Data: Averages of the Temperatures Used in the Reaction between 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate and the Averages of the Time It Took For 15 mL of Water to Be Displaced As a Result of Those Temperatures |Average Temperature (? C) |Average Time it Took for 15 mL of Water to Get Displaced (seconds) | |10. 4 |94. | |20. 3 |52. 3 | |30. 2 |22. 2 | |40. 4 |18. 4 | |50. 3 |13. | This set of data was processed by taking each rate and temperature of one reaction at a specific targeted temperature and finding the averages by adding all the rates up and dividing by the total number rates added and by doing the same with the different temperatures recorded. Average Rates and Standard Deviation for the Reaction between 1. 0 Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate at Varying Temperatures |Average Temperatures (? C) |Average Rate (mL/seconds) |Standard Deviation | |10. |0. 16 |0. 23 | |20. 3 |0. 29 |0. 26 | |30. 2 |0. 68 |0. 09 | |40. 4 |0. 82 |0. 11 | |50. 3 |1. 1 |0. 12 | The average rates were found by dividing the amount of water displaced by the amount of time it took to displace it. In this experiment we measured how long it took to displace 15 mL of water, so we divided 15 mL by how ever many seconds it took to displace that amount of water at the various temperatures. The standard deviation was found using Microsoft Excel. From the information in this chart we are able to create a graph displaying how temperature affects the rate of the reaction between 1. M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Calculations: % Uncertainty For the Rate of the Reaction between 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate To calculate the % uncertainty for the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate you have first divide the uncertainty of the 25 mL graduated cylinder used to hold the 15 mL of water that were displaced in the experiment and divide it by the number of mL being displaced. The uncertainty of the 25 mL graduated cylinder is ±0. 5 mL. So in this experiment you would divide the 0. 5 by 15 and get 0. 03. You take this number and multiply it by 100.

Next, you will divide the uncertainty of the stopwatch, which in this experiment is ±0. 01 seconds by the amount of time it takes to displace the 15 mL of water at a certain temperature. After you get the number from dividing the uncertainty by the amount of time it took to displace the 15 mL water you will multiply it by 100. You will add this number with the number you received from dividing the uncertainty of the 25 mL graduated cylinder and this will constitute you % uncertainty for the rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. GRAPHS [pic] CONCLUSION

The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate how the changes in temperature affect the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. The relationship between temperature and the rate of the reaction was found by changing the temperature at which the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate was held. 5 different temperatures were used in the experiment. The rate of the reaction between the calcium carbonate and the hydrochloric acid was found by timing how long it took for 15 mL of water to get displaced by the carbon dioxide gas produced from the reaction.

It was hypothesized that as the temperature at which the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate was increased then the rate of the reaction would increase as well. This was expected because the collision theory states that if the temperature at which any reaction is held is increased then the rate will certainly increase. The results suggest that the hypothesis is true, and that if the temperature at which a reaction is held is increased then the rate will be increased as well.

The results also suggest that if you decrease the temperature at which a reaction is held, then the rate will decrease as well. As the temperature was decreased from room temperature to about 10? C the rate of the reaction between 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate was averaged to be about 0. 16 mL of water displaced per second. But, as you increased the temperature the rate of the reaction increased. At 20 ? C, the rate was 0. 29 mL of water displaced per second, and at 30 ? C and 40 ? C the rates were 0. 68 and 0. 82 mL of water displaced per second.

Finally the highest rate belonged to the reaction that was held at the highest temperature, which in the experiment was 50 ? C. The rate at 50 ? C was about 1. 11 mL of water displaced per second. From the results you are able to interpret that the relationship between temperature and the rate of a reaction is proportional. This means that as the the temperature at which a reaction is held is increased then the rate at which the reaction proceeds will increase as well. Some irregularities within the data come from the the rates that were recorded from the reactions held at 10 ?

C and 20 ? C. These irregularities were a result from how long it took for the reaction to get going and produce carbon dioxide gas to displace the water. This could affect the way the data is interpreted because the rate of the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate at these two temperatures could be recorded incorrectly and the rates might be higher than what was recorded. EVALUATING THE PROCEDURE The first weakness in the experiment would be that the seal of the cork to the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask that contained the reaction between the 1. M hydrochloric acid and the calcium carbonate was not a strong seal. Throughout the experiment you could see bubble being formed on the edge of of where the cork met the Erlenmeyer Flask as a result of weak seal. Because of this weak seal, not all of the carbon dioxide gas that was produced was being used to displace some of the water. This weakness could have gave us rates that were lower than they should have been. To correct this a cork that created a tighter seal could have been used, or the cork could have been pushed down harder to create a tighter seal.

The second weakness comes from not starting the stopwatch at the exact time in every trial. This could have been a result from having to work alone. Throughout the experiment I pressed the timer to start the time right after I plugged the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask with the cork. The problem with this is that some times I plugged the flask faster than other times. This error could have been fixed by doing the experiment in a group of 2, so that one person could start the time as soon as they see you place the cork on the flask, rather than having to do it yourself after you already put the cork on yourself.

The third weakness could have came from not having the exact same temperature each time for each different targeted temperature being tested. None of the temperatures were exactly the same, this lead to inconsistent rate readings which were either to high or to low what should have been. This could have been corrected using a temperature probe and getting the exact temperature every time rather than using a thermometer. IMPROVING THE INVESTIGATION

The first suggestion for improvement is that instead of using the water displacement method to measure the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate a gas pressure sensor and the LoggerPro system could have been used to measure the rate of the production of the carbon dioxide and indirectly measure the rate of the entire reaction. By using the gas pressure sensor instead of the timer and the water displacement apparatus we could have recorded more precise and accurate rates rather than the rates that were recorded from using the water displacement apparatus.

The second suggestion for improvement is to use a temperature probe rather than a thermometer to check the temperature at which the reaction between the 1. 0 M hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate is held. This would allow for a more accurate reading of the temperature rather than using the thermometer and have a greater uncertainty for the temperature. A more accurate temperature reading leads to more accurate rates, that allow us to correctly interpret how the changes in temperature actually affect the rate of the reaction of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate.

The third suggestion for improvement would be to perform the experiment in a pair. By doing so there would be less errors in the recording of how much time it takes to displace 15 mL of water. This way one person could start and stop the timer while the other person places the calcium carbonate into the 500 mL Erlenmeyer Flask containing the 1. 0 M Hydrochloric Acid at a specific temperature and corks it with the plug. Doing the experiment will lead to more accurate rate readings, that remain consistent throughout the entirety of the experiment. BIBLIOGRAPHY Zumdahl, Steven S. , and Susan A. Zumdahl. Chemistry.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Print. Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Chemistry: Standard Level : Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education, 2008. Print. “An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction. ” An Introduction to the Collision Theory in Rates of Reaction. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. “The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia. ” The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. “The Effect of Temperature on Rates of Reaction. ” The Effect of Temperature on Rates of Reaction. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013.

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