Chatper 11 of psychology

personality
the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
character
value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior
temperament
the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.
psychoanalytic
…Psychoanalytic theory refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy. First laid out by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work (see psychoanalysis). Psychoanalytic theory came to full prominence as a critical force in the last third of the twentieth century as part of ‘the flow of critical discourse after the 1960’s.[1] Freud ceased his analysis of the brain and his physiological studies in order to turn his focus to the study of the mind and the related psychological attributes making up the mind, something not many psychologists were willing to do. His study then included recognizing childhood events that could potentially lead to the mental functioning of adults. He examined the genetic and then the developmental aspects that made the psychoanalytic theory become what it was
social cognitive theory

Social cognitive theory, used in psychology, education, and communication, posits that portions of an individual’s knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others. Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, that behavior may be modeled. Further, media provide models for a vast array of people in many different environmental settings.

2)explanation of behavioral patterns

History and Orientation

In 1941 Miller and Dollard proposed the theory of social learning. In 1963 Bandura and Walters broadened the social learning theory with the principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement. Bandura provided his concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning.

The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to health communication. First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding.

Core Assumptions and Statements

The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs.

Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behavior. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behavior (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental representations of the environment that may affect a person’s behavior. The situation is a person’s perception of the lace, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al, 2002).

The three factors environment, people and behavior are constantly influencing each other. Behavior is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the environment is not simply the result of the person and behavior (Glanz et al, 2002). The environment provides models for behavior. Observational learning occurs when a person watches the actions of another person and the reinforcements that the person receives (Bandura, 1997). The concept of behavior can be viewed in many ways. Behavioral capability means that if a person is to perform a behavior he must know what the behavior is and have the skills to perform it.

Concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory

Source: Glanz et al, 2002, p169.

Environment: Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social support

Situation: Perception of the environment; correct misperceptions and promote healthful forms

Behavioral capability: Knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior; promote mastery learning through skills training

Expectations: Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior; Model positive outcomes of healthful behavior

Expectancies: The values that the person places on a given outcome, incentives; Present outcomes of change that have functional meaning

Self-control: Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance; Provide opportunities for self-monitoring, goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward

Observational learning: Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and outcomes of others’ behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior

Reinforcements: Responses to a person’s behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of reoccurrence; Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives

Self-efficacy: The person’s confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral change in small steps to ensure success

Emotional coping responses: Strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management

Reciprocal determinism: The dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental, skill, and personal change.

Conceptual Model

Model of reciprocal determinism

Source: Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. 12-8-04.

From http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html.

Favorite Methods

Surveys, experiments and quasi-experiments are used. See for therapeutical techniques Bandura (1997) and Glanze et al (2002)

Scope and Application

The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant for designing health education and health behavior programs. This theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns. The theory can also be used for providing the basis for intervention strategies

Example

A project was started to prevent and reduce alcohol use among students in grades 6 till 12 (ages 11-13). The program took three years and was based on behavioral health curricula, parental involvement and community task force activities. The conclusion was that students were less likely to say they drank alcohol than others who did not join the program. With observational learning, negative expectancies about alcohol use and increased behavioral capability to communicate with parents the results were obtained. However, at the end of the 10th grade the differences were no longer significant.

A new program in the 11th grade was started in which reduced access to alcohol and the change of community norms to alcohol use for high-school age students were key elements. With (1) community attention (2) parental education (3) support of alcohol free events (4) media projects to don’t provide alcohol and (5) classroom discussions the program started. After the 12th grade a significant result showed that the alcohol use decreased. Furthermore, the access to alcohol was reduced and the parental norms were less accepting of teen alcohol use at the end of the study.

The outcomes of the SCT show that actions of the community level to change these constructs resulted in less drinking among teens. The community level appears to have success in changing the environment and expectancies to alcohol use by reducing teen access to alcohol, changing norms and reducing alcohol use among high school students.

humanistic
…Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns, attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. According to Greg M. Epstein, “Humanism today can be categorized as a movement, a philosophy of life or worldview, or … [a] lifestance.”[1] In philosophy and social science, humanism is a perspective which affirms some notion of human nature, and is contrasted with anti-humanism.[citation needed]

Secular humanism is a secular ideology which espouses reason, ethics, and justice, whilst specifically rejecting supernatural and religious dogma as a basis of morality and decision-making. Secular humanism contrasts with religious humanism, which is an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with religious rituals and beliefs that center on human needs, interests, and abilities.[2] Renaissance humanism is a cultural movement of the Italian Renaissance based on the study of classical works.[3][4]

Religious and secular humanism arose from a trajectory extending from the deism and anti-clericalism of the Enlightenment, the various secular movements of the 19th century (such as positivism), and the overarching expansion of the scientific project

trait perspective
…rait theory in psychology, is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.[1] According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior.

Gordon Allport was an early pioneer in the study of traits, which he sometimes referred to as dispositions. In his approach, central traits are basic to an individual’s personality, whereas secondary traits are more peripheral. Common traits are those recognized within a culture and may vary between cultures. Cardinal traits are those by which an individual may be strongly recognized. Since Allport’s time, trait theorists have focused more on group statistics than on single individuals. Allport called these two emphases “nomothetic” and “idiographic,” respectively.

There is a nearly unlimited number of potential traits that could be used to describe personality. The statistical technique of factor analysis, however, has demonstrated that particular clusters of traits reliably correlate together. Hans Eysenck has suggested that personality is reducible to three major traits.[2][3] Other researchers argue that more factors are needed to adequately describe human personality including humor, wealth and beauty.[4] Many psychologists currently believe that five factors are sufficient.[5][6]

Virtually all trait models, and even ancient Greek philosophy, include extraversion vs. introversion as a central dimension of human personality. Another prominent trait that is found in nearly all models is Neuroticism, or emotional instability.

Sigmund Freud
Founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology.
Europe during the Victorian age.
Men were understood to be unable to control their “animal” desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched.
Women, especially those of the upper classes, were not supposed to have sexual urges.
Backdrop for this theory
Preconcious mind
level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious.
Consious mind
level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions.
Unconsious
level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness.
Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue.
id
– part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious.
Libido – the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society’s standards for behavior.
Pleasure principle – principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences
ego
part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
Reality principle – principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result
superego
– part of the personality that acts as a moral center.
Ego ideal – part of the superego that contains the standards for moral behavior.
Conscience – part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal.
Fixation
disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage
psycho sexual stages
five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
Oral Stage
– first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated
Anal Stage
second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops.
Anal expulsive personality – a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.
Anal retentive personality – a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
Phallic Stage
Phallic stage – third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops.
Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
Identification – defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
Latency
Latency – fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
Gential
sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets
psychoanalysis
Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it.
Denial
…refusing to acknowledge a threatening situation
Repression
…pushing threatening or conflicting events or situations out of conscious memory
Rationalization
…making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior
Projection
…placing one’s unacceptable thoughts onto others as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself
Reaction formation
…forming a emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one’s threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts
Displacement
..expressing feeling that would be threatening
regression
…falling back on child back patters as a way of coping with stressful situations
identification
…trying to become like someone else to deal with one’s one anxiety
compensation
…trying to make up for by becoming surpior in some area’s area’s in which a lack is perceived by becoming Superior in some other area
sublimation
…turning socially unacceptable urges into acceptable behavior
pschosexual stages
five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child
Oral Stage
first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated
Anal Stage
Anal stage – second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops.
Anal expulsive personality – a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.
Anal retentive personality – a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
Phallic Stage
Phallic stage – third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops
Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
Identification – defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety
LAtency
fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
Gential
sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets
Psychoanalysis
Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it