Chapters 7 and 8

Citizenship
the status of being a citizen, a person who by birth or naturalization enjoys certain rights and has certain duties in a nation-state
14th amendment
addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws
jim crow laws
laws that enforced segregation and denied legal equality to African Americans
undocumented immigrant
a person who has come to the United States to live and work without the required legal papers
naturalization
legal act or process by which a non citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country
green card
an identification card issued to immigrants who are legal residents of the United States
resident aliens
immigrant who has legal status in the US; a lawful permanent resident
political culture
a society’s framework of shared values, beliefs, and attitudes concerning politics and government
libertarianism
ideology based on a strong belief in personal freedom and a minimal role for government
socialism
main goal is to limit economic inequality by ensuring a fair distribution of wealth, gov’t owns economic resources needed for the production of goods and services
conservatism
ideology favoring a limited role for government and more private initiative by nongovernmental groups in efforts to solve society’s problems
liberalism
ideology favoring an active role for government in efforts to solve society’s problems
environmentalism
(green party) ideology that emphasizes conservation and protection of the environment
centrism
an ideology at the middle of the political spectrum that combines elements of both liberal and conservative thought
civil society
associations and other voluntary groups that form a middle layer in society between government and individual families
social capital
the attitude, spirit, and willingness of people to engage together in civic activities; the connections and bonds that people can draw on to solve common problems
civic rights
rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality (right to vote, hold public office, claim certain social and economic benefits, bill of rights)
civic responsibilities
comprised of actions and attitudes associated with democratic governance and social participation (obey laws, pay taxes, cooperate with public officials, males who are 18 must register for military service, informed about and participate in public affairs, volunteering to serve the public good)
steps in the naturalization process
immigration- arrive in us with a legal visa
permanent residency- apply for permanent resident status
application- legal residents who have been in the country for at least 5 years may apply for citizenship
interview- applicants are interviewed by us citizenship and immigration services
test- applicants take an english and civics test
ceremony- applicants receive citizenship in a formal ceremony
four categories of civic engagement
electoral specialists, civic specialists, dual activists, the disengaged
electoral specialists
main engagement is through the election process
civic specialists
people in this group focus on improving their communities and helping others through civic groups, nonprofits, and fundraising
dual activists
people who engage in both electoral and civic activities
the disengaged
people who are not significantly engaged in civic life
laws that enforce segregation and deny African Americans legal equality are called
jim crow laws
which of the following is true of the legal responsibilities for those living in the US?
all of the above
which of the following is true of the us constitution when it was originally formed?
us constitution did not say how citizenship was determined
when ratified in 1868 the purpose of the 14th amendment was to
provide former slaves with rights of citizenship
which of the following is a government position that naturalized us citizens cannot run for
vice president
which of the following is true of resident aliens in the us
resident aliens in the us have only a fraction of us citizens rights
naturalization is a legal process that
enables a person to become a citizen if they are not granted citizenship by birth
what is a green card
an id card issued to immigrants who are legal us residents
the civil rights protests that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s is an example of
political culture
which of the following is true of most conservatives in the us
all of the above
unlike some other countries americans value individualism or the idea that
each citizen is responsible for his or her own well being and actions
liberalism is a widely held ideology in the us that focuses on favoring a government with
an active role in solving society’s problems
a person who is conservative on economic issues and liberal on social issues is an example of a
libertarian
which group makes up the largest group of us voters
moderates
to achieve their goals of reducing pollution and protecting the environment environmentalists support
government regulation of industry and economy
what is the main goal of socialism
to limit economic inequality by ensuring a fair distribution of wealth
which of the following would be considered part of civil society
all of the above
in the 4 categories of civic engagement who is in the electoral specialists group
people whose primary engagement is through the election process
who of the following would be considered a dual activist
someone who both persuades others to vote, and who raises donations for schools
what is social capital
the bonds and connections that people use to solve common problems
political parties
organization that seeks to achieve power by electing its members to public office
interest groups
any organized group whose members share a common goal and try to promote their interests by influencing government policy making and decision making
special interests
group that seeks to influence government policy making and decision making to further its particular goals; interest group
political action committees
organization that raises and distributes funds to candidates running for office
lobbying
organized effort to influence the policy process by persuading public officials to favor or oppose action on a specific issue
litigation
process of bringing a lawsuit against someone
grassroots mobilization
rallying a strong and vocal support from a large group of people at the local level
pluralism
the idea that political power should be distributed and shared among various groups in a society
platforms
political party’s statement of principles and objectives
primary goal of political parties
to get their candidates elected to office
major functions of political parties
recruit candidates and support campaigns
help organize elections and inform voters
organize the government
unite diverse interests and make collective action possible
serve as a loyal opposition to the political party in power
how do political parties help organize the government
after congressional elections, members of the majority party in congress choose one of their members to be speaker of the house of senate majority leader, committee chairpersons in congress also come from the majority party
single issue
formed to go against or for a single issue
economic protest party
formed to promote better times
splinter party
formed by people that are unhappy with a major party
ideological party
set for people with only certain beliefs
third party function
advocated reforms adopted by major parties, they dont win elections but they affect them
size of government
democrats want a strong federal gov’t and republicans favor a limited national gov’t with more power to states
taxation
republicans favor broad-based tax cuts to encourage economic growth and people keep what they earn, democrats favor tax cuts for the poor, more willing to raise taxes on affluent Americans in order to support programs that they see as beneficial to society
business regulation
democrats generally support gov’t regulation of business to protect consumers, workers, or environment, republicans oppose excessive regulation by gov’t cause it prevents economic growth
social issues
republicans oppose legalizing same sex marriage abortion and gun control laws democrats more likely to support these
environment
democrats favor strict environmental regulations republicans oppose regulations because they believe it hurts business and economy
political party is an organization that
aims for political power by electing its members to public office
a member of the democratic party is likely to be
less affluent
a political independent is someone who
is not affiliated with any political party
in politics what is litigation
the use of lawsuits to influence policy
which level or branch of government controls policy formulation
any level or branch
at national party conventions delegates make platforms a platform is
an outline of a political party’s objectives
which of the following is true about a republicans political beliefs
they are against minimum wages
the fundamental goal of special interest groups is to
persuade officials to actively support their interests
which of the following helps make interest groups powerful
unified purpose strong leadership analyzing info all of the above
the step in policymaking where officials debate and revise policies is called
adoption
how do political parties help organize the government??
all of the above, congress and state, speaker, committee chair
who forms splinter parties
those dissatisfied with a major party
what type of special interest groups are the sierra club and american civil liberities union
citizen groups
the first step in policymaking is
issue identification
who is usually responsible for the implementation of a policy
the agency it is assigned to
in the 1800s the federalist party favored
strong national government
which of the following is an example of a third party in the us
green socialist reform all
purpose of PACs is to
collect contributions to fund political campaigns
political parties influence the public agenda by
placing issues on their platforms
the last step in policy making is evaluation in which government officials and interest groups
assess if the policy has met their goal
federalist papers james madison argued that groups should share political power, this is called
pluralism