Chapters 14 – 3 (Exam 1)

Social Psychology
Scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others
Central Route Processing
People thoughtfully consider issues and arguments involved in persuasion and people are swayed in their judgment by logic, merit, and strength of arguments
Peripheral Route Processing
Link between attitudes and behavior, and the person is persuaded on the basis of factors unrelated to nature or quality of content; such as looks, emotional appeal, etc.
Social Cognition
The way people understand and make sense of others and themselves
Schemas
Sets of cognitions about people and social experiences
Social Influence
Process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others
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Groups
Consists of two or more people who: interact with one another, perceive themselves as part of a group and are independent
Foot in the door technique
Ask a person to agree to a small request and later ask that person to comply with a more Important one
Door in the face technique
Makes a large request, expecting to get refused and then requests a smaller one
Stereotypes
Set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a specific group and it’s members
Prejudice
A negative or positive evluation of a group and it’s members
Discrimination
Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group
Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behvioral Neuroscience
Examines how the brain and the nervous system as well as other biological processes determine behavior
Experimental Psychology
Studies the processes of sensing, perciving, learning, and thinking aboubthe world
Cognitive Psychology
How people process new information
Developmental Psychology
Studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death
Personality Psychology
Focuses on the consistency in peoples behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another
Health psychology
Explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease
Clinical Psychology
Deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders
Structuralism
Wilhelmina Wundt, focused on uncovering the fundamental mental commoners of perception, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activites
Introspection
Early psychologist studied the mind by asking people to describe what they were experiencing when exposed to various stimuli
Functionalism
William James, concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions, steam of conciousness
Sigmund Freud
Psychodynamic Perspective- behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control. Placed emphasis on unconscious. Explore childhood to find problem
Theories
Broad explanations and predidxtions concerning phenomena of interest
Hypothesis
Prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested
Operational Definition
Translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed
Correlational Research
Two sets of variables are examined to determine wether they are associated or correlated
Variables
Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary in some way
Experimental Research
Researcher investigates the relationship between two or more variables by deliberately changing one variable in a controlled situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of situation
Neurons
Basic elements of nervous system; as many as 1 trillion
Dendrites
Clusters of fibers that receive messages from other neurons
Synapse
Space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a recording neuron by using chemical messages
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to a dendrite of a reciieving neuron
Exacitatory Messages
Increse likelihood that neuron will fire
Inhibitory Messages
Decrease likelihood hat neuron will fire
Reuptake
Reabsorption by the terminal button
Dopamine
Variety of Behaviors and emotions learning
Seratonin
Mood molecules; regulation of sleep dreaming mood eating pain and aggressive behavior
Central Nervous system
Spinal cord and brain: bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back and it’s main means for transmitting messages between brain and body
Sensory Neurons
Afferent; transmits information from perimeterof body to CNS; senses light sight sounds smells
Motor Neurons
Efferent; neurons that communicate information from Nervous system to muscle and glands
Interneurons
Connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic division, voluntary movements; Autonomic division, controls organs that function automatically
Sympathetic Division
Acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations by engaging all of the organisms resources to run away or confront the threat
Parasympathetic Division
Calms the body after emergency ends
Behavioral Genetics
Studies the effects of herdity on behavior
Hormones
Chemicals that circulate through the body and regulate the functioning and growth of the body
Pituitary Gland
Master Gland; secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system
Central Core of Brain
Hindbrain
Medulla of Brain
breathing and heartbeat
Pons of Brain
Transmitter of motor information
Cerebellum of Brain
Balance
Frontal Lobe
behind the forehead
Parietal Lobe
part cerebral cortex, receives sensory information from throughout the body, voluntary movement, attention
Temporal Lobe
part of cerebral hemisphere, helps regulate hearing, balance and equilibrium, certain emotions and motivations, complex visual tasks
Left Hemisphere of Brain
Verbal competence, language, processes information sequentially, part of the cerebral hemisphere, receives and interprets visual info
Right Hemisphere of Brain
Spatial relationship, recognition of patterns and drawings, music, emotional expression, processes information globally, controls touch and movement of left side of body, superior at nonverbal, visual task
Sensation
activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy, stimulation of senses, begins with energy
Absolute Threshold
smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected, point which a person can detect a stimulus 50% of the time it is presented
Difference Threshold
smallest level of added (or reduced) stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred
Adaptation
an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli
Retina
light is converted to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain
Rods
receptor cells sensitive to light
Cones
cone shaped, responsible for sharp focus and color perception
Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
suggests that there are three kinds of cones in the retina, blue-violet colors, green colors, yellow-red colors, not successful at explaining afterimages
Opponent – Process Theory of Color Vision
receptor cells are linked in pairs working in opposition to each other, blue-yellow, red-green, black-white, after images
Sensing Sound
movement of air molecules brought about by a source of vibration
Eardrum
vibrates when sound waves hit
Inner Ear
changes sound vibrations into a form in which they can be transmitted to the brain
Place Theory of Hearing
states that different areas of the basilar membrane repsond to different frequencies
Frequency Theory of Hearing
suggests that the entire basilar membrane acts like a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to a sound
Semicircular Canals
three tubes containing fluid that sloshes through them when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement to the brain
Subliminal Perception
perception of messages about which we have no awarness