chapter 9 h&S

By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the ____.
None of the choices are correct.
Watson’s approach to structuralism and functionalism was ____.
a revolt
Which of the following terms should be banned from psychology according to behaviorism?
image
mind
consciousness
For Watson, such subject matter as mind, consciousness, and images was ____.
meaningless for a science of psychology
Who argued that consciousness, as a concept, was as unprovable as the concept of the soul?
Watson
For Watson, introspection was ____.
irrelevant
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For Comte, valid knowledge is that which is ____.
objectively observable and social in nature
The early 20th-century Zeitgeist in science was marked by ____.
positivism
The most important antecedent of Watson’s behaviorism was ____.
animal psychology
Who had a theory of tropisms?
Loeb
For Loeb, a tropism is a(n) ____.
involuntary forced movement
For Loeb, if an animal’s response is forced by a stimulus, the ____.
behavior requires no inferences about consciousness
The white rat and the rat maze became staples of research in psychology in 1900 with the work of ____.
Willard S. Small
Watson’s dissertation was on ____.
the conscious experience of rats
An early African American researcher in comparative psychology was ____.
Turner
The Animal Mind, the first textbook on comparative psychology, was written by ____.
Margaret Washburn
Who wrote a paper on ant behavior that was highly praised by Watson?
Turner
The “last stand” of mentalistic interpretations of animal behavior was the text ____ written by ____.
The Animal Mind; Washburn
Which of the following statements best describes the change that took place in animal psychology following the work of Romanes and Morgan?
The field became more objective as mentalistic terms were dropped from the descriptions of behavior.
According to Schultz and Schultz, “Whether dealing with mind or with behavior, it was not easy to be ____.”
an animal psychologist
The particular contribution of Pavlov’s work to Watson’s behaviorism was Pavlov’s ____.
objective methodology
Pfungst demonstrated that the apparent thinking ability of the horse Clever Hans was really due to the animal’s ability to respond to ____.
head movements
The case of Clever Hans served to ____.
illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study of animal behavior with proper control conditions
Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect is similar to ____.
Pavlov’s law of reinforcement
The first doctoral dissertation in psychology to use animal subjects was that of ____.
Thorndike
In Thorndike’s early research, he worked with all of the following except ____.
children
Thorndike earned his Ph.D. in 1898 and after 1899 studied ____.
human learning
mental testing
educational psychology
An approach to learning termed ____ was developed by Thorndike.
connectionism
For Thorndike, learning is ____.
making connections
The influence of Romanes and Morgan on Thorndike was shown in Thorndike’s ____.
use of mentalistic processes
Thorndike’s approach was similar to that of structuralism in his focus on ____.
mechanism
Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior?
Thorndike
The puzzle box is traditionally associated with the work of ____.
Thorndike
Thorndike used ____ measures of learning to record his data.
quantitative
Thorndike’s “trial and accidental success” learning is more commonly known as ____ learning.
trial-and-error
Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of ____.
Thorndike’s law of exercise
Thorndike’s ideas about the stamping in or stamping out of a response tendency led to his statement of ____.
the law of effect
Who first demonstrated that reward had a stronger effect than punishment?
Thorndike
Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that ____.
punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection
The “original” law of effect states that ____.
any act that produces satisfaction is more likely to occur again; any act that produces discomfort is less likely to occur again
Thorndike’s particular contribution to behaviorism was his focus on ____.
the experimental method
Pavlov’s work effected a change in focus from ____ to observable physiological events.
subjective speculation about associationism
Whose work has been described as “a shift from speculation to experimentation?”
Pavlov
What led Pavlov to shift from a study of theology to that of animal psychology?
Darwin’s theory
Who could be described as an absent-minded genius?
Pavlov
The term psychic reflexes reflects ____.
Pavlov’s early inclination to use mentalistic terms
Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.
reinforcements and S-R connections
More than any other researcher in psychology before him, Pavlov attempted to ____.
eliminate sources of error from his studies and implement the experimental method.
In the typical conditioning experiment done by Pavlov, the food placed in the dog’s mouth is called the ____.
unconditioned stimulus
For Pavlov, ____ is necessary for learning to take place
reinforcement
Pavlov conducted research on ____.
reinforcement
extinction
generalization
discrimination
According to Pavlov in the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), his starting point in research was ____.
Descartes idea of the nervous reflex
In the last half of the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), Pavlov discussed ____.
he building of what became known as the “Tower of Silence”
While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.
Edwin Burket Twitmyer
If the 1904 APA attendees been more attentive, we might today speak of ____.
Twitmyerian conditioning
Which of the following is (are) true?
Pavlov argued that higher mental processes in animals could be described in physiological terms.
Pavlovian methods have had practical applications.
Pavlov’s work illustrated the study of higher mental processes in ____.
physiological terms
For Pavlov, humans and animals were ____.
machines
Consistent with James’s views, Pavlov argued that ____.
psychology was not yet a science
Pavlov’s view of psychology was ____.
initially negative, then somewhat favorable
Which of the following statements is not true regarding Bekhterev?
Bekhterev had a cordial relationship with Pavlov.
Bekhterev discovered ____.
the associated reflexes
Bekhterev ____.
applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles
Objective Psychology was authored by ____.
Bekhterev
Bekhterev ___.
argued that thought processes depended upon muscle responses of the speech
Watson was not the first to demand an objective psychology and, according to one historian, ____ is considered the grandfather of Watson’s behaviorism.
Cattell
Who first defined psychology as the study of behavior?
Pillsbury
Angell proposed that the term consciousness had about the same life expectancy in psychology as the term ____.
soul