Chapter 9: Groups

Group cohesiveness is particularly important for a group when…
A. the group has formed for primarily social reasons.
B. financial decision making is involved.
C. the group’s primary objective is problem solving.
D. the group is diverse in terms of gender but not when it is diverse in terms of race.
A. the group has formed for primarily social reasons.
The concept of social facilitation is so named because of the idea that when the presence of others is arousing…?
A. this arousal facilitates better task performance.
B. hard tasks are facilitated, but easy tasks are impeded.
C. this arousal facilitates a well-learned, dominant response.
D. deinviduation is facilitated.
C. this arousal facilitates a well-learned, dominant response.
Which of the following is not an explanation for why the presence of other people can be arousing?
A. Having other people around makes an individual feel less accountable for his/her own actions.
B. The presence of toehr people is distracting and causes conflict, as individuals have to decide what they should pay attention to.
C. when other people are around, individuals become more concerned about how they are being evaluated.
D. When other people are around, an individual has to be on alert in anticipation of what might happen next.
A. Having other people around makes an individual feel less accountable for his/her own actions.
Your social psychology professor calls you up to the front of the classroom and asks you to answer a series of course-related questions out loud. Even though you feel the eyes of your classmates on you, you find the questions to be easy. According to the model of ___, you should perform ___ on these questions than you would have if you had been asked them in private, without an audience.
A. social loafing; worse
B. social loafing; better
C. social facilitation; better
D. social facilitation; worse
C. social facilitation; better
Which of the following individuals would you expect to be most likely to engage in social loafing?
A. Andy, a British man
B. Li, a Chinese woman
C. Kei, a Japanese man
D. Serena, an American woman
A. Andy, a British man
Individuals experiencing deindividuation…
A. exhibit greater conformity to specific group norms.
B. are unlikely to experience this feeling online, as deindividuation is much less common in virtual environments.
C. feel increasingly accountable for their actions.
D. are less likely to engage in destructive/immoral behavior.
A. exhibit greater conformity to specific group norms.
In the prisoner’s dilemma, you will receive the worst possible outcome for yourself as an individual if…
A. you are selfish but your partner is cooperative
B. you are cooperative but your partner is selfish
C. you are selfish & so is your partner.
D. you are cooperative and so is your partner.
B. you are cooperative but your partner is selfish
Two fishing companies that use the same body of water are both considering building dams. Research on the power of threats indicates that if both companies build a dam and gain the ability to prevent the other from fishing…
A. conflict will increase, but only if communication between the companies is prevented.
B. conflict will increase slightly, but not as much as it would if only one side built a dam & had threat capacity.
C. conflict will increase because each side has equal threat capacity.
D. conflict will decrease because each side has equal threat capacity.
C. conflict will increase because each side has equal threat capacity.
Why do people join groups?
-forming relationships with others fulfills basic needs (intimate need to belong to groups) (evolutionary past-survival purposes)
-people have a strong need to feel distinctive from those who aren’t in the same group
-joining forces with others –> accomplishing objectives that would be difficult to meet individually
-groups help define who we are (other people= sources of info & help resolve ambiguity about the world)
-groups help establish social norms
Why are relatively small groups preferred?
they provide a sense of belonging while also making people feel distinct/special
What is the difference between the effect of social norms vs. social roles?
-social norms specify how ALL members should act
-social roles specify how people who occupy certain positions in the group should behave
How are Zimbardo and Milgram’s studies related?
the lesson is that many (if not most) of us would not fully resist the social influences in these powerful situations & would perhaps perform acts that we thought we were incapable of
social facilitation
-the presence of others ENHANCES performance on SIMPLE/FAMILIAR tasks
-the presence of others WORSENS performance on complex/difficult taks
Why does the presence of others cause arousal?
-alert/vigilant (at the possibility that someone will do something that you have to respond to)
-evalutation apprehension
-distraction
social loafing
(people relaxing in the presence of others-individual performance can’t be evaluated)
-WORSE performance on SIMPLE tasks
-BETTER performance on DIFFICULT tasks (that are important)
What are the exceptions to when people social loaf?
-when the group is esp. important
-when the group is highly cohesive
-when there is a challenge/appeal/high involvement in the task
Why are there higher tendencies to loaf in men?
women have less tendency because of relational interdependence (they care more about their personal relationships / what other people think)
How is social loafing difference among cultures?
Western: stronger tendencies to load (due to different self-definitions)…Asians have more interdependent views of self (reducing loafing)
What is the main difference between social facilitation & social loafing?
whether your group performance will be hindered by the presence of others or not (evaluation apprehension)
What are some factors of process loss?
-when they don’t try hard enough to find the most competent member to rely on
-communication problems
-conformity pressures
-groupthink
When does groupthink occur?
-esp. in highly cohesive groups
-when isolated from contrary opinions (not considering alternatives)
-when ruled by a distinctive leader who makes their wishes known
-time pressures / stress
transitive memory
when the combined memory of a group is more efficient than the memory of its individuals (specializing/distributing memories –> remembering more important info)
symptoms of groupthink
-illusions of invulnerability
-self-censorship (failing to voice contrary views because they’re afraid of ruining the groups morale / fear of criticism)
-belief in moral correctness of the group
-fear of voicing contrary opinions
-rationalizations/justifications of group decisions
-stereotyped/simplistic views of outgroups
How can you prevent groupthink?
-group leaders (remain impartial & take less directive roles)
-seek outside opinions
-create subgroups
-seek anonymous opinions
Why does group polarization happen?
-persuasive arguments interpretation (all individuals bring to the group a set of arguments supporting their initial recommendation)
-social arguments interpretation (when people discuss group issues, they first check how risky everyone else feels about it)
great person theory
maintains that certain key personality traits make someone a good leader, regardless of the nature of the situation that the leader is facing (*NOT TRUE*)
What’s the difference between transactional and transformational leaders?
transactional: short-term goals with rewards
transformational: inspire followers to focus on common/long-term goals
contingency theory of leadership
argues that leadership effectiveness depends both on how the task-oriented/relationship-oriented they are, and on the amount of control/influence they have on the group
What situations do task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders thrive in?
task: either high-control or low-control
relationship: moderate-control
Why aren’t women seen as equally likely to be leaders as men?
women are stereotypically expected to be communal & concerned with the welfare of others…while many people believe a good leader should be independent/assertive/confident/etc.
tit-for-tat strategy
way of encouraging cooperatively by first acting cooperatively, then ALWAYS responding how your opponent does
social dilemma
a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual (if chosen by most people) will be harmful to everyone (TRUST is needed to find a solution)