Chapter 9: Developmental Theories

desist
to spontaneously stop commiting crime
developmental theories
theories that attempt to explan the ‘natural history’ of a criminal carrer: its onset, the course it follows and its termination
life course theories
theories reflecting the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influneced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly, for better or worse, over the life course
latent trait (propensity) theories
theories reflecting the view that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a persons lifetime
problem behavior syndrome (pbs)
a cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as crime
authority conflict pathway
path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents
covert pathway
path to a criminal career that begins with minor underhanded behavior and progresses to fire starting and theft
overt pathway
path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression, leads to a physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent crime
adolescent limited offender
one who follows the most common criminal trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescense and then diminishes
life-course persister
one of the small group of offenders whose criminal careers continue well into adulthodo
integrated theories
models of crime causation that weave social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
Age-Graded Theory
according to Robert Sampson
developmental theories
attempt to explain the “natural history” of a criminal career: onset, course, and termination
life course theories
criminality is dynamic process-influence by individual characteristics, traits, and social experiences
1. relationships and behaviors begin-determine adult life courses. 2. as people mature, the factors that influence their behavior change. 3. criminality is one of many social problems. 4. pathways to crime. 5.seeds of criminal career are planted early
what are the 5 fundamentals of life-course theories?
authority conflict, covert, overt
what are the 3 pathways to crime according to the 4th fundamental of life-course theories?
covert
commit minor crimes that escalates to serious
overt
start with worse crimes that lead to physical
antisocial, strongly
early onset of __________ behavior _______ predicts later and more serious criminality
the xbox killers
4 guys were squatting at erin’s grandparents house. left xbox, which erin takes. guy threatens erin that he will kill her without getting stuff back and she ignores threat. so 4 guys beat, stab, and sexually assault erin’s body once dead. kill dog. all die. got caught quickly.
terrie moffitt
who created the pathways in the life-course to crime
adolescent-limited offenders. life-course persistent offenders.
what does ALs stand for? LCPs?
life-course to crime theory
traits of individual combined with social environment (biological, psychological, and sociological). predispose to antisocial behavior (biological factors and family environment). escalation process (negative). late adolescent=as traits so ingrained=pattern of persistent antisocial behavior established
explain patterns of offending overtime
what is the main goal in the life-course to crime theory?
4
at which age do LCPs bite and hit?
10
at which age do LCPs shoplift and are truant
16
at which age do LCPs sell drugs and steal
22
at which age do LCPs rob and rape?
30
at which age do LCPs commit fraud and child abuse
continuity
continuously commit crime
roots of early life
factors present before/right after birth. fetal brain (neuropsychology)-brain trauma; neural development-mother/complications
parents and children
what two groups share some structural and functional similarities (nervous system)
verbal and executive
what are the two deficits according to the pathways in the life-course to crime theory
verbal
type of deficit. receptive listening, reading, writing, problem solving, expressive speech.
executive
type of deficit. produces compartmental learning disabilities-inattention/impulsivity
psych
temperant, behavioral development, and cognitive abilities are all _____ characteristics
poor discipline
difficulty with baby=___ ________=contribute to neurological deficits. unlikely opportunity for prosocial behaviors
poor choices
examples of these include drugs/alcohol, drop out, teenage parents, sketchy work history, time incarcerated according to the pathways in the life-course to crime theory
small
are LCPs a small or large percent?
adolescent limited offenders (ALs)
discontinuity. “social mimicry.” freedom and maturity gap. at 18, offending reduces. large %
social mimicry
when ALs copy LCPs behavior
maturity gap
stuck between biological and social age
youth skip maturity gap (late puberty or early initiation into adult roles), may not feel maturity gap pressure, rural area teens, personal characteristics=unattractive to other teens
what are the 4 main reasons for no delinquency according to the pathways in the life-course to crime theory
only 2 pathways. late bloomers
what are the 2 main critiques to the pathways in the life-course to crime theory
big brother/big sister, SMART, ALL STARS
what are 3 forms of crime prevention from the pathways in the life-course to crime theory
sampson and laub
who created the age-graded theory?
age-graded theory
discrete factors influence people are various developmental stages. tendency to commit crime not necessarily sable. 3 major stages and their influences
child, adolescent, adult
what are the three major stages in the age graded theory?
parents and family
who influences the child in the first major stage of the age graded theory?
peer relations
who influences the adolescent in the second major stage of the age graded theory?
informal social control (marriage, family, work)
who influences the adult in the third major stage of the age graded theory?
trajectory, transition, turning points
what are the 3 key concepts called life events in the age-graded theory?
trajectory
long-term patten in one’s life (ex: parenthood, work life, marriage, self-esteem, criminal behavior)
transition
short term event-embedded in trajectory-less abrupt. (ex: first job, first marriage)
turning points
life events alter development of criminal career (marriage and career)
dynamic process. a transition and change in trajectory
criminal careers=_______ _______-important life event produces=_ __________ ___ ______ __ _________
social capital
positive, life-sustaining relations with individuals and institutions-resources with quality
social capital, limit
building productive ______ ______ = conventional behaviors = _____ criminal behavior
what about serial killers that are married?
what is a critique for the age graded theory?
gottfredson and hirschi
who created the general theory of crime?
impulsivity and self-control
what two things are most important in the general theory of crime?
direct
is direct or indirect control more important according to the general theory of crime?
inadequate childrearing practices
what is the root cause of poor self-control according to the general theory of crime
10
criminal propensity does not change after what age according to the general theory of crime
1. refuse or unable to monitor child’s behavior. 2. unable to recognize deviant behavior when it occurs. 3. unable to punish behavior appropriately. 4. are criminals themselves
parents who (what 4 things) produce low self control children according to the general theory of crime
low, high
for criminal acts=immediate gratification of desires. people with ____ self control need it here and now while people with ____ are delayed
high, low
criminal acts=exciting, thrilling, risky. ____ self control people are cautious, cognitive, and verbal while ____ self control people are active, adventuresome
unstable marriage, friendships, jobs
crimes provide few long-term benefits so people with low self control have what?
skill or planning
it is okay for people with low self control that crimes require little _____ or ________
self-centered, insensitive to needs of others
low self control people are what two things so it is okay that crimes often result in pain for victim
not produced by socialization, direct control
the main roots of the general theory of crime is LSC stem from absence of nurturing, discipline, or training so crime is ___ _______ ___ _____________. for parenting and childbearing, ______ ______ is key
circular reasoning, single offender, racial and gender differences, people can change, one of many causes
what are the 5 critiques for the general theory of crime?
early childhood programs, just watch kids better
what are the two main crime preventions that stem from the general theory of crime
instant gratification=no reduction of social or economic inequality, providing better housing, job skills-will not work!, punishment, incapacitation, or rehab
what does the general theory of crime say will not work as crime prevention programs?
DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES
theories that attempt to explain the natural history of a criminal career:its onset, the course of it follows and its termination.
LIFE COURSE THEORIES
theories reflecting the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly, for better or worse, over the life course.
LATENT TRAIT(PROPENSITY) THEORIES
theories reflecting the view that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a persons lifetime.
PROBLEM BEHAVIORAL SYNDROME
a cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy,educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as crime.
AUTHORITY CONFLICT PATHWAY
path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn behavior and deviance patterns.
COVERT PATHWAY
path to a criminal career tat begins with minor underhanded behavior and progresses to fires starting theft.
OVERT PATHWAY
path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent crimes
ADOLESCENT- LIMITED OFFENDER
one who follows the most common criminal trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes.
LIFE-COURSE PERSISTER
one of the small group of offenders whose criminal careers continue well into adulthood.
INTEGRATED THEORIES
models of crime causation that weave social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
AGE-GRADED THEORY
according to Robert Sampson and John Laub, discrete factors influence people at different stages of their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable or unyielding. The likelihood of committing crime is linked to the accumulation (or absence) of social capital, social control, and human decision making.
TURNING POINT
According to Laub and Sampson, the life events that alter the development of a criminal career.
SOCIAL CAPITAL
Positive,life-sustaining relations with individuals and institution.
LATENT TRAIT
a stable feature,characteristic,property, or condition,present at birth or soon after, that makes some people crime-prone over the life course.
GENERAL THEORY OF CRIME
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s developmental theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological,routine activities, and rational choice theories.
SELF-CONTROL THEORY
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s view that the cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality. Kids who are impulsive may have a weak bond to society
Who tracked the onset and termination of criminal careers
Eleanor and Sheldon Glueck.
Eleanor and Sheldon Glueck
Their work led to the creation of developmental theories
What are the 2 different varieties of developmental theories
Life-course and latent trait theories.
Adolescent- limited offenders begin offending when?
Late and then they age out of crime.
What are Wilson and Herrnstein views on crime and human nature?
All human behavior, including criminality, is determined by its perceived consequences. A criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses criminal over conventional behavior. Wilson and Herrnstein assume that both biological and psychological traits influence the choice between crime and non crime. Wilson and Herrnstein suggest that existence of an elusive and latent trait that predisposes people to committing crime.
What are the basic principles of Sampson and Laub’s Age Graded Theory?
They find that the maintenance of a criminal career can be affected by events that occur later in life. They recognize the role of social capital and its influence on the trajectory of a criminal career.When faced with personal crisis, offenders lack the social supports that can help them reject criminal solutions. Sampson and Laub view criminal careers as a dynamic process in which important life events can change the direction of a persons life-course trajectory; these key events are called turning points.
Discuss why age onset is an important factor in crime?
Early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality. Adolescent offenders whose criminal behavior persist into adulthood are likely to have begun their deviant careers at a very early(preschool) age. Early onset kids tend to have poor parental discipline and monitoring, inadequate emotional support, distant peer relationships, and psychological issues and problem
The different pathways to crime can be…..
Some criminals may specialize in violence and extortion; some may be involved in theft and fraud; some may engage in a variety of criminal acts. Some offenders may begin their careers early in life, whereas others are late bloomers who begin committing crime at about the time when most people desist.
Familiarities with principles of the life-course theory
At an early age people begin relationship and behaviors that will determine their adult life course. Some individuals are incapable of maturing in a reasonable and timely fashion. A positive life experience may help some criminals desist from crime for a while, but a negative experience may cause them to resume their criminal activities. As people mature, the factors that influence their behavior are transformed.
The general theory assumes what about self-control?
Is a function of socialization and parenting, but some criminologist maintain it may also have a biological basis.
Not all criminals are impulsive
White collar criminals, drug traffickers, and organized crime bosses seem more calculating than impulsive.
More than one kind of impulsivity
Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that impulsivity is a singular construct: A person either is impulsive or not. There may be more than one kind of impulsive personality, however. Some people may be sensation seekers whereas others may be impulsive people who lack deliberation and rarely think through problems.
Impulsive people cannot resist
Criminal activities
Impulsive people have what level of self control? How is their bonding to society?
low & weak
Criticism of the general theory of crime
Ignores issues of institutionalized racism, poverty, and other important social factors
Where does low self control derive from?
Absence of learning
Absence of nurturance
Absence of discipline
Who proposed age-graded view of crime?
Terence Thornberry proposed an age-graded view of crime
Glueks Research stated what?
Popularized research on life cycle of delinquent careers
“The deeper the roots of childhood maladjustment, the smaller the change of adult adjustment”
Family relations are paramount in quality of discipline and emotional ties with parents
Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory
David Garrington is the principal theorist; people maintain a range of “antisocial potential”
desist
To spontaneously stop committing crime.
developmental theory
Theories that attempt to explain the “natural history” of a criminal career: its onset, the course it follows, and its termination.
life-course theories
Theories reflecting the view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by many characteristics, traits, and experiences, and that behavior changes accordingly, for better or worse, over life course
latent trait (propensity) theories
Theories reflect the view that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a person’s lifetime.
problem behavior syndrome
A Cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as crime.
authority conflict pathway
path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents
covert pathway
Pathway to a delinquent career that begins with minor underhanded behavior, leads to property damage, and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud.
overt pathway
path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent crime
adolescent-limited offenders
one who follows the most common criminal trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes
life-course persisters
One of the small group of offenders whose criminal careers continue well into adulthood
integrated theories
models of crime causation that weave social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
Age-Graded Theory
According to Robert Sampson and John Laub, discrete factors influence people at different stages of their development, so the propensity to commit crimes is neither stable nor unyielding. The likelihood of committing crime is linked to the accumulation (or absence) of social capital, social control, and human decision making.
Age-Graded Theory
a developmental theory that posits that (a) individual traits and childhood experiences are important to understand the onset of delinquent and criminal behavior; (b) experiences in young adulthood and beyond can redirect criminal trajectories or paths: (c) serious problems in adolescence undermine life chances; (d) positive life experiences and relationships can help a person knife off from a criminal career path; (e) positive life experiences such as gaining employment, getting married, or joining the military create informal social control mechanisms that limit criminal behavior opportunities; (f) formal criminals may choose to desist from crime because they find more conventional paths more beneficial and rewarding
Age-Graded Theory
Sampson and Laub’s, traits and childhood experiences are important to understand why children become delinquent/commit crimes. Young adult experiences can redirect criminal trajectories/paths. Serious problems in adolescence undermine life chances, and positive experiences can help to propel though life without criminal behaviors, also help to create informal social control that limit deviance. Former criminals can find more traditional paths, reduces recidivism.
Turning points
according to Laub and Sampson, the life events that alter the development of a criminal career
social capital
Positive relations with individuals and institutions, as in a successful career, that support conventional behaviour and inhibit deviant behaviour.
latent trait
A stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition, present at birth or soon after, that makes some people crime prone over the life course.
General Theory of Crime (GTC)
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s developmental theory, which modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice theories.
self-control theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s view that the cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality. Kids who are impulsive may have a weak bond to society.
Discuss the history of development theory.
The foundation of this theory is Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck’s integration of biological, psychological, and social factors. Later the Glueck data was rediscovered by criminologist Robert Sampson and John Laub. The Philadelphia cohort research by Marvin Wolfgang and his associates investigated criminal career development. Rolf Loeber and Marc Le Blanc proposed that criminologist should devote time and effort to understanding basic questions about the evolution of criminal careers.
Distinguish between the life-course theory and the latent trait theory.
Life – course theories view criminality as a dynamic process influenced by a multitude of individual characteristics, traits, and social experiences. Life -course theories look at such issues as the onset of crime, the escalation of offenses, the persistence of crime, and desistance from crime.
Distinguish between the life-course theory and the latent trait theory.
Latent trait theorists believed that human development is controlled by a ” master trait” that guides human development and gives some people an increase propensity to commit crime.
Be familiar with the principles of the life-course theory.
At an early age, people begin relationships and behaviors that will determine their adult life course. Some individuals are incapable of maturing in a reasonable and timely fashion. A positive life experience may help some criminal desist from crime for a while, but a negative experience may cause them to resume their criminal activities. As people mature, the factor that influence their behavior changes. The social, physical and environmental influence on their behavior are transformed.
Be familiar with the principles of the life-course theory.
As people mature, the factor that influence their behavior changes. The social, physical and environmental influence on their behavior are transformed.
Explain the term “problem behavior syndrome”.
crime is one of a group of interrelated antisocial behaviors that cluster together. problem behaviors typically involve family dysfunction, sexual and physical abuse, substance abuse, smoking, precocious achievement, suicide attempt, sensation seeking, and unemployment. people who suffer from one of these conditions typically exhibit many symptoms of the rest.
be aware that there are different pathways to crime.
some career criminals may specialize in violence and extortion; some may be involved in theft and fraud; some may begin their career early in life, whereas others are late bloomers who begin committing crime at about the time when most people desist.
Discuss why age of onset is an important factor in crime.
Early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality. Adolescent offenders whose criminal behavior persist into adulthood are likely to have begun their devient careers at a very early ( pre-school) age.
Discuss why age of onset is an important factor in crime.
Early onset kids tend to have poor parental discipline and monitoring, inadequate emotional support, distant peer relationships, and psychological issues and problems.
Know the basic principles of Sampson and Laub’s Age Graded Theory.
Sampson and Laub find that the maintenance of a criminal career can be affected by events that occur later in life. They recognize the role of social capital and its influence on the trajectory of a criminal career.
Know the basic principles of Sampson and Laub’s Age Graded Theory.
As people mature, the factor that influence their behavior changes. The social, physical and environmental influence on their behavior are transformed.
Define the Term “latent trait”
a number of people in the population have a personal attribute or characteristic that controls their inclination or propensity to commit crimes. A latent trait is a stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition, present a birth or soon after, that guides and shapes behavior and may cause some people to become crime prone over their life course.
Define the Term “latent trait”
suspected latent traits include defective intelligence, damaged or impulsive personality, genetic abnormalities, the physical- chemical functioning of the brain, and environmental influences on brain functions, such as drugs, chemicals, and injuries
Be familiar with Wilson and Herrnstein’s view on crime and human nature.
According to Wilson and Hernstein, all humans behavior, including criminality, is determined by its perceived consequences. A criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses criminal over conventional behavior.
Be familiar with Wilson and Herrnstein’s view on crime and human nature.
Wilson and Herrnstein assume that choice between crime and non-crime . Wilson and Hernstein suggest that existence of an elusive latent trait tat predisposes people to committing crime.
Understanding the basic principles of the General Theory of Crime.
Gottfredson and Hirschi link the propensity to commit crime to an impulsive personality and a lack of self control. People with limited self-control tend to be impulsive; they are insensitive to other people’s feelings, predisposed toward physical (rather than mental) activities and solutions, risk takers shortsighted, and nonverbal.
Understanding the basic principles of the General Theory of Crime.
because those with low self control enjoy risky, exciting, or thrilling behavior with immediate gratification, they are more likely to enjoy criminal acts. Gottfredson and Hirschi trace the root cause of poor self-control to inadequate child-rearing practice.
Developmental Theory
The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experience as well as individual characteristics
Developmental factors include…
Biological, social, and psychological structures and processes
Developmental Theory attempts to…
Provide a more global vision of a criminal career encompassing its onset, continuation, and termination
Questions of Developmental Theory
1. How does a criminal career begin?
2. How does a criminal career continue?
3. How does a criminal career end?
Life Course Theories
Theoretical views studying changes in criminal offending patterns over a person’s entire life
– Are there conditions or events that occur later in life that influence the way people behave, or is behavior predetermined by social or personal conditions at birth?
Life Course Fundamentals
1. Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS)
2. Pathways to crime
3. Offense specialization/generalization
4. Age of onset/continuity of crime
5. Adolescent-limited and life-course persisters
Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS)
A cluster of antisocial behaviors which may include:
– Family dysfunction
– Substance abuse
– Smoking
– Precocious sexuality and early pregnancy
– Educational underachievement
– Suicide attempts
– Sensation seeking
– Unemployment
– Crime
Pathways to Crime
1. Authority conflict pathway
2. Covert pathway
3. Overt pathway
Authority Conflict Pathway
Path to a criminal career that begins with early stubborn behavior and defiance of parents
Covert Pathway
Path to a criminal career that begins with minor underhanded behavior and progresses to fire starting and theft
Overt Pathway
Path to a criminal career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent crime
The earlier the onset of criminality…
The more frequent, varied, and sustained the criminal career
Keys to the early onset of criminality
Poor parental discipline and monitoring
Adolescent-Limited Offender
One who follows the most common criminal trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence then diminishes
Life-Course Persistent Offender
One of the small group of offenders whose criminal career continues well into adulthood
Integrated Theories
Models of crime causation that weave social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
Age-Graded Theory
Agree that formal and informal social controls restrict criminality ant the crime begins early in life and continues over the life course
– Suggest that turning points and social capital can alter the development of a criminal career
Factors that increase the likelihood of criminality
1. Weak social bonds
2. Accumulation of deviant peers
3. Labeling by the justice system
4. Unemployment or underemployment
5. Long-term exposure to poverty
Factors that may reverse a criminal trajectory
1. Positive high school experience
2. Escape from poverty
3. Stable employment
4. Maintenance of a successful marriage
Latent Trait Theories
Theoretical views that criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a person’s lifetime
– Though the propensity to commit crime is stable, the opportunity to commit crime fluctuates over time
Types of Latent Trait Theories
1. Crime and human nature
2. General theory of crime
Crime and Human Nature
Personal traits such as genetic makeup, intelligence, and body build may outweigh the importance of social variables as predictors of criminal activity
General Theory of Crime
A developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice theories
Self-Control Theory
The view that the cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality
– Those who are impulsive may find that their bond to society is weak
Policy Implications of Developmental Theories
Multi-systematic treatment efforts designed to provide at-risk youth with personal, social, educational, and family services
Developmental Theory
-View that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics
-Seeks to identify, describe, and understand the developmental stages of why a person begins to break the law
-Some individuals are incapable of maturing in a reasonable & timely fashion
Factors that affect a criminal career
-Structural factors (income, status)
-Socialization factors
-Family and peer relations
-Psychological factors (intelligence, personality)
-Opportunity factors (free time, protection and supply of stolen merchandise)
2 Views of Criminal Career Development
-Life Course Theory
-Latent Trait Theory
Life Course Concepts
-Devoted to the evolution of the criminal career
-People may show a propensity of offending early in lives (unemployment, school misconduct, poverty)
-Disruption in life’s major transitions promotes criminality
-Changing life influences:
1st family (primary socializer)
2nd adolescence: school & peers
3rd adulthood: job and marital relations
The Glueck Research
-Research on the life cycle of criminal careers
-“The deeper the roots of childhood maladjustment, the smaller the chance of adult adjustment”
-Family relations are the most important
Moffitt’s Age of Onset/continuity of crime
-Persistent criminal offenders begin early in life
-Early onset creates downward spiral
Life course persisters
-Small group of offenders that begin offending at an early age and continue
-Experience: poor parenting, deviant behaviors, involvement with delinquent groups, rejection by peers
Age Graded Theory
-Sampson and Laub
-“Turning points” (critical events)
-Social capital: positive relations with individuals and institutions, which support conventional behavior
-Experiences in young adulthood and beyond can redirect paths
example: at risk kids who join military or marriage
Life Course Theory
-Theory that focuses on the changes in criminality over the life course brought about by shifts in experience and life events
Latent Trait Theory
-A stable feature, characteristic, property or condition, present at birth or soon after, makes some people crime prone over the life course
-Low intelligence, body type, genetics, hyper active nervous system, psychological traits
-Latent traits disrupt normal socialization
-Propensity and opportunity to commit crime fluctuate over time
General Theory of Crime (GTC)
-Gottfredson and Hirschi
-Links crime to impulsivity and lack of self control
Social Process Theory
The view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society
Has 3 independent branches
-social learning theory
-social control theory
-social reaction (labeling) theory
Social learning theory
The view that people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts. (people are born goodand learn to be bad)
Social Control Theory
The view that people commit crime when the forces binding them to society are weakened or broken (people are born bad and must be controlled in order to be good)
Social reaction (labeling) theory
The view that people become criminals when they are labeled as such and accept the label as a personal identity (whether good or bad, people are shaped, directed, and influenced by the evaluations of others)
Concept shared between all social process theories
All people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals.
Socializations
Process of human development and enculturation. Socialization is influenced by key social processes and institutions.
Parental efficacy
The ability of parents to be supportive of their children and effectively control them in non coercive ways.
Education vs. Crime
Students who do poorly in school, lack educational motivation, and feel alienated are the most likely to engage in criminal acts.
Peer Relations
Peer groups have a powerful effect on human conduct and can dramatically influence dicision making and behavior choices. Troubled kids find it tough to make friends; they choose deliquent peers out of necessity reather than desire. Being a social outcast causes them to hook up with friends who are dangerous and get them into trouble. The fear of punishment is diminished among kids who hang with delinquent friends, and loyalty to delinquent peers may outweigh the fear of punishment.
Differential Association Theory
Sutherland: The view that people commit crime when their social learning leads them to pereive more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional behavior.
Differential Association Principles
-Criminal behavior is learned
-Criminal behavior is learned as a by-product of interacting with others
-Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups
– Learning criminal behavior involes assimilating the techniques of commiting crime, including motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes
-The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from perceptions of various aspects of the legal code as favorable or unfavorable
-A person becomes a criminal when he or she perceives more favorable than unfavorable consequences to violating the law
-Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
-The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning process
-Although criminal behavior expresses general needs and values, it is not excused by those general needs and values, because noncriminal behavior expresses the same needs and values.
Testing differential association theory
-kids whose parents are deviant and criminal are more likely to become criminals themselves and eventually to produce criminal children.
-People who report having attitudes that support deviant behavior are also likely to engage in deiant behavior
-As people mature, having delinquent friends who support criminal attitudes and behavior is strongly related to developing criminal careers
-Romantic partners who engage in antisocial activities may influence their partners behavior, which suggests that partners “learn” from one another
-Kids who associate and presumably learn from aggressive peers are more likely to behave aggressively themselves
-scales measuring differential association have been significantly correlated with criminal behaviors among samples taken in other nationas and cultures.
-The more deviant an adolescents social network and network of affiliations, including parents, peers and romantic partners, the more likely that adolescnt is to engage in antisocial behavior.
Why is differential association important?
It does not specify that criminals come from a disorganizzed area or are members of the lower class.
Criticisms of Differential Association Theory
-It fails to account for the origin of criminal definitions. How did the first “teacher” learn criminal attitudes and definitions in order to pass them on?
-It assumes criminal and deliquent acts to be rational and systematic. It ignores spontaneous, wanton acts of violence and damage that appear to have little utility or purpose.
Neutralization Theory
law violators must learn and master techniques that enable them to neutralize conventional values and attitudes, which enables them to drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior.
Neutralization Techniques
-Criminals sometimes voice guilt over their illegal acts
-Offenders frequently respect and admore honest, law-abiding persons. (entertainers, sports figures, teachers)
-Criminals define whom they can victimize
-Criminals are not immune to the demands of conformity
Negatives of Learning Theories
-Theorists fail to account for the origin of criminal definitions. (How did the first criminal learn the necessary techniques?)
-Fails to adequately explain spontaneous, wanton acts of violence, damage, and other expressive crimes that appear to have little utility or purpose.
commitment to conformity
a strong personal investment in conventional instutions, individuals, and processes that prevents people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements
social bonds
the ties that bind people to society, including relationships with friends, family, neghbors, teachers, and employers.
Hirschi’s social control theory
Dominant version of control theory. Hirschi links the onset of criminality to weakening of the ties that bind people to society. He assumes that all individuals are potential law violators, but most are kept under control because they fear that illegal behavior will damage their relationsips with friends, family, neighbors, teachers, and employers. Without these social bonds, or ties, a person is free to commit criminal acts.

-Argues that the social bond a person maintains with society is divided into four main elements: attachment, commitment, involvement and belief.

Hirschi’s: Attachment
family, friends, community
Hirschi’s: Commitment:
time, energy spent on stuff like future, career, success, personal goals
Hirschi’s Belief
Honesty, morality, fainess, patriotism, responsibility
Hirschi’s Involvement
school activities, sports teams, community organizations, religious groups, social clubs.
Social Reaction Labeling Theory
-Behaviors that are considered criminal are highly subjective. (forcible rape vs. consensual sexual encounter)
-Crime is defined by those in power ( content and shape of criminal law is definied by the values of those who rule and is not an objective standard of moral conduct)
-Not only acts are labeled, but also people.
– Both positive and negative labels invovle subjective interpretation of behavior
Successful degradation ceremony
A course of action or ritual in which someone’s identity is publicly redefined and destroyed and he or she is thereafter viewed as socially unacceptable.
The labling Process
Initial Criminal Act (people commit crimes for a # of reasons) –>
Detection by the Justice System ( Arrest is influenced by racial, economic, and power relations) –>
Decision to label (some are labeled “official” criminals by police and court authorities –>
Creation of a new identity (Those labeled are known as troublemakers, criminals, and so on, and are shunned by conventional society) –> Acceptance of Label (labeled people begin to see themselves as outsiders (secondary deviance, self-labeling)) –>
Deviance amplification (stigmatized offenders are not locked into criminal careers)
Primary v. Secondary Deviance
Primary Deviance: Involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten. Ex: a college student successfully steals a text book at the bookstore, gets A in course, graduates, admitted to law school, and becomes famous judge. Because his shoplifting goes unnoticed, it is relatively unimportant event that has little bearing on his future life.

Secondary Deviance: occurs when a deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents, who apply a negative lebel. The newly labeled offender then reoganizes his or her behavior and personaility around the consequences of the deviant act. The shoplifting student is caught by a security guard and expelled from collge. The law school dreams dashed and his future cloudy, options are limited, people say he lacks character, he begins to share their opinion. He eventually becomes a drug dealer and winds up in prison

Deviance amplification:
Process were offenders feel isolated from the mainstream of society and become locked within their deviantrole. May seek others similarly labeled to form deviant groups. Trapped in an escalating cycle of deviance, apprehension, more powerful labels and identity transformation.
Reflected Appraisal
When parents are alienated from their children their nagative labeling reduces their children’s self image and increases deliquency
PAGE 190 in book
Refer to page 190 to review social process theories: Differential association theory, neutralization theory, Hirschi’s control theory, and labeling theory.
Social Process Theory and Public Policy Implications
Learning theories have greatly influenced the way ciminal offenders are treated. Advocates of the social learning approach argue that if people become criminal by learning definitions and attitudes favoring criminality, they can unlearn these attitudes by being exposed to definitions favoring conventional behavior. This philosophy has been applied in numerous treatment facilities. Programs have been developed to inrease peoples commitment to conventional lines of action. Some focus on trying to create and strengthen bonds early in life before the onset of criminality.
Diversion Programs
Remove both juvenile and adult offenders from the normal channels of the criminal justice process by placing then in rehabilitation programs. ex: someone whose drunken drving hurts a pedestrian may, before trial, be placed for six months in an alcohol treatment program.
Critical criminology
The branch of criminology that holds that the cause of crime can be linked to economic, social, and political disparity. Some groups in society, particularly the working class and ethnic minorities, are seen as the most likely to suffer oppressive social relations based on class conflict and racism and hence to be more prone to criminal behavior.
Left Realism Theory
Crime is a function of relative deprivation; criminals prey on the poor
Left Realism Theory Strengths
Represents a compromise between conflict and traditional criminoly, favors pragmatic, community based crime prevetion and control
Critical Feminist Theory
Views gender inequality as stemming from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society, which leads to the explotiation of women by fathers and husbands. Under this system, women are considered a commodity worth possessing, much like land or money. A patriarchal system developed in which mens work was valued and womens work was devalued.

– Explains gender bias, violence against women, and repression

Power Control Theory
Crime and delinquency rates are a function of 2 factors..
.1) class position (power)
2) family functions (control)
The link between these 2 variables is that within the family, parents reproduce the power relationships they hold in the workplace, a position of dominance at work is equated with control in the household.
Girls are controled more closely than boys in traditional male-dominated households. There is gender equity in contemporary egalitarian homes.

-Explains gender differences in the crime rate as a function of class and gender conflict.

Peacemaking Criminology
Peace and humanism can reduce crime; conflict reslolution strategies can work

– offers a new approach to crime control through mediation

Preemptive Deterrence
an approach in which community organization efforts eliminate or reudce crime before police involvement becomes necessary. The reasoning behind this approach is that if the number of marginalized you (those who feel they are not part of society and have nothing to lose by ommitting crime) could be reduced, then deliquency rates would decline.
Restorative Justice
Using humanistic, non-punitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony.
– turning the justice system into a healing agent
-reconciliation is important
-effectiveness of justice ultimately depends on the stake a person has n the community.
– a commitment to both materla restitution and symblic reparation is expected
-a determination of community support and assistance for both victim and offender is involed
See more of Restorative Justice
Pg. 218-220
Developmental Theories
Attempt to explain the “natural history of a criminal career” its onset, continuation and termination
Problem Behavior Syndrome
A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfuction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as crime
Life Course Theories
Even as toddlers, people begin relationships and behaviors that will determine their adult life course. At first they mut learn to conform to social rules and function effectively in society. Later they are expected to begin to think about careers, leave their parental homes, find permanent relationships, and eventually marry and begin their own families. These transitions are expected to take place in order- completing school, then entering workforce, married and children.

-as people mature the factors that influence their behavior change.

Pathways to crime: The authority conflict pathway:
Begins at an early age with stubborn behavior, this leads to defiance (doing things ones own way), and then to authority avoidance (staying out late, truancy, running away)
Pathways to crime: Convert pathway
begins with minor, underhanded behaviors (lying), that leads to property damage (setting fires, damaging property), this behavior eventually escalates to more serious forms of criminality, ranging from joyriding, pocket picking, larceny…etc
Pathways to crime: Overt Pathway
Esclaates to agressive acts, beginning with aggression (annoying others, bullying), leading to physical and gang fighting and then to violence (attacking, someone, forced theft)
Developmental Theories
1. These theories emphasize that individuals’ criminal propensity develops along different pathways.
2. They explore the onset, acceleration, and deceleration of offending, through to desistance.
3. Crime varies across the life course, with most criminal involvement occurring in adolescence.
Integrative Developmental Theories
1. The theories are “integrative” (to varying degrees) in that they take into account social, psychological, and biological factors simultaneously.
2. Age has been found to decrease negative emotionality and increase conscientiousness.
3. Adolescents experience a “time lapse” between their emotional experiences and their rational judgment.
Risk Factor
Something that increases the probability of offending.
Risk and Protective Factors for Serious Delinquency
1. These factors are dynamic – they change over time.
2. It is typical for risk factors to cluster together.
3. Specific disorders such as ADHD and CD are examples of risk factors.
ADHD
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, characterized by restlessness, impulsiveness, etc.
CD
Conduct disorder, characterized by “the persistent display of serious antisocial actions that are extreme given the child’s developmental level and have a significant impact on the rights of others.”
Three Pathways to Boys’ Delinquency
1. Thornberry, Huizinga, and Loeber (2004)
2. Main argument: There are three developmental pathways to offending:
-The authority conflict pathway begins before age 12 with stubborn behavior, followed by defiance and authority avoidance.
-For those boys who progress in this way, some will continue on one of two additional pathways:
->Overt Pathway (aggression and violence)
->Covert Pathway
Super Traits Theory
1. Robert Agnew
2. Main argument: The two underlying traits of low self-control and irritability are “super traits” that encompass many specific risk factors, such as impulsivity, sensation seeking, etc.
-Negative responses from others which further perpetuate the risk.
-self control and irritability have strong biological underpinnings
3. Agnew recognizes the impact of biological as well as environmental factors.
4. His trait of “irritability” is analogous to what most psychologists refer to as “negative emotionality.”
Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory
1. David Farrington
2. Main argument: Farrington looks to antisocial potential (AP) and cognition to explain the distinction that he draws between long-term AP and short-term AP.
3. Short-term AP may turn into long-term AP over time as a consequence of offending.
Dual Pathway Developmental Theory
1. Terrie Moffitt
2. Main argument: Moffitt draws the distinction between adolescent limited (AL) offenders and life-course persistent (LCP) offenders; the “maturity gap” may contribute to AL.
-She finds that the latter are characterized by cross-situational behavioral consistency.
-At least 85% of offenders are AL
-Age crime curve: vast majority of offenders follow the inverted-U age crime curve (AL offender)
but LCP curve is more exponentially linear
-social process variables are more important for AL: experimenting with adult behaviors during adolescence and mimicking adolescent peers; fairly normal psychological development
-neural psychological deficits and self-control are more important for LCP; characterized by very early onset delinquency and continues on throughout life course; interaction between neural psychological deficits and adverse family and neighborhood environments leads to criminally prone offending
-Maturity Gap: chief cause of delinquency for adolescence
Maturity Gap
The period during which youth have already encountered puberty, but are not yet entering into the work force.
-gap between biological and social development
Adolescent-Limited (AL) Pathway
-Applicable to many “normal” youths during adolescence
1. Early puberty, no real social role, desire for independence. Long wait for adult roles -> Association with delinquent peers, antisocial behavior mimicked and reinforced -> Temporary antisocial characteristics brought on by puberty and desire for independence -> delinquency; will desist with social and neurological maturity
Life Course Persistent (LCP) Pathway
-Applicable to congenitally predisposed youth
1. Tempermental and cognitive deficitys combine with poor parenting (passive rGE) -> Antisocial traits, negative interactions with others (evocative rGE) -> Association with delinquent peers (active rGE) -> Delinquency, crime, and other antisocial behaviors (active rGE)
Age-Graded Theory
1. Sampson and Laub
2. Main argument: Environmental circumstances and human agency interact with various life-course events in a manner that explains deviancy.
-socal control theory that argues that the bonds the protects us from delinquency in adolescence puts us at risk for delinquency as adults
-what bonds are necessary vary based on what stage of the life course you are at
3. This is essentially a social control theory, with its primary focus being on desistance.
4. *As people build up social capital and encounter key turning points in their lives, they are likely to desist.
5. Sampson and Laub worked with life course data drawn from the work of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck.
Evaluation of Developmental Theories
1. It may be valuable to try to index neurohormonal substances as well as other variables annually to better understand important turning points.
2. Presuming stable latent traits ignores the interaction of those traits with vastly different life experiences over time.
3. Developmental theories may be the “gold standard” of criminology
Gold Standard of Criminology
Developmental theories may be the “gold standard” of criminology, as they:
1. Are dynamic nature: focus on different causative factors at different stages of the life course
2. Attempt to explain desistance as well as criminality.
3. Generally integrate sociological, psychological, and biological factors as a coherent whole
4. Rely on longitudinal data, which allows for cause/effect analysis regarding the onset, persistence, and desistance from crime in the same individuals.
Policy and Prevention
1. Developmental theories support a broad array of strategies consistent with those suggested by other perspectives.
2. They are particularly supportive of family-based nurturant interventions, particularly when they take place early in the life course.
-The Nurse-Family Partnership
-Fast Track Project
boot camp
a specialized prison program in which offenders (typically young) are subjected to a regimen of physical training and strict discipline, but are granted release earlier than more traditional incarceration
concurrent term
a sentence for a criminal conviction that is executed (“runs”) at the same time as another sentence
consecutive term
a sentence for a criminal conviction that is delayed in execution until after the sentence for another conviction has expired
determinate sentencing
a sentence to incarceration in which the exact length and nature of punishment is known at the time it is imposed
deterrence
a reason fro criminal punishment based on the idea that punishment of the individual offender produces benefits for the future by making the idea of criminal behavior less attractive
disparity
inequality; especially in sentencing when two similarly situated offenders receive different penalties
false negative
in criminal justice prediction, someone who is predicted to be safe, not to pose a threat of future criminality, but who is, in fact, dangerous and commits additional crimes
false positive
in criminal justice prediction, someone who is predicted to be dangerous, to pose a threat of future criminality, but who is, in fact, safe and would not commit additional crimes
“focal concerns”
key goals or purposes of decision. In sentencing, the factors that influence judges’ punishment decisions like public protection, blameworthiness, and practical considerations
general deterrence
a subtype of deterrence based on the notion that punishing a specific offender will frighten or warn the general population to avoid criminal behavior
good time
reductions in the length of sentence granted to inmates as a reward for “good behavior” in the institution
habitual offender statutes
legislative statutes that allow for increased penalties for repeat offenders
incapacitation
a reason for criminal punishment based on the notion that the penalty will prevent the offender from having the chance to commit a crime in the future
indeterminate sentencing
a sentencing to incarceration that is stated as a range of time between some minimum and some maximum term and in which, at the point of sentencing, the exact length of confinement is unkown
intermediate sanctions
the term given to describe a range of criminal penalties developed as alternatives to traditional probation or incarceration. These include intensive supervision, house arrest, community service, and other penalites
just deserts
a justification for criminal penalties based on the notion that criminals, by virtue of breaking the law, have earned their punishment, and noncriminals have earned the right to have criminals punished; therefore, crime deserves punishment
mandatory minimum sentences
sentences that reflect a required period of incarceration defined by statute that must be imposed as a sanction i the offender is convicted of a particular crime
parole eligibility
established by the legislature, this defines which types of inmates can be paroled at what pints in their sentence
partial disclosure
when the judge summarizes the facts contained in the presentence investigation report and the reasons for sentence, alolwing the defense to contest any errors
presentence investigation (PSI)
a background report on a convicted criminal offender designed to provide the judge with information about the offender’s social and criminal history and current status, for use in making a sentencing decision
presumptive sentencing
suggested sanction for conviction of a particular offense, the expected or “presumed” sentence can be modified by the judge for cause
rehabilitation
a justification for the imposition of a criminal sentence based on the idea that crime is symptomatic of problems an offender has with regard to living within society. The punishment is imposed “for the offender’s own good,” and is intended to change the offender’s need or proclivity to engage in crime
retribution
a justification for criminal penalties that is based on the principle that wrong deserves to be punished, regardless of whether the punishment produces any benefits
sentencing
the imposition of a sanction on conviction of a crime; the decision and process of deciding on an appropriate penalty for a specific criminal act or acts
sentencing commissions
formal bodies assigned to assess and oversee criminal sentencing and recommend reforms
specific deterrence
a subtype of deterrence in which the purpose of the penalty is to frighten the individual offender into conformity, regardless of the effect of the sanction on the broader general public
split sentences
sentences combining a period of incarceration with a period of community supervision as part of the sentence order; splitting the total sentence between incarceration and community supervision
three-strikes laws
laws that increase prison terms for offenders having been convicted of a serious criminal offense on three or more separate occassions
treatment
a justification for sentencing based on the belief that criminal offenders can be helped to prevent them from committing future crimes; the delivery of services – and the services themselves – provided to criminal offenders as a means to reduce future criminality
“truth in sentencing”
the concept that offender should actually serve at least 85% of the term they receive
Turbulent 1960s
the epoch where both the critical criminology and feminist criminology have their roots – people were challenging authority, challenging social order, and asking why certain races, social classes or genders were treated differently than others
Critical Criminology
range of critical theories and perspectives that challenge inequality and oppressive treatment –> unequal distribution of power
feminist
the emergence of (blank) criminology is associated with 3 books, all published in 1975 – Rita Simon’s “Women and Crime”, Freda Adler’s “Sisters in Crime”, and Susan Brownmiller’s “Against our Will”
critical
the emergence of (blank) criminology is associated with 2 books; Taylor, Walton and Young’s co-authored 1973 book, The New Criminology, and (the same authors) 1975 co-edited book Critical Criminology
conflict theorists
earlier critical criminologists (neo-marxists in particular) are often regarded as (blank), b/c they took the position that society was built on social conflict not on social consensus
– radical feminism, socialist feminism, and Marxist feminism are also based on this idea
The Critical Criminology Umbrella
– Neo Marxism
– Left Realism
– Post Structuralism,
– Social Feminism
– Critical-race theory
– Peace-making criminology
Neo-Marxism
argued that capitalism was to blame for crime b/c it created the conditions of social inequality that led to crime – that if you eliminated capitalism, you would eliminate crime
– combination of Marxist theory + Chicago School symbolic interactionism + Howard Becker’s Labelling Theory + Stanley Cohen’s work on moral panics
Example of Elite Engineered model
moral panics surrounding young black muggers in the UK; crack down on black youth but not a real issue (moral panic made to distract real social problems) is an…
Left Realism
– associated w/ thinking of Jock Young, was a response to a number of attacks levelled against the earlier critical criminologists (or neo-Marxists)
– accepted that crime was a genuine social problem (that is was not just about moral panics), and took the position that criminologists should be able to offer some practical solutions for the problem (Young, 2002)
Left idealists
Mainstream criminologists called the earlier critical criminologist (or neo-Marxists) (“blank”), because of their idealistic belief that capitalism was the cause of crime, and that if you could eliminated capitalism, then you could eliminate crime
Left Realism introduced 3 concepts into the Neo-Marxist equation
relative deprivation, subcultural theory and marginalization
Relative Deprivation
“crime is more likely in situations where members of a particular group experience discontent as a result of being deprived of things to which other groups have access” (Huey 2014)
Subcultural Theory
a segment of society that forms in response to a shared problem, and which possesses its own distinctive patterns of beliefs, values, mores and expressions
Marginalization
refers to the manner in which certain segments of society “find themselves as social outcast on the borders of society; consistent with Becker’s labelling theory
The Punitive Turn
Refers to the move away from correctional treatment-rehab programs, and toward punishment for the sake of punishment
– e.g., the offender population in Canada has increased by 7.1 % over the past 5 years, despite declining crime rates
– may be driven in part by extensive media coverage of particularly horrendous crimes, the emergence of victims’ rights groups and their influence on criminal justice policy, and the growth of the private prisons industry in the US (prisons for profit)
3 Strikes and you’re out idea linked to…
The Punitive Turn –> because they fear the same thing happening to themselves, members of the middle and lower class become much less tolerated of marginalized groups like drug addicts, sleigher recipients and illegal immigrants
Post Structuralism
Post-structuralists argue that power and oppressions permeate all levels of society; thus it is impossible for individuals to stand outside of a social stems as an objective, neutral observer
– Everybody’s understanding or interpretation of reality is bounded (structured) by their historical epoch, their culture, their language, and by the predominant social discourse
– associated with the thinking of french philosopher Michel Foucault and a group of his followers referred to as the Foucauldians
discourse
power and oppression “permeate all levels of society” – our social “knowledge” or “social reality” is shaped by social (blank) or narratives about the way things are
Peace-Making Criminology
includes reintegrative shaping, restorative justice, and even those who favour the total abolition of prisons
– argues that we should treat criminals with empathy, as human beings, who despite their past behaviour, still need understanding and kindness (Huey, 2014)
Minimalist Approach
creating a more humane society, and one that is less likely to foster criminal behaviour; reduce criminal behaviour = reduce imprisonment
– Concept suggested by Peace-making criminologist Nils Christie
Liberal Feminism
(first wave of feminism) emerged as a consequence of the women’s liberation movement, argued that as women became more liberated, we would see more women criminals
– examines the similarities and differences b/w men’s and women’s offending, paying close attention to reduced opportunities for women and the role that gender socialization plays in the shaping of women’s behaviour
Are all forms of feminism radical, socialist, or Marxist?
No
Liberation Hypothesis
associated w/ the thinking of liberal feminists Rita Simon and Freda Adler, that posited that as women gained more freedom (e.g. became more liberated), they would engage in more crime
Marxist feminism and Socialist feminism
conflict theories that focus on the manner in which males oppress or dominate women, and how men exercise control over women’s labour and sexuality
capitalism
Marxist-Feminist analysis examines the class struggles and unequal gender relations that are produced by (blank)
Social/Radical Feminism
(a second wave of feminism) coming onto the scene after earlier forms of liberal feminism and radical feminism
– social feminism combines Marxist and other radical perspectives, arguing that the patriarchal relations of capitalism (male dominance) are reproduced in the family
Intersectional Feminism
a third wave of feminism (following liberal feminism, radical feminism and socialist feminism), that focusses on the intersection b/w race, class and gender
– exemplified by Sally Simpson’s 1991 article on “Caste, Class and Violent Crime”; explained why Black females in the USA exhibit much higher rates of violence than their white, hispanic, or asian counterparts
Caste
black females who are members of the “underclass”, unemployed, or underemployed, living from pay cheque to pay cheque, often raising families on their own
Exchange/Social Control Theory
– by Richard Gelles, who argued that “wife abuse and child abuse are governed by the principle of cost and rewards”;
– the likelihood of violence and abuse increases when the rewards are perceived to be higher than the potential costs (a “rational choice”, exchange, “cost-benefit analysis”)
– violence (e.g., in disciplining children) has traditionally been “accepted” as a form of informal social control in the family household
– the family (as a social institution) is considered sacrosanct, and is largely left to its own devices by other institutions of social control (e.g., the criminal justice system)
Patriarchal Terrorism
females who are subjected to systematic abuse by their male partners are victims of THIS, a form of patriarchal (male-dominated) social control – MacMillan and Gartner
symbolic
MacMillan and Gartner conclude that the primary significance of employment is (blank) – it concerns the relative status of husbands and wives
increased
if women in such relationships are employed and their male partners are not, or the women have more workplace authorities than their male partners, there is an (blank) risk of serious domestic violence by the male partner
Patriarchy
refers to the type of social structure and family structure that permits males to exercise control over women’s labour and women’s sexuality
Critical Race Theory
deconstructed (tool apart) the ideas (construct) of race as “biological”
– argue that race is a social construction; a label, stigma or symbol placed upon an individual by society, which affects that individual’s life opportunities
– opportunities are blocked not only b/c some people are prejudiced against other races, “but b/c racism exists w/in social relations, practices and institutions”
Example of Criminal Race Theory
Includes the over-policing of ethnic communities, racial profiling, and the mistreatment of ethnic minority by the criminal justice system
“do it because they can”
Gelles says that “wife and child abuse are governed by the principle of “costs and rewards”, males who are wife abusers and child abusers (blank)
Michel Foucault
founder of Post Structuralism and focussed on discourse (= how language shapes our understanding of social reality, and how language is used to communicate)
Constitutive criminology
Milanovic (1999) says that critical criminology has witnessed the emergence of a number of competing perspectives, including left realism, social/feminist criminology, peacemaking criminology, post structuralism, etc…
“Suite crime”
this concept highlights the question as to “why it’s typically treated as a civil matter while street crime is met with full enforcement? What is deviant?” questions mainstream criminologists effectiveness.
men, women
(blank) are committing less crimes, while (blank) are committing relatively slightly more crimes
Gender Gap
– the most common offence by females = theft under $5,000
– the most common offence by males = assault level 1
– 3x as many males are convicted as females (males likely to commit more offences)
Economic Marginalization hypothesis
economic circumstances of impoverished, uneducated women has worsened in comparison to that of their male counterparts
Feminist Critique
“criminology is a male entered enterprise” (Kay, 2014)
Gender and Gangs
boys join gangs b/c of a neglect of supervisions, while girls going gangs because of family problems/avoidance, emotional reasons (come from broken homes)
Domestic Violence and Gender
Women employment status DOES NOT increase likelihood of spousal violence, BUT DOES increase likelihood of spousal violence IF the male is not employed
– economic situations does not cause domestic violence, RATHER, the symbolic aspect of women “bringing home the bacon” does this
Sentencing
Imposition of punishment in a criminal proceeding.
Retribution
An act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime.
incapacitation
Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by detaining the offender in prison.
Deterrence
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to inhibit criminal behavior through the fear of punishment.
Restoration
Making a victim whole. Repayment. Making restitution. A goal of sentencing that seeks to make the victim “whole again.”
Rehabilitation
The attempt to reform a criminal offender.
Just deserts
a model of criminal sentencing that holds that criminal offenders deserve the punishment they receive at the hands of the law and that punishments should be appropriate to the type and severity of the crime committed.
Balanced and restorative justice
A sentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim “whole again.”
General deterrence
Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the general public and to discourage the commission of offenses
Specific deterrence
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality.
Indeterminate sentencing
A sentence of imprisonment to a specified minimum and maximum period of time, specifically authorized by statute, subject to termination by a parole board or other authorized agency after the prisoner has served the minimum term.
Concurrent sentence
Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served concurrently, result in a maximum of five years behind bars.
Consecutive sentence
Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served consecutively, result in a maximum of 13 years behind bars.
Gain time
the amount of time deducted from time to be served in prison on a given sentence as a consequence of participation in special projects or programs.
Good time
The amount of time deducted from time to be served in prison on a given sentence as a consequence of good behavior.
Proportionality
A sentencing principle that holds that the severity of sanctions should bear a direct relationship to the seriousness of the crime committed.
Equity
A legal principle of fair dealing, which may provide preventive measures and legal remedies that are unavailable under existing common law and statutory law.
Social debt
A sentencing principle that holds that an offender’s criminal history should objectively be taken into account in sentencing decisions.
Structured sentencing
A model of criminal punishment that includes determinate and commission-created presumptive sentencing schemes, as well as voluntary/advisory sentencing guidelines.
Determinate sentencing
A period of incarceration that is fixed by a sentencing authority and cannot be reduced by judges or other corrections officials.
Advisory sentencing guidelines
Recommended sentencing policies that are not required by law.
presumptive sentencing
A model of criminal punishment that meets the following conditions: 1) The appropriate sentence for an offender convicted of a specific charge is presumed to fall within a range of sentences authorized by sentencing guidelines that are adopted by a legislatively created sentencing body, usually a sentencing commission. 2) Sentencing judges are expected to sentence within the range or to provide written justification for failing to do so. 3) There is a mechanism for review, usually appellate, of any departure from the guidelines.
Aggravating circumstances
Any circumstances accompanying the commission of a crime that may justify a harsher sentence.
Mitigating circumstances
Any circumstances accompanying the commission of a crime that may justify a lighter sentence.
Truth in sentencing
A close correspondence between the sentence imposed on an offender and the time actually served in prison.
Mandatory sentencing
a criminal sentence set by a legislature that establishes the minimum length of prison time for specified crimes and thus limits the amount of discretion a judge has when sentencing a defendant
Diversion
The official suspension of criminal or juvenile proceedings against an alleged offender at any point after a recorded justice system intake, but before the entering of a judgment, and referral of that person to a treatment or care program administered by a nonjustice or private agency. Also, release without referral.
Fair sentencing act
reduces the disparity in the amounts of powder cocaine and crack cocaine required for the imposition of mandatory minimum sentences and eliminates the mandatory minimum sentence for simple possession of crack cocaine. It also increases monetary penalties for major drug traffickers.
Fair sentencing clarification act.
was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives in an effort to make the FSA’s changes to federal crack cocaine apply to people who had already been sentenced
Alternative sentencing
The use of court-ordered community service, home detention, day reporting, drug treatment, psychological counseling, victim-offender programming, or intensive supervision in lieu of other, more traditional sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines.
presentencing investigation
an investigation performed by a probation officer that provides information about the convicted offender to a judge or jury in order that they can apply.
presentence report
a document prepared by a probation officer that gives a judge information about a defendant’s background, education, and behavior, as well as other matters
Sentencing reform act
(comprehensive crime control act of 1984) established U.S. Sentencing Commission and abolished federal parole, increase consistency in federal sentencing.
Federal privacy act of 1974
protects individuals by regulating when a and how local state, and federal governments and their agencies can request to disclose their ssn,, and if that information is obtained, it must be held as confidential by those agencies
Freedom of information act.
1966 Act allowing citizens to inspect all government records with the exception of classified military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files.
Victim and witness protection act
requires judges to consider victim-impact statements at federal sentencing hearings and places responsibility for their creation on federal probation officers.
Victims of Crime Act of 1984
grants money derived from fines and penalties to state compensation board; used to fund victim compensation and assistance programs
Violent crime control and law enforcement act
mandates inclusion of victim-impact statements in sentencing decisions, already required in federal courts by the 1982 VWPA, was substantially enhanced by the “right of allocution” provision
victim-impact statement
An in-court statement made by the victim or by survivors to sentencing authorities seeking to make an informed sentencing decision.
Violence against women act 1994
dedicated to addressing violence against women, including domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking and dating violence
Crime victim rights act
federal legislation protecting victims in federals court that parallels the former victim right amendment 2004
Four primary sanctions
fines, probation, prison, death
Capital punishment
Death Penalty
Capital offense
a crime punishable by death
writ of habeas corpus
A court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
Antiterrorism and effective death penalty act
response to OKC Bombings; had a tremendous impact on habeas corpus in the US, meaning it limited the rights to appeals of death row inmates
Innocent protection act
provides funding for federal postconviction DNA testing, incentive funding to state prosecutors to conduct postconvinction DNA testing to exonerate the wrongly convicted, and funding to improve defense representation in capital cases.
Innocent project
at least 302 wrongly convicted of crimes in 34 states, Works to exonerate the wrongful convicted using DNA testing
Kirk bloodsworth
The first case to be exonerated because of DNA