have more than 15 minutes of recess a day.
Teacher ratings of classroom disruptive behavior decline for children who
heredity and environment contribute jointly to IQ.
Adoption research confirms that
Collections-stamps, coins, baseball cards-become more common in middle childhood because children develop
their horizontal and vertical motions are easier to control.
Children usually master uppercase letters before lowercase letters because
yet to be firmly grounded in research.
Gardner’s list of abilities has
knowledge of one’s own inner strengths.
According to Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, intrapersonal intelligence involves
Gains in __________ permit the transition to rule-oriented games.
According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence, __________ intelligence reminds us that culture influences perceived intelligence.
During middle childhood, children’s theory of mind becomes
specific cultural and school practices
Recent evidence indicates that __________ has/have much to do with mastery of Piagetian tasks.
students with learning difficulties learn alongside typical students in a regular educational setting.
In inclusive classrooms,
the metric system
In Asian countries, where children often excel at both math reasoning and computation, use of __________ helps children grasp place value.
are voluntarily desegregated.
When describing an experience, Jeremy uses a short and simple narrative. He describes the experience from beginning to end. Jeremy is using a __________ style.
Stephanie, whose IQ is 131
Which of the following children is “gifted” under the standard definition of “giftedness” based on intelligence test performance?
Yvonne, a first grader
Which of the following children is the most likely to experience a higher rate of illness during the school year?
a nationally mandated, high-quality curriculum
Which of the following is Aiko, an elementary school student in Japan, likely to experience?
In order to remember all of the state capitals, Andrew groups them by region. This is an example of which memory strategy?
In Mr. Spokerson’s classroom, the teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision making. Students are relatively passive-listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher-assigned tasks. This is an example of a(n) __________ classroom.
Stimulant medications, the most common treatment for ADHD, reduce activity level and improve attention, academic performance, and peer relations for about _____ percent of the children who take them.
Although heredity contributes, environmental factors are necessary to spark the illness.
Which of the following statements about asthma is true?
2 to 3;5
vDuring middle childhood, children add about _____ inches in height and _____ pounds in weight each year.
__________ students typically get more encouragement from teachers.
Gains in _______ are evidenced by quicker and more accurate movements in dancing, tag, and soccer.
Rates of overweight increase with
often stereotyped as lazy, sloppy, ugly, and stupid.
Amber is an obese child. Children like Amber are
“Did you hear your sister this morning?”
Davie, an African-American student, comes from a low-SES home. According to research on communication styles, which of the following questions is Davie’s father likely to ask?
In first grade, Caleb began collecting baseball cards. Now that he’s older, Caleb spends a great deal of time sorting his cards, arranging them by team, and putting them into albums. Which of Piaget’s concepts is Caleb demonstrating?
Eleven-year-old Sarah’s performance on her state’s standardized test is adversely affected by her worries that she, as an African-American student, is not expected to do well on the test. This anxiety she feels is known as
Mario is skilled at tackling difficult problems and coming up with novel solutions. When given a new task, Mario applies information-processing skills in exceptionally effective ways, making these skills automatic so that working memory is freed for more complex aspects of the situation. According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence, Mario would score high in __________ intelligence.
Because African-American children often use a __________ style of communication, their narratives are usually longer and more complex than those of white children.
higher in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk products.
Eating an evening meal with parents leads to a diet
Research on high-quality education in elementary school indicates that an optimum class size is no larger than _____ children.
include landmarks on the maps they draw.
Preschoolers and young school-age children are likely to
are especially strong when teachers emphasize competition.
Educational self-fulfilling prophecies
are socially isolated.
Many gifted children and adolescents
better accounts for unevenness in
Compared with Piaget’s theory, Case’s neo-Piagetian theory __________ cognitive development.
can switch their basis of sorting from color to shape when asked to do so.
When asked to sort cards with pictures that vary in both color and shape, children age 5 and older
a form of schoolwide homogeneous grouping.
Widespread SES and ethnic segregation in U.S. schools consigns large numbers of low-SES minority students to
children who are fluent in two languages tend to be advanced in cognitive flexibility.
Research on bilingual development indicates that
Compared to their peers, __________ are at higher risk for developing asthma.
consists of an adult introducing purposeful teaching in a testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support.
Vivian has not yet mastered cognitive self-regulation.
Although 9-year-old Vivian knows that she should reread a complicated passage in her science book to make sure she understands the information, she instead moves on to the next passage. What does this demonstrate about Vivian’s thinking?
Children with ADHD score 7 to 15 points lower than other children on intelligence tests.
Which of the following statements about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is true?
a family-based intervention
Which of the following treatments is the most effective for overweight and obese children?
more attentive in the classroom after recess than before it.
In a series of studies, elementary school students were
combines medication with interventions that model and reinforce appropriate academic and social behavior.
The most effective treatment approach for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Leo and Elaina are both 9 years old. Elaina is likely to outperform Leo in
emphasis on effort
Research on learning environments suggests that __________ fosters a strong commitment to learning in Asian families and schools.
enhances minority student achievement.
Research confirms that less segregated education
Western children who are trained in cooperative learning give clearer explanations and enjoy learning more than children who lack such training.
Which of the following statements about cooperative learning is true?
Research indicated that __________ relationship exists between stressful life experiences and psychological disturbance in childhood.
organize on the basis of proximity and similarity
contribute to the development of trust and sensitivity.
During the school years, friendships
Girls are more androgynous than boys.
Which of the following statements about gender identity and behavior is true?
In mother-custody families, boys are at slightly greater risk for serious adjustment problems.
Which of the following statements about the immediate consequences of divorce is true?
__________ skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.
When war and social crises are temporary, most children do not show long-term emotional difficulties.
Which of the following statements about the impact of ethnic and political violence on children is true?
School-age children regard violations of purposeful social conventions as closer to moral transgressions.
Which of the following statements about moral development is true?
decide in favor of kindness and fairness.
Faced with conflicting moral and personal concerns, fourth graders typically
often view steprelatives as intruders.
Children in blended families
are higher in self esteem
When compared to children with siblings, only children
is a capacity that develops.
Research indicates that resilience
is gaining a sense of industry.
Eight-year-old Michaela helps her father do the dishes after dinner and folds laundry for her mother. According to Erikson, Michaela
Wendi feels very good about herself. She has a high self-esteem. Wendi’s parents probably use a(n) __________ child-rearing style.
more likely to live in a higher- than a lower-income neighborhood.
After school, 10-year-old Kaylie looks after herself for one to two hours until her mom gets home from work. Kaylie is
are afraid of maternal separation.
About one-third of children with school phobia
Which of the following personality traits do children regard as “masculine”?
20 to 40
About __________ percent of youths have experienced “cyberbullying” through text messages, e-mail, chat rooms, or other electronic tools.
Most cases of child sexual abuse are reported in
Today, more than __________ of U.S. mothers with school-age children are employed.
Child rearing becomes easier during middle childhood for those parents who established a(n) __________ style during the early years.
__________ coping is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome.
In middle childhood, the self-conscious emotions of __________ and __________ become clearly governed by personal responsibility.
in group favoritism
Which of the following emerges first?
At any given time, __________ of U.S. children live in single-parent households.
problem centered coping
When 9-year-old Lataesha’s best friend is angry with her, Lataesha decides to call her friend to talk about the issue. Lataesha is engaging in
As a typical fourth grader, Isaac’s “masculine” personality traits have begun to
At school, Shawn is often involved in physical and relational conflicts with peers and has problems sitting still and paying attention during class time. Which of the following types of peer acceptance likely characterizes Shawn?
He will reason that the situation could be worse, since he has opportunities to make back the points.
Ten-year-old Anton scored low on the latest homework assignment in one of his classes. If Anton uses emotion-centered coping, how is he likely to handle the poor score?
reason similarly about moral and social-conventional concerns.
Studies show that children in Western and non-Western societies
capacity that enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity.
Resilience is best viewed as a(n)
boys are at greater risk for serious adjustment problems.
In mother-custody families,
family life has not prepared them for school life.
According to Erikson, school-age children can develop a sense of inadequacy when
attain higher levels of education.
Compared to children with siblings, only children
Trust is the defining feature of friendships in middle childhood.
Which of the following statements about school-age children’s friendships is true?
average in peer acceptance.
According to self-reports, one-third of children qualify as
What is the overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce?
in extreme, all-or-none ways.
Older school-age children are far less likely than younger children to describe themselves
are just as socially skilled as average children.
As a group, neglected children
Emphasis on __________ in society and the media has major implications for young people’s overall satisfaction with themselves.
promote prosocial attitudes and behaviors
The best way to reduce bullying is to
attribute their failures, but not their successes, to ability.
Children who develop learned helplessness
long-term contact and collaboration among neighborhood, school, and community groups
Research shows that __________ may be the best way to reduce prejudice in children.
Sexual abuse typically appears in the midst of other serious family problems.
Why is long-term therapy with both parents and children usually needed in treatment of sexual abuse?
Cross-cultural research reveals that gender stereotyping of personality traits __________ steadily in middle childhood, becoming adultlike by age _____.
In a longitudinal study, __________ third through seventh graders gained in self-esteem over the following year.
regard gender typing as socially rather than biologically influenced.
By the end of middle childhood, most children
encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure with effort.
aggressive children’s social problems operate even within their close peer ties.
Findings that some girls’ friendships are full of jealousy and that some boys’ friendships often involve physical attacks suggest that
__________ children and __________ have the hardest time adjusting to blended-family relationships.
appear around age 11 to 13.
Most cases of school phobia
“I’m in third grade.”
Jie is a Chinese child. According to research on cultural differences in self-concept, which of the following self-descriptions is Jie likely to provide?
About __________ of divorced parents marry again.
Maternal employment leads fathers to take on greater child-care responsibilities.
Which of the following statements about maternal employment is true?
Peer onlookers rarely intervene to help victims of bullying.
Which of the following statements about peer victimization is true?
foster awareness of self-conscious emotions.
Research shows that appreciating mixed emotions can
grows out of a warm, cooperative parent-child relationship based on give-and-take.