Chapter 9-13

Physicians in the early 1800s:
included very few women
All of the following encouraged migration to the West EXCEPT:
construction of numerous frontier forts
Jefferson’s embargo in 1807 and the War of 1812:
encouraged rapid growth in American manufacturing
German immigrants in the 1850s:
tended to come as groups and families
The Know-Nothing party:
was strongest in the 1850s
Which of the following is NOT true of boxing in the antebellum era?
It was strictly entertainment for the lower classes
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The various Workingmen’s parties failed for all the following reasons EXCEPT:
most workers had no serious problems
The Erie Canal did all of the following EXCEPT:
bankrupt New York State with its huge cost
The Germans who came to the United States:
settled mainly in rural areas
By 1860, ______ had become the largest city as its population surpassed one million.
New York
Lyman Beecher’s anti-Catholic sermons in 1834:
provoked a mob to attack the Ursuline Convent in Charlestown, Massachusetts
By the 1850s, railroads had begun to receive encouragement from the federal government in the form of:
land grants
The newest and fastest-growing profession in the United States by 1860 was:
Cyrus McCormick’s grain reapers:
were manufactured at his factory in Chicago
By the 1840s, a communications revolution had been triggered by the development of the:
By the 1830s, most western products reached New Orleans by:
The first American factories produced:
cotton textiles
The German migration to the United States:
often ended in St. Louis, San Antonio, or Milwaukee
By the 1820s, the fastest way to travel from New Orleans to Pittsburgh was by:
In antebellum theaters, audiences:
responded vocally to the quality of performances
The advantage clipper ships had over traditional merchant vessels was their:
The major impetus for the huge Irish immigration to the United States after 1845 was:
a deadly potato famine
The New England textile industry’s use of water power:
dramatically altered the region’s ecology
The cotton gin’s invention:
made cotton a major export item
A radical wing of the Jackson Democratic Party was also known as:
the Locofocos
In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that:
forming a trade union was not illegal
The most popular form of indoor entertainment in the first half of the nineteenth century was:
By 1860, one would be most likely to encounter Norwegian and Swedish immigrants in:
Wisconsin and Minnesota
The cotton gin:
made possible efficient separation of seeds from fiber
The Rhode Island or Fall River systems differed from that of Lowell in that:
whole families were often employed
The settlement of the West was accelerated by Cyrus McCormick’s invention of the:
mechanical reaper
In terms of political behavior, the Irish:
generally supported Democrats
Ironically, the Jacksonian era was characterized by:
growing economic and social inequality
The Preemption Act of 1830:
allowed squatters to stake out claims ahead of the land surveys
brought cheaper and faster two-way traffic to the Mississippi Valley
Samuel Slater’s contribution to the economy was that he:
opened a successful textile mill in Rhode Island
The textile plant established in Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1813:
manufactured finished cloth
The Know-Nothings campaigned primarily to:
limit immigrant influence
A large strike led by Massachusetts shoemakers in early 1860:
won higher wages and union recognition
The cotton gin was invented:
by Eli Whitney
Minstrel shows:
employed familiar stereotypes of African Americans
Antebellum minstrel shows:
featured the songs of Stephen Foster
One striking aspect of the Lowell factories was:
their employment of young single women
In the antebellum era, prizefights lasted:
until one fighter could not continue
The Know-Nothings proposed to:
lengthen the time required to become a citizen
Trade associations, or guilds, formed by artisans in the early 1800s attempted to do all the following EXCEPT:
recruit unskilled workers
All of the following were true of the trains in use by the 1850s EXCEPT:
they could only operate on flat terrain
Anti-Irish prejudice was especially based upon:
fear of growing Catholic influence
By the early 1800s, the five largest American cities were all major
The largest group of immigrants living in America in 1860 was:
All of the following were presidential candidates in 1824 EXCEPT:
John Calhoun
In 1824, the United States signed a treaty with Russia concerning:
claims in Oregon
As president, which of the following did Adams NOT propose?
to create a new national bank
In the presidential election of 1828:
Adams won all of New England except for one of Maine’s nine electoral votes
In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Marshall court struck down that state’s ability to tax:
the national bank
In the first half of the nineteenth century internal improvements:
were supported mainly by people in the West
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was published in response to the:
Tariff of 1828
Missouri’s admission to the Union as a slave state was balanced by the admission of the free state of:
The American System included support for all the following policies EXCEPT:
free public schools
The Supreme Court in Gibbons v. Ogden settled a controversy over:
steamboat commerce
One of John Quincy Adams’s major shortcomings as president was his lack of:
political skills
In 1816, when Congress adopted provisions for a new Bank of the United States, who protested?
Old Republicans
The 1824 election was ultimately decided by:
the House of Representatives
The Convention of 1818 did all the following EXCEPT:
return control of the Southwest to Spain
The phrase “Era of Good Feelings” resulted from President Monroe’s tour of:
New England
“This momentous question like a firebell in the night awakened and filled me with terror.” Thomas Jefferson said this about the:
debate over the Missouri Compromise
In the early 1800s, the Supreme Court decisions associated with John Marshall consistently championed:
national authority
Following the War of 1812, President Madison endorsed:
a national university
The most important factor behind U.S. acquisition of Florida in 1819 was:
Andrew Jackson’s incursion in pursuit of the Seminoles
The Tariff of 1816 was intended to do all of the following EXCEPT:
lower the price of British goods
In 1825, Florida belonged to:
the United States
In 1819, Spain decided to take the following stand concerning its claim to the Oregon Country:
abandon its claim above the 42nd parallel
One of Jackson’s greatest personal vulnerabilities in the 1828 campaign was:
the scandal surrounding his marriage
One notable thing about the 1820 presidential election was:
the disappearance of the Federalists
The 1828 presidential campaign was dominated by:
vicious personal attacks
The Tariff of 1828:
boosted the presidential hopes of Jackson
The Missouri Compromise stipulated that in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30°:
slavery would be excluded
The “corrupt bargain” in the election of 1824 referred to:
the belief that Clay supported Adams in return for becoming secretary of state
James Monroe
had limited political experience before becoming president
The new Bank of the United States created in 1816:
was opposed by President Madison
John C. Calhoun accepted the Tariff of 1816 because he:
expected the South would become a manufacturing center
The secretary of state through Monroe’s presidency was:
John Quincy Adams
Under the Navigation Act of 1817, importation of West Indian products:
was restricted to American vessels or vessels belonging to West Indian merchants
The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819:
extended the boundary of Louisiana to the Pacific
The Monroe Doctrine:
depended upon British naval power for enforcement
Ironically, Thomas Jefferson’s embargo in 1807:
led to a significant increase in American manufacturing
The Rush-Bagot Agreement:
ended naval competition on the Great Lakes by limiting naval forces there
The Supreme Court ruled that congressional power to regulate commerce “is complete in itself” and “may be exercised to its utmost extent” in:
Gibbons v. Ogden
By the 1820s, the right to vote had generally been extended to:
adult white males
Which of the following opposed a national bank in 1816?
Daniel Webster
Andrew Jackson led American troops into Florida in 1818:
in pursuit of hostile Seminoles
The immediate cause of the Panic of 1819 was:
a sudden collapse of cotton prices
Andrew Jackson:
was elected to the U.S. Senate from Tennessee in 1823
By the late 1810s, the chief remaining source of friction with Britain was:
trade with the British West Indies
Senator Thomas Hart Benton, in opposing the new Bank of the United States, spoke for the interests of:
the West
Following the expiration of the first Bank of the United States in 1811, state banks:
issued an excess of paper money
In Latin America by the early 1820s:
Spain had lost nearly all its colonies
The idea of federal support for internal improvements:
was represented by the construction of the National Road
In this new political era, Jackson had a tremendous advantage because of his:
rise from common origins
The chief advocate for the program for economic development called the American System was:
Henry Clay
James Monroe:
like Madison, was a Virginia Republican
The new Bank of the United States created in 1816:
served as a depository for federal funds
The phrase “Era of Good Feelings” resulted from President Monroe’s tour of:
New England
The secretary of state through Monroe’s presidency was:
John Quincy Adams
In the Webster-Hayne Debate, Robert Y. Hayne argued that:
the Union was created by a compact of the states
According to “progressive” historians, Jackson:
led a vast democratic movement against the abuses of the “Monster” bank
When Congress rechartered the Bank of the United States in 1832:
Jackson vetoed the recharter
Tariffs passed by Congress in 1830 and 1832:
lowered duties on some items
In response to South Carolina’s tariff nullification, Jackson:
privately threatened to hang Calhoun
All of the following factors contributed to the panic of 1837 EXCEPT the:
tariff of 1835, which had lowered duties to dangerous levels
Andrew Jackson was a true Jeffersonian in his:
belief in limited government
The Indian chief who resisted federal policy in Illinois and Wisconsin was:
Black Hawk
Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition and Protest:
argued that states could nullify federal legislation
The proposed Maysville Road:
would be entirely in Kentucky
President Jackson’s policy toward Indians could best be described as one of:
The Jacksonian concept of equality was a belief that:
everyone should have an equal chance to succeed
Martin Van Buren was known as the “Little Magician” due to his:
skill as a professional politician
Jackson’s veto of the Maysville Road bill demonstrated his:
belief that the federal government should not fund purely local projects
The one thing that united all members of the new Whig party was opposition to:
Andrew Jackson
The Webster-Hayne debate is best remembered for:
a dynamic economy absent of panics or depressions
As a result of the Eaton affair:
both John Eaton and Martin Van Buren left the cabinet
Pet banks were:
state banks that received federal government deposits
After his reelection, Jackson moved to destroy the Bank of the United States by:
withdrawing its federal deposits
Jackson declared his opposition to nullification:
in his toast at a Jefferson Day dinner
Jackson viewed the Bank of the United States as:
a “monster” that served the interests of a wealthy few
All of the following were presidential candidates in 1836 EXCEPT:
Andrew Jackson
Thomas Jefferson considered Andrew Jackson unfit for the presidency due to his:
violent temperament
All of the following were prominent Whig politicians EXCEPT:
Martin Van Buren
How many states joined South Carolina in repudiating the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832?
As a result of Jackson’s bank policies:
banks printed new bank notes with abandon
Least likely to become Whigs would be:
German and Irish Catholics
The Trail of Tears resulted in:
the death of thousands of Indians
The Specie Circular:
required gold or silver payment for public lands
The Indian Removal Act of 1830:
proposed moving Indian tribes to areas west of the Mississippi River
Which of the following figures opposed federal funding of internal improvements?
Andrew Jackson
President Jackson’s attitude toward the Supreme Court’s decision in Worcester v. Georgia was:
The Peggy Eaton affair revealed:
the destructive gossip of the Washington social scene
William Henry Harrison:
had defeated the Shawnees at Tippecanoe
The Independent Treasury Act provoked opposition from:
Whigs and conservative Democrats
In the 1840 campaign, the Whigs:
depended on a catchy campaign slogan
In regard to banks and banking policy, Jackson, like other southerners:
much preferred hard money to paper currency
The compromise tariff that ended the nullification crisis was authored by:
Henry Clay
By the 1832 election, the Jacksonians had become known as the:
One undebatable fact about the Jacksonian era is:
the dramatic increase in voter participation by 1840
Jackson’s opponents called themselves Whigs to:
denounce what they saw as Jackson’s tyrannical qualities
In Worcester v. Georgia, the Marshall court:
took the side of the Cherokees
In 1840, the Whigs:
feared splitting their party and hence had no platform
The Anti-Masonic party was the first to:
hold a national nomination convention
The irony of Jackson’s political philosophy is that:
his laissez-faire rationale for republican simplicity became the justification for the unregulated growth of centers of economic power
After the panic of 1837, working-class Americans could expect all of the following EXCEPT:
government assistance
In response to South Carolina’s tariff nullification, Jackson:
privately threatened to hang Calhoun
Jackson’s veto of the Maysville Road bill demonstrated his:
belief that the federal government should not fund purely local projects
President Jackson’s attitude toward the Supreme Court’s decision in Worcester v. Georgia was:
Plantation mistresses:
supervised the domestic household
Small farmers in the South:
generally supported white supremacy
What portion of the South’s white population had a proprietary interest in slaves?
one fourth
Most slaves in the lower South:
labored on large plantations
The most numerous white southerners were the:
yeoman farmers
Slave owners in the antebellum South acquired additional slaves from:
the domestic slave trade
In the antebellum period, southerners viewed their region as:
distinctive from the rest of the country
Free blacks in the South:
sometimes owned slaves
The movie Gone with the Wind:
presents a mythic view of the Old South
The major reason the South did not industrialize was that:
the profitability of plantation slavery reduced the motivation to industrialize
Why was organized resistance to slavery by slaves risky?
Southern whites possessed overwhelming authority and firepower.
A typical form of resistance pursued by slaves entailed:
malingering, feigning illness, and sabotage
The plantation mistress:
generally confronted a double standard in terms of moral and sexual behavior
Poor whites were often employed as
seasonal workers on yeoman farms
When in 1855 a slave named Celia killed her sexually abusive master, she was:
The legal prohibition that denied slaves the right to marry:
did not stop slaves from choosing partners and forging a family life
How would southern whites attempt to prevent slave rebellions?
They met any sign of resistance or rebellion with a brutal response.
All the following might be used to explain the South’s distinctiveness EXCEPT:
the high proportion of immigrants that comprised the overall southern population
If poor southern whites seemed lazy it was likely because of:
dietary deficiencies and diseases like hookworm
Why were theories of racial superiority significant in the South?
They created a sense of unity that bridged class divisions among most southern whites.
Regarding the penitentiary established at Auburn, New York, in 1816, all the following statements are true EXCEPT:
it was an institution that primarily emphasized punishment
Which of the following statements is true about the number of newspapers in the United States by 1850?
The United States had more newspapers than any other nation in the world.
The debate over slavery:
split Methodists and Baptists into northern and southern denominations
Why did workers favor expanding the number of public schools?
Workers wanted free schools to give their children an equal chance to pursue the American dream.
All of the following are true about Sojourner Truth, EXCEPT that she:
killed her master to escape from slavery
The killing of Elijah Lovejoy showed:
support of slavery extended into the North
The woman who wrote the profoundly influential A Treatise on Domestic Economy was:
Catharine Beecher
Universalists believed that:
everyone could be saved
In 1840, American literacy rates:
were the highest in the Western world
Which Protestant denomination “stressed the equality of all before God” and had no authority higher than the congregation?
All of the following are true of Brook Farm EXCEPT:
it was long lasting
Why were working class people attracted to Universalism?
It stressed the possibility of salvation of all people.
Most of the utopian communities of the early nineteenth century:
quickly became failures
By the 1840s, newspapers:
skyrocketed in circulation
All of the following are reasons Mormons generated hostility from non-Mormons EXCEPT:
they denied they were Christians
The rise of Romanticism indicated:
recognition of the limits of science and reason
George Fitzhugh’s major pro-slavery argument was that:
southern slavery was better for workers than the “wage slavery” of northern industry
Unitarianism stressed:
reason and conscience
By the 1830s, John C. Calhoun was arguing that:
slavery was a “positive good”
Frederick Douglass:
wrote a famous account of his life as a slave
How did American literature develop during the half decade between 1850 and 1855?
This era witnessed an outpouring of extraordinary literature by an array of authors who became giants of American literature.
The Seneca Falls Convention:
demanded equal rights for women
Southerners used all of the following to justify slavery EXCEPT:
Thomas Jefferson’s words in the Declaration of Independence
Mother Ann Lee was:
founder of the Shakers
Why was John Humphrey Noyes, founder of the Oneida Community, arrested and ultimately forced to flee New York?
He advocated complete sexual freedom.
The Southern state that by 1860 had done the most to advance public education was:
North Carolina
The Liberty Party advocated:
included Founding Fathers such as Jefferson and Franklin
The rapidly growing church that broke away from Anglicanism in the 1780s was the ______ church.
All of the following statements about the American Colonization Society are true EXCEPT:
free black leaders supported it
Which of the following individuals was NOT considered an American literary giant?
Brigham Young
For all their differences, the variety of reform movements that arose in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century had what in common?
an impulse to “perfect” people and society
In 1840, most colleges:
were affiliated with churches
On what basis did John Quincy Adams, “Old Man Eloquent,” protest the “gag rule” concerning abolition petitions?
It violated the First Amendment.
Why might women be drawn to camp meetings?
They provided women with opportunities to participate as equals in public rituals
Which statement best describes the Transcendental Club that had its first meeting in the 1830s?
a loosely knit group of diverse, intellectually curious individualists who met to discuss philosophy, religion, and literature
The American Temperance Union lost many members in 1836 when it:
called for abstinence from all alcoholic beverages
The temperance movement was motivated by all the following EXCEPT:
binge-drinking among college students
The first American college to admit both blacks and women was:
Members of the Shaker community:
practiced celibacy and owned everything in common
Prison reformers of the early 1800s saw a major objective of the penitentiary as:
Brigham Young:
led the Mormons to Utah
Who was considered the “high priest” of transcendentalism?
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Joseph Smith:
founded the Mormon Church in western New York
One reason the American Colonization Society acquired the land in West Africa that eventually became the country of Liberia was:
the Society saw it as a place to transport potentially troublesome free blacks and freed slaves
Dorothea Lynde Dix directed her reform efforts at:
insane asylums
The cult of domesticity was the idea that:
a woman’s place is in the home
Why did the American Anti-Slavery Society split into competing factions?
Some prominent members demanded the pursuit of societal reforms beyond abolition, including women’s rights.
African Americans found the Methodist and Baptist churches especially attractive because of their:
belief in salvation for all
William Lloyd Garrison:
demanded immediate emancipation of slaves
A minister on horseback who travelled the frontier to preach was called
a circuit rider

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