chapter 8 us history

A system of government-assisted economic development embraced by republican state legislatures throughout the nation, and especially in the Northeast. This system of activist government encouraged private entrepreneurs to seek individual opportunity and the public welfare through market exchange.
Panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, bank failures, and unemployment. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
Commonwealth system
The republican system of political economy created by state government by 1820, whereby stated funneled aid to private business whose projects would improve the general welfare.
The excessive expression of feelings of tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia in behavior, writing, or speech.
companionate marriages
A marriage based on the republican values of equality and mutual respect. Although husbands in these marriage retained significant legal power, they increasingly came to see their wives as loving partners rather than as inferiors or dependents.
demographic transition
The sharp decline in birthrate in the United States beginning in the 1790s that was caused by changes in cultural behavior, including the use of birth control. The migration of thousands of young men to the trans-appalachian west was also a factor in this decline
The legal act of relinquishing property rights in slaves.Worried that a large free black population would threaten the institution of slavery, the virginia assembly repealed virginia’s 1782 manumission law in 1792.
herrenvolk republic
A republic based on the principle of rule by a master race. To preserve their privileged social position, southern leaders restricted individual liberty and legal equality to whites.
american colonization society
a society founded by Henry Clay and other prominent citizen in 1817. The society argued that slaves had to be freed and then resettled, in Africa or elsewhere.
Missouri comprise
passed in 1820, it allowed all new states north of the missouri compromise line to enter the union as free states – made a balance of free states and slave states
established church
A church given privileged legal status by the government.Historically, such established churches in Europe and America were supported by public taxes and were often the only legally permitted religious institutions.
Hoover believed that individuals should help each other not rely on the gov’t. There was alot of voluntarism but it wasn’t enough to overcome the economic Depression
Irreligious americans, who probably constituted a majority of the population in 1800. Evangelical Methodist and Baptist churches were by far the most successful institutions in attracting new members from the unchurched
second great awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
john jacob astor
Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.
benjamin rush
Sons of Liberty Member, signed Declaration of Independence, supported Federal Constitution, 1745?- 1813 patriot and doctor; signer of the Declaration of Independence and strong supporter of the Constitution (founding father)
henry clay
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
Richard allen
An African American preacher who helped start the free African society and the African Methodist Episcopal church
lyman beecher
Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States.
emma willard
Early supporter of women’s education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls’ school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
how important were the regional differences in the social aspects of republicanism, given the national scope of other republican inspired development such as state mercantilism and religious revivalism?
Very important without them the army would have been half its size. Also they took a major part in the earlier Battles so Britain could have oil supply for their weapons.
Trace the relationship between american’s republican culture and the surge of evangelism called the second great awakening. In what ways are the goals of the two movement similar? How are they different?
America’s republican culture and the Second Great Awakening had similar goals in that they expanded the opportunities available to the common people and encouraged morality in daily life. America’s republican culture, however, generally shut off women and blacks while the second Great Awakening welcomed women and black’s. Also, republicanism centered on capitalism and improving business (and disregarded religion) while the Second Great Awakening was a religious revival. Republicanism certainly focused on educating “republican children” with good morals, whether by encouraging independence or by strict rules, and also created more opportunity for all white men. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival, and so morals were a central tenet, while it also opened up religion to women and African-Americans.
In what ways did the women’s private and public lives change during the years between 1790 and 1820, and what were the motive forces behind those changes?
Privately, the concept of republican marriages changed women’s lives. No longer did women have their spouses chosen for them; instead, with the onset of “sentimentalism,” they often chose their own spouse based on falling in love. This had clear benefits but also disadvantages, as the new love-based marriage system discouraged parents from protecting young wives, and although they chose their spouse, husbands still dominated the marriage. In the home, the woman’s job became that of “republican motherhood” – to instruct their children in republican ideals and morals. Publicly, women gained prominence in the Second Great Awakening. Several women such as Mother Ann Lee and Jemima Wilkinson started their own religious sects while common women took charge of religious and charitable enterprises, as the they were excluded from other public roles. They paved the way for mixed-gender praying in Churhces.